San Marino

San Marino the Republic of San Marino known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is an enclave microstate in Southern Europe, on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains surrounded by Italy. It is just over 61 km2, with a population of 33,562, its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest settlement is Dogana in the municipality of Serravalle. San Marino has the smallest population of any member of the Council of Europe; the official language is Italian, San Marino maintains strong financial and ethno-cultural connections to its much larger neighbour. It is located close to the riviera of Rimini, one of Italy's main coastal resort areas; the country derives its name from Saint Marinus, a stonemason from the Roman colony on the island of Rab, in modern-day Croatia. In AD 257, according to legend, participated in the reconstruction of Rimini's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. Marinus went on to found an independent monastic community on Monte Titano in AD 301.

The nation is governed by the Constitution of San Marino, a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century, that dictate the country's political system, among other matters. San Marino is considered to have the earliest written governing documents still in effect; the country's economy relies on finance, industry and tourism. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP, with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino is considered to have a stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus, it has the world's highest rate of car ownership, being the only country with more vehicles than people. San Marino is one of only three countries in the world to be surrounded by another country, it is the third smallest country in Europe, after Vatican City and Monaco, the fifth smallest country in the world. Saint Marinus left the island of Rab in present-day Croatia with his lifelong friend Leo, went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason.

After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and state of San Marino, sometimes still referred to as the "Titanic Republic". The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is 3 September 1301. In 1320 the community of Chiesanuova chose to join the country. In 1463 San Marino was extended with the communities of Faetano, Fiorentino and Serravalle, after which the country's borders have remained unchanged. In 1503, Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI occupied the Republic for six months until his father's successor, Pope Julius II, intervened and restored the country's independence. On June 4, 1543 Fabiano di Monte San Savino, nephew of the Pope Julius III, attempted to conquer the republic, but his infantry and cavalry failed as they got lost in a dense fog, which the Sammarinese attributed to Saint Quirinus, whose feast day it was.

After the Duchy of Urbino was annexed by the Papal States in 1625, San Marino became an enclave within the Papal States, something which led to its seeking the formal protection of the Papal States in 1631, but this never equalled a de facto Papal control of the republic. The country was occupied on October 17, 1739 by the legate of Ravenna, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, but the independence was restored by Pope Clement XII on February 5, 1740, the feast day of Saint Agatha, after which she became a patron saint of the republic; the advance of Napoleon's army in 1797 presented a brief threat to the independence of San Marino, but the country was saved from losing its liberty thanks to one of its regents, Antonio Onofri, who managed to gain the respect and friendship of Napoleon. Thanks to his intervention, Napoleon, in a letter delivered to Gaspard Monge and commissary of the French Government for Science and Art, promised to guarantee and protect the independence of the Republic offering to extend its territory according to its needs.

The offer was declined by the regents. During the phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, San Marino served as a refuge for many people persecuted because of their support for unification, including Giuseppe Garibaldi and his wife Anita. In recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state; the government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that "government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring." During World War I, when Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915, San Marino remained neutral and Italy adopted a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspecting that San Marino could harbour Austrian spies who could be given access to its new radiotelegraph station. Italy tried to forcibly establish a detachment of Carabinieri in the republic and cut the republic's telephone lines when it did not comply.

Two groups of ten volunteers joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian front, the first as combatants and the second as a medical corps operating a Red

Citizen Radio

Citizen Radio is an internet radio show "for young people disillusioned with corporate media and a political system that doesn't speak to them." It airs every weekday. The show is hosted by writer Allison Kilkenny a contributor to The Huffington Post and The Nation; the show was founded by Jamie Kilstein. In early 2017, Kilstein was dropped from the podcast after multiple women reported predatory and abusive behavior. Allison Kilkenny is a social critic and former columnist for The Huffington Post. Kilkenny is best known for her contributions to political and humor websites like The Huffington Post, Talking Points Memo, 23/6, The Beast, CounterPunch, The Nation, Jamie Alexander Kilstein is a comedian and radio host, he is a contributing writer for Timothy McSweeney's and made his TV debut performance on Conan with an anti-war stand up routine. Kilstein is a regular guest on SIRIUS radio. On Friday 24 September 2010, Citizen Radio announced that they would be leaving the online radio station that had hosted them since the show's start to go independent starting the following Monday.

Citizen Radio followed the announcement by revealing a new membership model that rewards individuals and companies who provide financial support with community status, bonus content, sponsorship messages during the podcast for the highest level of supporters. Though the show relied on memberships and donations, the regular episodes of the podcast remain free to download regardless of membership status; the stated intention of the membership model is to provide financial support for the continued existence of the podcast and spur expansion to more days and richer content. As of August 9 2010, Citizen Radio's YouTube channel began hosting new content produced by Citizen Radio focusing on guest previews for upcoming episodes of the radio show and providing viewers new content separate but thematically-linked to the radio show. Content includes videos of live Citizen Radio shows, Kilstein on tour, extended interviews and guest previews. In 2012, Citizen Radio hired Kevin Allen Caby as a video producer.

He creates short animated clips and pairs archival footage with notable interviews featured on the show. Citizen Radio's official website Citizen Radio's free podcast

Lim Jock Seng

Yang Dimuliakan Pehin Orang Kaya Pekerma Dewa Dato Seri Setia Lim Jock Seng is a Bruneian politician who served as Second Minister of Foreign Affairs & Trade. He was a member of the Legislative Council of Brunei during his tenure as Minister. Lim Jock Seng was born on January 22, 1944, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in economics from Swansea University and received a Master of Philosophy in social anthropology from the London School of Economics. He joined the civil service on July 23, 1969, starting his career as a curator in the Museums Department, he entered the Diplomatic Service Department in 1982. After he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Brunei, he first held roles such as Director General of ASEAN Department the Director of Politics and the Brunei Darussalam High Commissioner to New Zealand. In 1986, Lim Jock Seng's The Inter-relationship of Technology and Social Organization in a Fishing Village in Brunei was published in the Brunei Museum Journal, one of six monographs published since 1970 by the journal.

In October 1986, he was named Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2001 until 2003, he was international chair on the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, he was afterwards a member of the ASEAN Eminent Persons Group. On May 24, 2005, he was named Second Minister of Foreign Affairs, after being appointed to the position by Pehin Orang Kaya Pekerma Dewa in 2004. Before he was re-appointed as Foreign Minister, he served as the chairman of both Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad and Royal Brunei Airlines. In January 2016 he met with Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida. At that time, Seng's official role was "Minister at Prime Minister's Office and Second Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei Darussalam." He was a member of the Brunei Legislative Council. Pehin Lim is married to Datin Lim Bee Yong. Malaysia: Honorary Commander of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia List of current foreign ministers List of foreign ministers in 2017 Cabinet of Brunei Ethnic Chinese in Brunei About Lim Jock Seng