Band of the Sammarinese Armed Forces
The Band of the Sammarinese Armed Forces is a Sammarinese ceremonial military band in San Marino which serves under the Company of Uniformed Militia of the armed forces. The current band director is Stefano Gatta, who has served in the band since 1990, it is based on Via Pietro Tonnin in the Sammarinese capital of San Marino City. The band's establishment dates back to 12 June 1843, when it was associated with the Voluntary Uniformed Militia Corps. By decree, it was founded with Luigi Para, a Sammarinese musician and a pupil of composer Gioachino Rossini, acting as its first commander and musical director; the band, which comprises 60 musicians, has participated in several international festivals of music and military tattoos, most notably the International Music Festival in Italy, the Albertville Military Tattoo in France, the Prague Tattoo in the Czech Republic. The military brass band accompanies the military forces of San Marino as they parade through the streets several times a day. With San Marino being a small country, the band takes part in all official ceremonies in the country.
It is one of the few military bands in the world to be composed of non-professional and inexperienced volunteers. The uniform is, for the most part, similar to the Uniformed Militia's uniform, with notable differences being in decoration: Ceremonial uniform: blue with white ornaments. Chepì with white and blue plume; the uniform is dark blue, includes a white cross-strap and blue sash, white epaulets, white decorated cuffs. It includes a kepi bearing a blue and white plume. Dress uniform: A dark blue jacket and tie with a blue shirt for NCOs and a white shirt for the chief director. On the left sleeve, there is a shield with a harp in place of the military emblem of the country. Music of San Marino
Sammarinese Armed Forces
The Sammarinese Armed Forces refers to the national military defence forces of the country of San Marino. It is one of the smallest military forces in the world, with its different branches having varied functions including: performing ceremonial duties. There is a military Gendarmerie, part of the military forces of the republic; the entire military corps of San Marino depends upon the co-operation of full-time forces and their retained colleagues, known as the Corpi Militari Volontari, or Voluntary Military Force. National defence in the face of an aggressive world power is, by arrangement, the responsibility of Italy's armed forces; the component parts of the military are distinguished by distinctive cap badges, one each for the Fortress Guard, Fortress Guard, Guard of the Council, Uniformed Militia, Military Ensemble, Gendarmerie. There is no compulsory service, however under special circumstances citizens aged 16 to 55 may be drafted for the defence of the state. Although once at the heart of San Marino's army, the Crossbow Corps is now an ceremonial force of about 70 volunteer soldiers.
The Crossbow Corps has a continuous history from its first mention in the national statutes of 1295. Described by the Government as "The oldest military formation in the Republic, nominated in the statutes of 1295", its uniform is medieval in design, although it is a statutory military unit, it has no actual military function today. By the mid twentieth century the Crossbow Corps had become defunct, save for parading on state holidays; the Guard of the Rock is a front-line military unit in the San Marino armed forces. Its precise origin is difficult to pinpoint due to amalgamations, its role was last redefined by statute in 1987, it came into being as a military branch in 1754. The Guard of the Rock are the state border patrol, with responsibility for patrolling borders and defending them. In their role as Fortress Guards they are responsible for the guarding of the Palazzo Pubblico in San Marino City, the seat of national government. In this role, they are the forces most visible to tourists, known for their colourful ceremony of Changing the Guard.
Under the 1987 statute, the Guard of the Rock are all enrolled as'Criminal Police Officers' and act to assist the police in investigating major crime. The uniform of the Guard of the Rock is distinctively green, with three dress standards; the ceremonial uniform for festivals worn only by the ceremonial Artillery Company, includes red trousers with a green stripe, a double breasted green jacket, a black leather belt, a black helmet decorated with red and white feathers. For normal guard duties the uniform of the main Fortress Guard Corps is similar to that described above, but with plain green epaulettes, a simple black kepi with a single red feather plume in place of the helmet. For routine patrol duties on the border the uniform is simple and modern, with red trousers, green bomber-jacket, a green peaked hat. For ceremonial duties the Guard of the Rock carry Beretta BM 59 rifles, with the sentry on duty having a fixed bayonet. For patrol duties they are armed with 9mm Glock 17 pistols, they patrol in green and white patrol cars.
Most members of the Guard of the Rock are full-time soldiers, but there is a single Company of volunteers called the "Fortress Guard, Artillery Company" which exists for the now purely ceremonial duty of firing the cannon of the Palazzo Pubblico on ceremonial occasions. This volunteer unit maintains the original artillery function of the Fortress Guard. Although both units are part of the same Guard Corps, wear the same uniform, the Artillery Unit has a different military cap badge, as a reminder of its historical origins, its full name is'The Guard of the Council Great and General' and it is known locally as the'Guard of Nobles'. The official tourism website of the nation explains this alternative name by stating: Originally called “Guardia Nobile”, this name is still sometimes used today to underscore the prestigious institutional duties the Corps is called upon to perform; this unit, formed in 1740, is composed entirely of volunteers, its duties are ceremonial, although members undergo full military training.
Due to its striking uniform, it is arguably the best-known part of the Sammarinese military, appears on countless postcard views of the republic. The functions of the Guard of the Council are to protect the Captains Regent, to defend the Great and General Council during its formal sessions, they provide a ceremonial bodyguard to government officials on festivals of both state and church. The distinctive dress uniform includes dark blue trousers and double-breasted tailed jacket, with gold coloured ornaments including: double stripe on trouser legs, dress epaulet
Guard mounting, changing the guard, or the changing of the guard, is a formal ceremony in which sentries performing ceremonial guard duties at important institutions are relieved by a new batch of sentries. The ceremonies are elaborate and choreographed, they originated with peacetime and battlefield military drills introduced to enhance unit cohesion and effectiveness in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Since September 2018, the President's Residence in Yerevan has had ceremonial sentries from the Honour Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defense to perform public duties at a pair sentry boxes in the front of the residence, they are posted and relieved in a brief guard mounting ceremony, which include an exhibition drill of all five guards. The guard mounting ceremony is held every Sunday in the afternoon and evening hours. In Minsk, Post #1 at Victory Square is the area where guard duty is carried out by members of the armed forces, including members of the Belarusian Republican Youth Union, cadets of the Military Academy of Belarus, the Border Guard Service Institute of Belarus, soldiers of the Honor Guard of the Ground Forces, the Honor Guard of the Internal Troops.
Post #1 was initiated on 3 July 1984, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the liberation of Minsk. The ceremony of the changing of the guard of honour in front of the presidency has been taking place at 12:00 AM every day since November 5, 2003, it takes place at the Monument to the Unknown Soldier in Sofia. The National Guards Unit of Bulgaria is the sole participant in this ceremony; the changing the guard ceremony conducted in Canada is performed daily during the summer months at Rideau Hall, Parliament Hill and the National War Memorial in Ottawa by the Ceremonial Guard, a combined unit made up of the two Canadian regiments of Foot Guards, the Canadian Grenadier Guards, the Governor General's Foot Guards. Outside of the summer season, the changing of the guard is only done at the National War Memorial by Primary Reserve units of the Canadian Armed Forces from the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, with occasional appearances by other units from various other provinces; the yearly mounting is part of the wider joint National Sentry Program by personnel of the Armed Forces, the Canadian Rangers and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
In addition to the ceremony which takes place in Ottawa, there is a changing the guard ceremony during the summer at the Citadelle of Quebec, mounted by the Royal 22e Régiment. The changing of the guard is performed by personnel of the seniormost CF reserve regiment of Canadian provinces at the official residences of the Lieutenant Governors of the province, it is carried out in a similar fashion to the ceremony in Ottawa. The changing of the guard ceremony is conducted every odd-numbered day, including Sundays, at La Moneda Palace in Santiago, Chile with the Carabineros de Chile's Presidential Guard Group providing the guard. A pair of mounted units lead the Central Band and Bugles of the Carabineros and the new guard to the plaza in front of La Moneda where the departing detachment meets them. While patriotic and popular music is played, the color guard emerges and salutes are exchanged between the old and new guards at the main gate and the officers of each unit; the ceremony ends with the band and bugles marching off with the old guard.
Soldiers of the Ceremonial Unit of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces the Mausoleum of José Marti in Santiago de Cuba. The guard is changed every half-hour, is signaled by clock tower bells similar to how Soviet guards at the Lenin mausoleum used the bells of the Spasskaya Tower Clock; every day at noon the guard of Prague Castle is changed. At Amalienborg Palace, the royal residence in Copenhagen, the Royal Guard, mounted by the Kongelige Livgarde is on duty for 24 hours, the relief takes place every day at 12 o'clock noon; the parade starts off from the barracks by Rosenborg Castle. There are three types of guard changes: Kongevagt - when the monarch is in residence - accompanied by the Royal Guards music band. Løjtnantsvagt - when Prince Henrik is residing at the palace or Crown Prince Frederik or Prince Joachim are residing at Amalienborg in the capacity of regents - accompanied by the Corps of Drums of the RLG. Palævagt - the Crown Prince or Prince Joachim are in residence but not in the capacity of regents or the Palace is uninhabited - the Guards march through Copenhagen without music accompaniment.
The changing of the guard at Jubilee House takes place every month, with personnel of the different branches of the Ghana Armed Forces taking part quarterly. The ceremony was first initiated on May 5, 2013, originating from the changing of the Queens Guard at Buckingham Palace in London. Differences in the two ceremonies include a drill show by the new and old guard as well as the attendance of the Ghanian president at the ceremony. In the state capital, members of the Presidential Guard, provide a 24-hour honor guard, with an hourly guard change, at the Presidential Mansion and at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, off Syntagma Square at the foot of the Hellenic Parliament; the Changing the Guard at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in particular has become a tourist attraction, with many people marvelling at the guards, who stand motionless for two 20-minute intervals, during their 1-hour shifts. Every Sunday at 11:00 a ceremonial change of guards takes place. A parade of Evzones and a military band starts from the camp of the Evzones and through Vasilissis Sofias Avenue, reaches the Tomb of the Unknown soldie
The kepi is a cap with a flat circular top and a peak, or visor. Etymologically, the term is a loanword of a French loanword'képi, itself a re-spelled version of the Alemannic Käppi: a diminutive form of Kappe, meaning "cap". In Europe, this headgear is most associated with French military and police uniforms, though versions of it were worn by other armies during the late 19th and early 20th centuries before being misleading marketed has French. In North America, it is associated with the American Civil War, as it was worn by soldiers on both sides of the conflict; the kepi was the most common headgear in the French Army. Its predecessor appeared during the 1830s, in the course of the initial stages of the occupation of Algeria, as a series of various lightweight cane-framed cloth undress caps called casquette d'Afrique; these were intended as alternatives to the heavier, cloth-covered leather French Army shako. As a light and comfortable headdress, it was adopted by the metropolitan infantry regiments for service and daily wear, with the less practical shako being relegated to parade use.
In 1852, a new soft cloth cap was introduced for off-duty. Called bonnet de police à visière, this was the first proper model of the kepi; the visor was squarish in shape and oversized and was referred to as bec de canard. This kepi had no chinstrap. Subsequent designs introduced chinstraps and buttons; the kepi became well known outside France during the Crimean War and was subsequently adopted in various forms by a number of other armies during the 1860s and 1870s. In 1870, when troops were mobilized for the Franco-Prussian War, large numbers of French soldiers either refused to wear the issued shakos or threw them away. Emperor Napoléon III abolished the infantry shako for active service and replaced it with the kepi on 30 July 1870. In 1876, a new model appeared with a rounded visor, as the squared visor drooped when wet and curled when drying; the model used in World War I was the 1886 pattern, a fuller shape incorporating air vents. By 1900, the kepi had become the standard headdress of most French army units and a symbol of the French soldier.
It appeared in full service versions. Officers' ranks were shown by silver braiding on the kepi; the different branches were distinguished by the colours of the cap – see the table. Cavalry wore shakos or plumed helmets, reserving red kepis with light or dark blue bands for wear in barracks. General officers wore kepis with gold oak leaves embroidered around the band. In 1914, most French soldiers wore their kepis to war; the visible colours were hidden by a medium blue-grey cover, following the example of the Foreign Legion and other North African units who had long worn their kepis with white covers in the field. With the adoption of "horizon blue" uniforms and steel Adrian helmets in 1915 to replace the conspicuous peacetime uniforms worn during the early months of war, the kepi was replaced by folding forage caps. Officers, still wore kepis behind the lines. Following the war, the kepi was reintroduced in the peacetime French Army, but was never adopted for wear in the Navy or Air Force; the Foreign Legion resumed wearing it in 1926.
The bulk of the French army readopted the kepi in the various traditional branch colours for off-duty wear during the 1930s. It had now become a straight-sided and higher headdress than the traditional soft cap; this made it unsuitable for wartime wear, after 1940, it was worn, except by officers. An exception was the Foreign Legion, who just one of the many units that wore the kepi, now adopted it in its white version as a symbol; the decision following the 1991 Gulf War to end conscription in France and to rely on voluntary enlistment has led to the readoption of various traditional items for dress wear. This has included the reappearance in the army of the kepi, now worn by all ranks in the majority of units, on appropriate occasions. Within the army notable are the kepis of the French Foreign Legion, whose members are sometimes called Képis blancs, because of the unit's regulation white headgear. Former cavalry units wear light blue kepis with silver braid and insignia. Other colours include all dark blue with red piping, dark blue with red tops and crimson with red tops.
The "dark blue" of officers' kepis is very similar to black. The French National Police discarded their dark blue kepis in 1982; the reason given was that the rigid kepi, while smart and distinctive, was inconvenient for ordinary use and too high to be comfortably worn in vehicles. French customs officers and the Gendarmerie still wear kepis for ceremonial duty. Customs officers wear a baseball style cap for ordinary duties while the Gendarmerie introduced a "soft kepi" in the early 2000s. In the United States, the kepi is most associated with the American Civil War era, continued into the Indian Wars. Union Officers were issued kepis for fatigue use. A close copy of the contemporary French kepi, it squared visor, it was called a "McClellan cap", after the Union commander of the Army of the Potomac, G. B. McClellan. For field officers, the caps were de
A cannon is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon vary in caliber, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, firepower; the word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can be translated as tube, cane, or reed. In the modern era, the term cannon has fallen into decline, replaced by guns or artillery if not a more specific term such as mortar or howitzer, except for high calibre automatic weapons firing bigger rounds than machine guns, called autocannons; the earliest known depiction of cannon appeared in Song dynasty China as early as the 12th century, however solid archaeological and documentary evidence of cannon do not appear until the 13th century. In 1288 Yuan dynasty troops are recorded to have used hand cannons in combat, the earliest extant cannon bearing a date of production comes from the same period.
By 1326 depictions of cannon had appeared in Europe and immediately recorded usage of cannon began appearing. By the end of the 14th century cannon were widespread throughout Eurasia. Cannon were used as anti-infantry weapons until around 1374 when cannon were recorded to have breached walls for the first time in Europe. Cannon featured prominently as siege weapons and larger pieces appeared. In 1464 a 16,000 kg cannon known as the Great Turkish Bombard was created in the Ottoman Empire. Cannon as field artillery became more important after 1453 with the introduction of limber, which improved cannon maneuverability and mobility. European cannon reached their longer, more accurate, more efficient "classic form" around 1480; this classic European cannon design stayed consistent in form with minor changes until the 1750s. Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word cannone, meaning "large tube", which came from Latin canna, in turn originating from the Greek κάννα, "reed", generalised to mean any hollow tube-like object.
The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, 1418 in England. Both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with one or the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom; the cannon may have appeared as early as the 12th century in China, was a parallel development or evolution of the fire-lance, a short ranged anti-personnel weapon combining a gunpowder-filled tube and a polearm of some sort. Co-viative projectiles such as iron scraps or porcelain shards were placed in fire lance barrels at some point, the paper and bamboo materials of fire lance barrels were replaced by metal; the earliest known depiction of a cannon is a sculpture from the Dazu Rock Carvings in Sichuan dated to 1128, however the earliest archaeological samples and textual accounts do not appear until the 13th century. The primary extant specimens of cannon from the 13th century are the Wuwei Bronze Cannon dated to 1227, the Heilongjiang hand cannon dated to 1288, the Xanadu Gun dated to 1298.
However, only the Xanadu gun contains an inscription bearing a date of production, so it is considered the earliest confirmed extant cannon. The Xanadu Gun weighs 6.2 kg. The other cannon are dated using contextual evidence; the Heilongjiang hand cannon is often considered by some to be the oldest firearm since it was unearthed near the area where the History of Yuan reports a battle took place involving hand cannon. According to the History of Yuan, in 1288, a Jurchen commander by the name of Li Ting led troops armed with hand cannon into battle against the rebel prince Nayan. Chen Bingying argues there were no guns before 1259 while Dang Shoushan believes the Wuwei gun and other Western Xia era samples point to the appearance of guns by 1220, Stephen Haw goes further by stating that guns were developed as early as 1200. Sinologist Joseph Needham and renaissance siege expert Thomas Arnold provide a more conservative estimate of around 1280 for the appearance of the "true" cannon. Whether or not any of these are correct, it seems that the gun was born sometime during the 13th century.
References to cannon proliferated throughout China in the following centuries. Cannon featured in literary pieces. In 1341 Xian Zhang wrote a poem called The Iron Cannon Affair describing a cannonball fired from an eruptor which could "pierce the heart or belly when striking a man or horse, transfix several persons at once."By the 1350s the cannon was used extensively in Chinese warfare. In 1358 the Ming army failed to take a city due to its garrisons' usage of cannon, however they themselves would use cannon, in the thousands on during the siege of Suzhou in 1366; the Korean kingdom of Joseon started producing gunpowder in 1374 and cannon by 1377. Cannon appeared in Đại Việt by 1390 at the latest. During the Ming dynasty cannon were used in riverine warfare at the Battle of Lake Poyang. One shipwreck in Shandong had a cannon dated to 1377 and an anchor dated to 1372. From the 13th to 15th centuries cannon-armed Chinese ships travelled throughout Southeast Asia; the first of the western cannon to be introduced were breach-loaders in the early 16th century which the Chinese began producing themselves by 1523 and began improving on.
Japan did not acquire a cannon until 1510 when a monk brought one back from China, did not produce a
Beretta BM 59
The Beretta BM 59 is an Italian-made rifle based on the M1 Garand rifle, but chambered in 7.62×51mm NATO, modified to use a detachable magazine. Revisions incorporated other features common to more modern rifles. After World War II, Italy adopted the US-designed M1 Garand rifle in.30-06 Springfield and manufactured it under license. This semi-automatic rifle proved itself well during World War II, but in the late 1950s it was considered outdated and obsolete and the Italian military wanted a new rifle chambered for the NATO-standard 7.62×51mm round. To meet these requirements, Beretta designed the BM 59, a rechambered M1 fitted with a removable 20-round magazine, folding bipod and a combined muzzle brake/flash suppressor/rifle grenade launcher; the BM 59 is capable of selective fire. The BM 59 was adopted in 1959 and served with Italian, Argentinian and Moroccan armies. In the early 1980s, semi-automatic versions were imported to the United States and sold to private collectors; the earliest BM 59s were manufactured from U.
S.-manufactured M1 parts, including re-chambered barrels. In 1990, the BM 59 was replaced in Italian service by the Beretta AR70/90 assault rifles, although some may be in service in the Italian Navy; the BM 59 has several military and civilian variants that include the following: BM 59 Mark I: had a wooden stock with a semi-pistol grip stock. BM 59 Mark II: had a wooden stock with pistol grip to achieve a better control during full-auto fire; the BM 59 Para was intended for paratroopers. It was equipped with flash-hider. BM 59 Mark IV: had a heavier barrel with a plastic stock, was used as a light squad automatic weapon; the rare BM62 and 69 are civilian sporting rifles with sights removed. With the following: BM62: Semi-auto chambered in.308 Winchester, came with 20-round magazines, civilian flash hider (no bayonet lug, no grenade launcher, no tri-compensator Does not have bipod capability on gas cylinder, or gas-compensator BM69: Semi-auto with a bipod and tri-compensator. Algeria Argentina: Used in the Falklands War.
Bahrain Biafra: Some ex-Nigerian Army rifles Eritrea Ethiopia Italy Indonesia: Under license at the Bandung Weapons Factory as the SP-1. Libya Morocco: Built under license Nigeria: Under license by Defense Industries Corporation in Kaduna. Adopted by Nigerian Army in 1963. San Marino Somalia M14 rifle Franchi LF-59 MAS-49 Itajuba Model 954 Mosquetao List of battle rifles Beretta BM 59 at Modern Firearms
The Glock is a series of polymer-framed, short recoil-operated, locked-breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Austrian manufacturer Glock Ges.m.b. H, it entered Austrian military and police service by 1982 after it was the top performer in reliability and safety tests. Despite initial resistance from the market to accept a perceived "plastic gun" due to both unfounded durability and reliability concerns, as well as fears that its use of a polymer frame might circumvent metal detectors in airports, Glock pistols have become the company's most profitable line of products as well as supplying national armed forces, security agencies, police forces in at least 48 countries. Glocks are popular firearms among civilians for recreational and competition shooting and self-defense, concealed carry or open carry; the company's founder, engineer Gaston Glock, had no experience with firearms design or manufacture at the time their first pistol, the Glock 17, was being prototyped. Glock did, have extensive experience in advanced synthetic polymers, knowledge of, instrumental in the company's design of the first commercially successful line of pistols with a polymer frame.
Glock introduced ferritic nitrocarburizing into the firearms industry as an anticorrosion surface treatment for metal gun parts. In 1980, the Austrian Armed Forces announced that it would seek tenders for a new, modern duty pistol to replace their World War II–era Walther P38 handguns; the Austrian Ministry of Defence formulated a list of 17 criteria for the new generation service pistol, including requirements that it would be self loading. After firing 15,000 rounds of standard ammunition, the pistol was to be inspected for wear; the pistol was to be used to fire an overpressure test cartridge generating 5,000 bar. The normal maximum operating pressure for the 9mm NATO is 2,520 bar. Glock became aware of the Austrian Army's planned procurement, in 1982 assembled a team of Europe's leading handgun experts from military and civilian sport-shooting circles to define the most desirable characteristics in a combat pistol. Within three months, Glock developed a working prototype that combined proven mechanisms and traits from previous pistol designs.
In addition the plan was to make extensive use of synthetic materials and modern manufacturing technologies, to make it a cost-effective candidate. Several samples of the 9×19mm Glock 17 were submitted for assessment trials in early 1982, after passing all of the exhaustive endurance and abuse tests, the Glock emerged as the winner; the handgun was adopted into service with the Austrian military and police forces in 1982 as the P80, with an initial order for 25,000 guns. The Glock 17 outperformed eight different pistols from five other established manufacturers; the results of the Austrian trials sparked a wave of interest in Western Europe and overseas in the United States, where a similar effort to select a service-wide replacement for the M1911 had been going on since the late 1970s. In late 1983, the United States Department of Defense inquired about the Glock pistol and received four samples of the Glock 17 for unofficial evaluation. Glock was invited to participate in the XM9 Personal Defense Pistol Trials, but declined because the DOD specifications would require extensive retooling of production equipment and providing 35 test samples in an unrealistic time frame.
Shortly thereafter, the Glock 17 was accepted into service with the Norwegian and Swedish armed forces, surpassing all prior NATO durability standards. As a result, the Glock 17 became a standard NATO-classified sidearm and was granted a NATO stock number. By 1992, some 350,000 pistols had been sold in more than 45 countries, including 250,000 in the United States alone. Starting in 2013 the British Army began replacing the Browning Hi-Power pistol with the Glock 17 Gen 4, due to concerns about weight and the external safety of the Hi-Power. Glock has updated its basic design several times throughout its production history. A mid-life upgrade to the Glock pistols involved the addition of checkering on the front strap and serrations to the back strap; these versions, introduced in 1988, were informally referred to as "second-generation" models. To meet American ATF regulations, a steel plate with a stamped serial number was embedded into the receiver in front of the trigger guard. In 1991, an integrated recoil spring assembly replaced the original two-piece recoil spring and tube design.
The magazine was modified, changing the floorplate and fitting the follower spring with a resistance insert at its base. In 1998, the frame was further modified with an accessory rail to allow the mounting of laser sights, tactical lights, other accessories. Thumb rests on both sides of the finger grooves on the front strap were added. Glock pistols with these upgrades are informally referred to as "third-generation" models. Third-generation models additionally featured a modified extractor that serves as a loaded chamber indicator, the locking block was