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Sambandar

Sambandar or Thirugnana Sambandar was a young Saiva poet-saint of Tamil Nadu who lived around the 7th century CE. He is one of the most prominent of the sixty-three Nayanars, Tamil Saiva bhakti saints who lived between the sixth and the tenth centuries CE. Sambandar's hymns to Shiva were collected to form the first three volumes of the Tirumurai, the religious canon of Tamil Saiva Siddhanta, he was a contemporary of another Saiva saint. Information about Sambandar comes from the Periya Puranam, the eleventh-century Tamil book on the Nayanars that forms the last volume of the Tirumurai, along with the earlier Tiruttondartokai, poetry by Sundarar and Nambiyandar Nambi's Tiru Tondar Tiruvandadi. A Sanskrit hagiography called; the first volumes of the Tirumurai contain three hundred and eighty-four poems of Sambandar, all that survive out of a reputed more than 10,000 hymns. According to the ancient texts, Sambandar was born to Sivapada Hrudiyar and his wife Bhagavathiar who lived in Sirkazhi in what is now Tamil Nadu.

They were Saivite brahmins. When Sambandar was three years old his parents took him to the Shiva temple where Shiva and his consort Parvati appeared before the child, his father saw drops of milk on the child's mouth and asked who had fed him, whereupon the boy pointed to the sky and responded with the song Todudaya Seviyan, the first verse of the Tevaram. At his investiture with the sacred thread, at the age of seven, he is said to have expounded the Vedas with great clarity. Sambandar attained liberation in "Mulam Nakshtara" in the Tamil month of "Vaigasi" at the age of sixteen soon after his marriage. In the first half of the seventh century, apart from Saivism and Buddhism were among the popular faiths in south India; the Pandyan King Koon Pandiyan had converted to Jainism, which Sambandar had long expressed opposition to. His queen Mangayarkkarasiyar invited Sambandhar. According to a Saivite legend, Sambandar performed music for the king, which cured the king's disease. Sambandar reconverted the king back to Shaivism.

The legend goes on to state. The ancient texts say. One of those resurrected was the daughter of a business man, who offered her to Sambandar in marriage, he declined due to knowledge. At the age of 16, he is said to have attained salvation along with his bride during the marriage ceremony. An inscription of Rajaraja Chola I at Tiruvarur mentions Sambandar along with Appar and the latter's wife Nangai Paravaiyar. Paadal Petra Sthalams are 275 temples that are revered in the verses of Tevaram and are amongst the greatest Shiva temples of the continent. Vaippu Sthalangal are places; the focus of the moovars hymns suggests darshan within the puja offering. The hymnists made classificatory lists of places like katu, turai and kalam being used - thus both structured and unstructured places in the religious context find a mention in Tevaram. Tirumurai was one of the sole reasons for converting Vedic ritual to Agamic puja followed in Shiva temples. Though these two systems are overlapping, Agamic tradition ensures the perpetuation of the Vedic religion's emphasis on the efficacy of ritual as per Davis.

Odhuvars, Sthanikars, or Kattalaiyars offer musical programmes in Shiva temples of Tamil Nadu by singing Tevaram after the daily rituals. These are carried out as chorus programme soon after the divine offering. There are records from Kulothunga Chola III from Nallanyanar temple in South Arcot indicating singing of Tiruvempavai and Tiruvalam of Manickavasagar during special occasion in the temple. During the times of cholas and previous pallavas the hymn reciters and musicians were known as uvacchar and marars; these terms are traceable in sangam period works. Periya Puranam, the eleventh-century Tamil book on the Nayanars that forms the last volume of the Tirumurai had references only to Tevaram and subsequently expanded to 12 parts and is one of the first anthologies of Tirumurai. One of the first anthologies of moovars hymns called the Tevara Arulmuraitirattu is linked to Tamil Saiva siddhantha philosophy by grouping ninety-nine verses into 10 categories; the category headings are God, bond, grace,divine initiation, enlightenment, bliss and liberation - correspond to Umapthi's work, Tiruvarutpayan.

Tirumurai kanda puranam is another anthology for Tirumurai as a whole, but focuses on Tevaram. It is the first of the works to refer the collection of volumes as Tirumurai. There is strong dose of anti-Jain, anti-Buddhist and in general an anti-communal polemic in Tevaram poetry of Sambandar; this is only expected as we know from accounts as to how the saint was got incarnate out to destroy the excessive wickedness and duplicity perpetrated by rogue creeds. Sambandar is clear about his hatred for the evil and duplicity of the obscure communal creeds and the same opinion is expressed in the works of other divine incarnates of that period of both saiva and vaishnava pathways. According to Aiyangar, Manickavasagar's Tiruvackam partakes the characters of Tevaram hymners before him and express more intense form of devotion. Manikkavasagar, like Sundarar and Sambandar before him does not mince words while criticising the misinformation campaign of Sramana communal creeds and in many places of Tiruvasagam calls them senseless, duplicitous and falseful.

The fervor of utterances, the appeals to Go

2008 Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly election

The 2008 Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly election was declared by the Election Commission of India on 14 October 2008. Elections for 230 seats took place on 27 November 2008, counting started on 8 December; the election was contested between two national parties, Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress. Other parties included Bahujan Samaj Party, Bharatiya Jan Shakti Party and Samajwadi Party Candidate's Name and Constituencies: Candidate's Name and Constituency: Rajkumar Urmaliya 68- Sirmour Ram Garib Kol 70- Teonthar "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2008-11-27. CS1 maint: archived copy as title http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/regionalnews/story/2008/10/081014_assembly_elections_ac.shtml https://web.archive.org/web/20080724192154/http://www.thisismyindia.com/elections.html https://web.archive.org/web/20081006173531/http://www.headlinesindia.com/constituencies/madhya-pradesh-legislative-assembly.html http://www.jeetegakaun.in/madhya_pradesh_elections_2008/forum.php "Archived copy".

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HMS Portisham (M2781)

HMS Portisham was one of 93 ships of the Ham-class of inshore minesweepers. Their names were all chosen from villages ending in -ham; the minesweeper was named after Portesham in Dorset. After her sale in 1989 she was for sale in a boatyard in Essex, she was procured for conversion to a liveaboard ship by an Irish national in 2007 and is the second biggest private vessel under the Irish flag. Https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/courts/high-court/man-living-in-floating-home-wins-reprieve-against-council-1.3096381 http://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/courts/supreme-court/supreme-court-defers-ruling-in-row-over-floating-home-in-dublin-1.2303449 Blackman, R. V. B. Ed. Jane's Fighting Ships various editions Colledge J. J. Ships of the Royal Navy various editions Cocker M. P. Mine Warfare Vessels of the Royal Navy