Simmasanam is a 2000 Indian Tamil-language drama film directed by Eeshwar. The film features Vijayakanth in his two sons; the film starred Kushboo, Radhika Chaudhari and Viji. The film is released on 4 August 2000 and was receiving mixed reviews from the film critics and audience, it was dubbed and released in Telegu as Bhoopathi Naidu and in Hindi as Ek Anari Duja Khiladi. The film marked the directorial debut of Eeswaran; the filming was held at locations in Chennai, Pollachi and Chalakkudi, among other places. A song was picturised in the lush green valley around Tirumurthy Hills. Soundtrack was composed by S. A. Rajkumar; the soundtrack was released under label Saregama. A critic from The Hindu noted "The story is not new but the screenplay which has all the ingredients to sustain the interest of the average viewer, with political overtones in dialogues, has been skilfully woven by director Eswar"
Operations Taxable and Big Drum were tactical military deceptions conducted on 6 June 1944 in support of the Allied landings in Normandy. The operations formed the naval component of Operation Bodyguard, a wider series of tactical and strategic deceptions surrounding the invasion. Small boats, along with aircraft from RAF Bomber Command, simulated invasion fleets approaching Cap d'Antifer, Pas-de-Calais and Normandy. Glimmer and Taxable played on the German belief, amplified by Allied deception efforts over the preceding months, that the main invasion force would land in the Calais region. Big Drum was positioned on the western flank of the real invasion force to try to confuse German forces about the scale of the landings; these operations complemented Operation Titanic, intended to confuse the Germans about the D-Day airborne forces. It is unclear whether the operations were successful, due to the complexity of their execution, poor weather, lack of response from German forces, it is possible that they contributed to the overall confusion of D-Day as part of the wider Bodyguard plan.
Glimmer and Big Drum were World War II deception operations. They were conducted as part of Operation Bodyguard, a broad strategic military deception intended to support the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in June 1944. Bodyguard was designed to confuse the Axis high command as to Allied intentions during the lead-up to the invasion; the London Controlling Section had spent some time convincing German commanders that the fictional First United States Army Group represented the bulk of the Allied invasion force. FUSAG's existence was fabricated through Operation Fortitude South; the Allied story for FUSAG was that the army group, based in south-east England, would invade the Pas-de-Calais region several weeks after a smaller diversionary landing in Normandy. In reality, the main invasion force would land in Normandy on D-Day; as D-Day approached, the LCS moved on to planning tactical deceptions to help cover the progress of the real invasion forces. As well as naval operations, the LCS planned operations involving paratroopers and ground deceptions.
The latter would come into effect once landings were made but the former were used to cover the approach of the true invasion fleet. In preparation for the coming landings, Allied scientists had worked on techniques for obscuring the size and disposition of an invasion force; the German defences relied on the Seetakt radar system. Scientists from the Telecommunications Research Establishment discovered that the resolution of the Seetakt was about 520 yards. To deceive the radar system they proposed dropping clouds of aluminium foil at two mile intervals; the clouds would appear as a continuous blip, similar to one created by an approaching fleet, on German screens. The Allies repurposed radio equipment, code named Moonshine, to jam the Seetakt signal. Allied command decided that, rather than mask the approaching fleet, these measures would serve to alert German defences. So it was decided to combine these techniques with small groups of boats to simulate an entire invasion fleet aimed at the Calais region.
Allied planners proposed that small boats, towing large radar reflecting balloons and carrying both Moonshine jamming and standard wireless equipment, would advance toward the French coast under a cloud of Window. The chaff and other countermeasures would hide the small size of the naval force while wireless traffic would play on the FUSAG story to mislead the Germans into expecting a major landing. A third deceptive force, Operation Big Drum, would use radar countermeasures on the western flank of the true invasion fleet; this operation was intended to lend confusion as to the extent of the landings in Normandy. Glimmer and Taxable were similar operations, they were executed in the early hours of 6 June 1944 while the invasion fleet was approaching Normandy. Taxable simulated an invasion force approaching Cap d'Antifer and Glimmer spoofed an invasion at Pas-de-Calais. By dropping chaff in progressive patterns, Royal Air Force bombers for both operations were able to create the illusion of a large fleet on coastal radar screens.
Beneath the chaff, small boats towed radar reflector balloons and simulated the radio traffic expected of a large fleet. Once German forces were drawn to the coast, it was planned that the RAF would attempt to contain them in this region, away from the actual invasion site, by bombing bridges and roads; the operations required precise flying in elongated circuits with replacement aircraft having to merge in seamlessly to avoid tell-tale gaps. The bombers were staged at 2-mile intervals parallel to the French coast. Once in position they would spend two and a half minutes flying toward the coast, dropping chaff at fifteen-second intervals; the aircraft would turn and head away from the coast for two minutes and ten seconds. By repeating this circuit, the wide cloud of chaff edged toward the coast just like a real sea-borne fleet; the aircraft had to be modified by cutting a hole in the nose to allow the large quantities of chaff to be dropped. The larger of the two operations, was carried out by 18 small boats, a mix of Harbour Defence Motor Launches and RAF Pinnaces, designated Special Task Force A. Chaff was dropped by Lancaster bombers from the No. 617 "Dam Busters" Squadron.
Each aircraft carried an expanded crew of up to 14. The squadron were not aware of their final target. Task Force A left port in the evening of 5 June, but struggled in bad seas which affected their equipme
The lighthouses of Israel are all located along its 273 kilometres coastline. Most of the Israel's coastline faces west on the Mediterranean Sea, with a short coastline at the southern tip of the country, on the Gulf of Aqaba. Israel's main ports are the Port of Haifa and the Port of Ashdod on the Mediterranean, the Port of Eilat on the Gulf of Aqaba. All lighthouses except Eilat Light are located along the Mediterranean coast, between Ashkelon in the south and Akko in the north. Israel's active lighthouses are maintained by the Israeli Shipping and Ports Authority, a statutory authority within the Ministry of Transport and Road Safety. Based on historical and archaeological evidence, archaeologists believe that the Romans built a lighthouse on an islet near the harbor entrance of Akko. Remains of a colossal lighthouse mentioned by the Roman Jewish historian Josephus Flavius were discovered at Caesarea Maritima; the lighthouses of Israel are included in the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's List of Lights publication 113 for the Mediterranean Sea and 112 for the Gulf of Aqaba.
They are listed by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office on volume E of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals. They are listed on The Lighthouse Directory and on the ARLHS World List of Lights; the chart above follows The Lighthouse Directory's inclusion criteria, namely, it includes lightbeacons having a height of at least 4 metres and a cross-section, at the base, of at least 4 square metres. The listing is from north to south. Lists of lighthouses and lightvessels Rowlett, Russ. "The Lighthouse Directory". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Gala Event was an Irish-bred Thoroughbred racehorse. She was at her best as a two-year-old in 1983 when she won both the Anglesey Stakes and the Moyglare Stud Stakes as well as finishing third in the Phoenix Stakes and fourth in the Cheveley Park Stakes. At the end of the year she was rated the best Irish filly of her generation. After running uplaced in her only appearance of 1984 she was exported to the United States where she won once from nine starts. Gala Event was a "quite attractive, rather leggy" bay mare with a small white star bred in Ireland by Mrs A W F Whitehead; as a yearling the filly was sold for 25,000 guineas. She entered the ownership of F N Groves and was sent into training in with Ted Curtin near Naas in County Kildare, she was from the eighth crop of foals sired by Sallust an outstanding miler who won the Sussex Stakes and the Prix du Moulin in 1972. As a breeding stallion, the best of Sallust's progeny included Tap On Wood. Gala Event's dam Rosemarin was a useful racehorse who won five races in Ireland at the ages of three and four.
She was a granddaughter of Rose Bay Willow, a half-sister to both Cavan and Indiana. Gala Event began her racing career with a win over six furlongs on good to firm ground at Navan Racecourse in June; that month, over the same course and distance, faced eight rivals in the valuable Woodford Stakes and "cantered" to victory by three lengths. In August the filly was stepped up in class to contest the Group 1 Phoenix Stakes at Phoenix Park Racecourse and was made the 2/1 favourite. After disputing the lead for most of the way she was overtaken in the final strides and finished third behind the colt King Persian and the filly Grey Dream, it was reported. A week after her defeat in the Phoenix, she started odds-on favourite for the Group 3 Anglesey Stakes at the Curragh and won "comfortably" by one and half lengths from Late Sally after taking the lead soon after the start. On 10 September Gala Event was one of twenty juvenile fillies to contest the Moyglare Stud Stakes over six furlongs at the Curragh and was made the 9/2 second favourite behind the British-trained Desirable.
The other fancied runners included Ballet de France, Ispahan and Bold Meadows. Ridden by Kevin Moses she tracked the front-running Welsh Woman before taking the lead on the outside approaching the final furlong, she held off the challenge of Deirable to win by three quarters of a length with Welsh Woman hanging on to take third place. On her final race the season the filly was sent to England for the Cheveley Park Stakes at Newmarket Racecourse. Ted Curtin had sent out Gentle Thoughts to take the race in 1973 but had not trained a winner in Britain since. Starting the 6/1 second favourite she was in contention for most of the way before being outpaced in the closing stages and finished fourth behind Desirable and the favourite Prickle, beaten just over a length by the winner. In the official Irish Free Handicap for the two-year-olds of 1983, Gala Event the rated the best filly, albeit fourteen pounds inferior to the top colt El Gran Senor; the independent Timeform organisation gave her a rating of 112, nine pounds behind the French-trained Treizieme, their best juvenile filly of the season.
Gala Event missed most of her second season through injury and made only one appearance on the racecourse. In September she contested the Barronstown Stud Stakes over seven furlongs at Phoenix Park in which she finished sixth of the eight runners in a race won by the three-year-old colt Red Russell. At the end of the season she was given a rating of 98 by Timeform. For the 1985 season, Gala Event was transferred to the United States where she was trained by John Sullivan in California, she made a successful North American debut when she won the Splendid Girl Stakes at Hollywood Park Racetrack on 22 June. She failed to win again that year, with the best of her six subsequent efforts coming when she finished third to Capichi in the Grade II Palomar Handicap. Gala Event remained in training as a five-year-old but after being beaten in two allowance races at Santa Anita Park in January she did not run again. Gala Event had no recorded foals and may have died shortly after her retirement from racing
Heinrich Federer was a Swiss writer and Catholic priest. Federer was born on 6 October 1866 in the Bernese village of Brienz, his father, Johann Paul Federer, was a wood carver and school teacher whose family came from Berneck, St. Gallen, he attended grammar school in Sarnen from 1881 until 1887, when he went to study at a college in Schwyz. After studying Catholic theology in Eichstätt, Freiburg, he was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1893 and assigned as the chaplain in Jonschwil, he retired from the priesthood in 1899 after suffering from ill health. After an asthma diagnosis in 1900, he was transferred to a women's home in Zürich to recover. While there, he worked as the editor-in-chief of a Catholic newspaper. Federer had requested residence at Einsiedeln Abbey but was denied admission due to rumors of inappropriate sexual behavior. On 24 September 1902, Federer was accused of eliciting an abusive sexual relationship with a twelve year old pupil, Emil Brunner. Federer wrote as a novelist and memoirist.
Many of his books had religious themes, countered the nationalistic Heimatkunst movement in Switzerland. In the 20th-century he was a best-selling author and awarded multiple literary accolades, including the Gottfried-Keller-Preis in 1925. Federer is buried in the Rehalp cemetery in Zürich, his literary works are preserved in the Swiss Literary Archives in Bern. In 1966 Federer was honored with a Swiss federal stamp. Berge und Menschen, Roman, 1911 Lachweiler Geschichten, stories, 1911 Pilatus, narration, 1912 Sisto e Sesto, narration, 1913 Jungfer Therese, Roman, 1913 Das letzte Stündlein des Papstes, Narration, 1914 Das Mätteliseppi, Roman, 1916 Unser Herrgott und der Schweizer. Ein stolzbescheidenes 1916 Patria, narration, 1916 Eine Nacht in den Abruzzen. Mein Tarcisius-Geschichtlein, 1917 Gebt mir meine Wildnis wieder, narrative, 1918 Der Fürchtemacher, Narration, 1919 Das Wunder in Holzschuhen, stories, 1919 Spitzbube über Spitzbube, narrative, 1921 Papst und Kaiser im Dorf, narration, 1924 Wander- und Wundergeschichten aus dem Süden, stories, 1924 Regina Lob, Roman, 1925 Unter südlichen Sonnen und Menschen, six short stories, 1926 Am Fenster, autobiography, 1927 Aus jungen Tagen, autobiography, 1928 Von Heiligen, Räubern und von der Gerechtigkeit, 1929 Ich lösche das Licht, poems, 1930