Salvator Rosa

Salvator Rosa was an Italian Baroque painter and printmaker, active in Naples and Florence. As a painter, he is best known as "unorthodox and extravagant" as well as being a "perpetual rebel" and a proto-Romantic. Rosa was born in Arenella, at that time in the outskirts of Naples, on either June 20 or July 21, 1615, his mother was a member of one of the Greek families of Sicily. His father, Vito Antonio de Rosa, a land surveyor, urged his son to become a lawyer or a priest, entered him into the convent of the Somaschi Fathers, yet Salvator showed a preference for the arts and secretly worked with his maternal uncle Paolo Greco to learn about painting. He soon transferred himself to the tutelage of his brother-in-law Francesco Fracanzano, a pupil of Ribera, afterward to either Aniello Falcone, a contemporary of Domenico Gargiulo, or to Ribera; some sources claim. At the age of seventeen, his father died, he continued apprenticeship with Falcone. In that studio, it is said that Lanfranco took notice of his work, advised him to relocate to Rome, where he stayed from 1634–36.

Returning to Naples, he began painting haunting landscapes, overgrown with vegetation, or jagged beaches and caves. Rosa was among the first to paint "romantic" landscapes, with a special turn for scenes of picturesque turbulent and rugged scenes peopled with shepherds, seamen, soldiers; these early landscapes were sold cheaply through private dealers. He returned to Rome in 1638–39, where he was housed by Cardinal Francesco Maria Brancaccio, bishop of Viterbo. For the Chiesa Santa Maria della Morte in Viterbo, Rosa painted his first and one of his few altarpieces, the Incredulity of Thomas. While Rosa had a facile genius at painting, he pursued a wide variety of arts: music, writing and acting. In Rome, he befriended Claude Lorrain. During a Roman carnival play he wrote and acted in a masque, in which his character bustled about Rome distributing satirical prescriptions for diseases of the body and more of the mind. In costume, he inveighed against the farcical comedies acted in the Trastevere under the direction of Bernini.

While his plays were successful, this activity gained him powerful enemies among patrons and artists, including Bernini himself, in Rome. Around 1640, he accepted an invitation from Giovanni Carlo de' Medici to relocate to Florence, where he stayed until 1649. Once there, Rosa sponsored a combination of studio and salon of poets and painters—the so-called Accademia dei Percossi. To the rigid art milieu of Florence, he introduced his canvases of wild landscapes. Another painter poet, Lorenzo Lippi, shared with Rosa the hospitality of the cardinal and the same circle of friends. Lippi encouraged him to proceed with the poem Il Malmantile Racquistato, he was well acquainted with Ugo and Giulio Maffei, was housed with them in Volterra, where he wrote four satires Music, Poetry and War. About the same time he painted his own portrait, now in London. A passage in one of his satires suggests that he sympathized with the 1647 insurrection led by Masaniello—whose portrait he painted, though not from life.

Rosa's tempestuous art and reputation as a rebel gave rise to a popular legend—recounted in a biography of Rosa published in 1824 by Sydney, Lady Morgan—that Rosa lived with a gang of bandits and participated in the uprising in Naples against Spanish rule. Although these activities cannot be conveniently dovetailed into known dates of his career, in 1846 a famous romantic ballet about this story titled Catarina was produced in London by the choreographer Jules Perrot and composer Cesare Pugni), he returned to stay in Rome in 1649. Here he focused on large scale paintings, tackling themes and stories unusual for seventeenth-century painters; these included Democritus amid the Tombs, The Death of Socrates, Regulus in the Spiked Cask, Justice Quitting the Earth and the Wheel of Fortune. This last work, with its implication that too foolish artists received rewards that did not match their talent, raised a storm of controversy. Rosa, endeavouring at conciliation, published a description of its meaning.

It was about this time. His criticisms of Roman art culture won him several enemies. An allegation arose that his published satires were not his own, but Rosa vehemently denied the charges, it may be possible that literary friends in Florence and Volterra coached him about the topic of his satires, while the compositions of which remained nonetheless his own. To confute his detractors he wrote the last of the series, entitled Envy. Among the pictures of his last years were the admired Battlepiece and Saul and the Witch of Endor now in the Musée du Louvre, painted in 40 days, full of longdrawn carnage, with ships burning in the offing. While occupied with a series of satirical portraits, to be closed by one of himself, Rosa was assailed by dropsy, he died a half year later. In his last moments he married a Florentine named Lucrezia, who had borne him two sons, one of them surviving him, his tomb is in Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, where a portrait of him has bee

Saroja (2008 film)

Saroja is a 2008 Indian Tamil language comedy thriller film written and directed by Venkat Prabhu and produced by T. Siva, it stars Shiva, Premji, S. P. B. Charan, Vega Tamotia and Prakash Raj, in the leads and Kajal Aggarwal, Sampath Raj, Nikita Thukral and Nagendran in other vital roles. Several other popular Tamil television artists and crew members make special appearances throughout the film; the score and soundtrack were composed by Yuvan Shankar Raja. The film follows the journey of four young men who travel from Chennai to Hyderabad to watch a cricket match. Due to a road accident, they are forced to take a diversion off the main road to arrive on time; this leads them to a gang who have kidnapped a schoolgirl, the only daughter of a millionaire. The film was released on 5 September 2008 to positive reviews and critical acclaim, while emerging a high commercial success. Upon release, it was re-shot and released in Telugu with Srihari reprising Jayaram's role. Ajay Raj and brothers Jagapathi Babu and Ram Babu are close friends who spend a lot of time together in Chennai.

Ajay is a television actor, Ganesh is a fun-loving engineering student who falls in love with every woman he sees, Jagapathi Babu is an engineer, married and has a six-year-old daughter, Ram Babu is Jagapathi's younger brother who lives with him. Ram is in love with Pooja, but before he has a chance to tell her, Pooja tells Ram that she is in love with Ajay. Pooja and Ajay get engaged, leaving Ram heartbroken, he soon forgets his grief and has a good time with Ajay and Jagapathi. One day, the four friends decide to go in Ajay's old ramshackle Volkswagen Samba to Hyderabad to watch a cricket match. Vishwanath is a business tycoon in Hyderabad who has no time for his wife and teenage daughter Saroja. One day, Saroja is kidnapped, the police enter the scene, with Vishwanath's friend ACP Ravichandran handling the case. Meanwhile, a huge tanker lorry carrying inflammable and dangerous chemicals overturns on the National Highway between Chennai and Hyderabad and the four friends are stuck in a massive traffic jam.

They attempt to take a shortcut to Hyderabad, but they end up in a dark, desolate area where their real troubles begin. After arguing about which direction to take at a crossroad, Ajay convinces the others to drive into a forest, receiving instructions from Venkat Prabhu in a cameo appearance; as they proceed further, an injured man named R. Venkatraman falls on their car from above. Wanting to save Venkatraman, Jagapathi Babu asks Ganesh and Ram Babu to ask for help in a nearby building. Ajay, horrified by Venkatraman's bullet wounds, is more shocked when he urges Jagapathi and Ajay to escape. Jagapathi, attempts to save Venkatraman, who urges them to leave quickly. A few men arrive in a shoot at them from a distance. Ajay attempts to flee from the area, their van is overturned, throwing Venkatraman outside. Ajay and Jagapathi remain inside the van. Sampath, the leader of the gang in the black jeep, steps out of his vehicle and shoots the dying man after a short conversation. Sampath discovers that two men had attempted to save the injured man.

Upon hearing Sampath's order and Jagapathi run for their lives. Meanwhile and Ram Babu have entered an abandoned factory in search of help. Finding the place empty, they wander around for some time, they soon realize that their friends are missing. At the same time and Jagapathi are trapped inside a room within close range of one of the hitmen and escape narrowly. Ganesh and Ram continue to search the area for their friends and find them after fighting with a few hitmen. Realizing that they are caught in a dangerous situation, all four run away from the factory toward the distant sound of a train, they manage to board the last car. Jagapathi does not board the train. Ajay and Ram frantically attempt to convince Jagapathi to board the train. Jagapathi fears that the assassins might cause problems for his wife and child, since his wallet might be in the hands of the gangsters. Thus, all four friends return to the factory to recover the lost wallet. After a short argument in which the frightened Ajay hesitates to go along with Jagapathi to the factory, Ganesh is pushed to accompany him.

Jagapathi and Ganesh enter the room. One of the gangsters momentarily walks in the view of Ganesh. Ganesh tries to warn Jagapathi to stay out of sight; when Jagapathi finds the wallet and turns around he realizes. After searching the room Jagapathi decides to leave; when he walks out and Ram are waiting alone, there is no sign of Ganesh. This sparks off another argument. Meanwhile, it is revealed. Finding Saroja tied up inside, he explains to her that he is not a member of the gang. In his usual manner, he tries to impress her. Saroja and Ganesh sneak out of the room; the other three set out to rescue Ganesh. Sampath continues to demand money from Vishwanath to release his daughter. ACP Ravichandran does all he can to help rescue Saroja. Meanwhile, the gangsters taunt the three men they have captured and continue to do so until Kalyani, Sampath's girlfrie

Lancaster, Pennsylvania

Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities; the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the U. S. and second largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. The city's primary industries include healthcare, public administration and both professional and semi-professional services. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than cities such as Boston or San Francisco, despite controversy among residents. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. Called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright, its symbol, is from the House of Lancaster. Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734.

It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818. During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, captured by the British; the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg. In 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England; the prison remains in use, was used for public hangings until 1912. It replaced a 1737 structure on a different site; the first long-distance paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia. Opened in 1795, the turnpike was paved with stone the whole way, overlaid with gravel; the sixty-two-mile turnpike cost more than $450,000, a staggering sum for the time.

The route followed what is now Pennsylvania Route 340 from Lancaster to Thorndale and business U. S. Route 30 from Thorndale to Philadelphia; the city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety for his abolitionism; the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle; the Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River.

The innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U. S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful "five and dime" store in the city of Lancaster, the F. W. Woolworth Company. Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000. On October 13, 2011, Lancaster's City Council recognized September 27 as Capital Day, a holiday recognizing Lancaster's one day as capital of the United States in 1777. Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West, is 368 feet above sea level; the city is located about 34 miles southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles west of Philadelphia, 55 miles north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles northeast of Washington, D.

C. The nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville, Willow Street, East Petersburg, Landisville, Mountville and Leola. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Lancaster has a humid subtropical climate with hot or warm summers; the hottest recorded temperature in the city was 103 °F on July 23, 2011 while the coldest recorded temperature was -16 °F on January 22, 1984. On average, the city receives 42 inches of precipitation a year. September is February the driest; the snowiest winter on record for Lancaster was the winter of 2009-10 when 72 inches of snow fell and the smallest amount of snow on record was when four inches fell during the winter of 1949-50. The highest recorded January temperature was 77 °F on January 26, 1950 and the coldest July temperature 42 °F on July 4, 1918. On average, the city receives 203 days of sun a year; the shortest days of the year are between December 18 and December 25, when day length is nine hours and 19 minutes.

The sun reaches its lowest point in the sky of 26° between December 11 and December 31. The longest days of the year are June 19 to June 23, reaching one minute; the sun rea