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Samwise Gamgee

Samwise "Sam" Gamgee is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the hobbit Samwise is the chief supporting character of The Lord of the Rings, in which he fills an archetypal role as the sidekick of the primary protagonist, Frodo Baggins. Sam is a member of the Fellowship of the Ring, which includes Frodo, Pippin, Gimli, Boromir and Gandalf. At the beginning of the story, Sam is Frodo's gardener, is drawn into Frodo's adventure by Gandalf while eavesdropping on a private conversation. Throughout the story, Sam is Frodo's steadfast companion and servant, portrayed as both physically strong for his size and strong pushing Frodo through difficult parts of the journey, at time carrying Frodo when he is too weak to go on. Sam serves as Ring-bearer for a short time. Following the War of the Ring Sam returns to the Shire and his role as gardener, helping to replant the trees, destroyed during The Scouring of the Shire, he is elected Mayor of the Shire for seven consecutive terms, in his old age is one of the last denizens of Middle-earth to be permitted to enter The Undying Lands, an honour accorded to him as one of the Ring-bearers.

Samwise Gamgee is first introduced in The Fellowship of the Ring. Sam is Frodo Baggins' gardener, having inherited the position as Baggins' gardener from his father, Hamfast "Gaffer" Gamgee; as "punishment" for eavesdropping on Gandalf's conversation with Frodo regarding the One Ring, Sam is made Frodo's first companion on his journey to Rivendell. They are joined by Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took, Frodo's cousins, journeyed together to Rivendell, where the Council of Elrond takes place and Sam joins the Fellowship of the Ring; when the Fellowship splits up at the Falls of Rauros, Sam insists on accompanying Frodo. Sam protects and cares for Frodo, growing weaker under the Ring's influence, as they move through the dangerous lands toward Mordor. Sam distrusts Gollum, his suspicions are proven right. After Shelob seems to kill Frodo, Sam drives her off; when a band of orcs approach, Sam is forced to leave the dead Frodo and take the Ring himself, becomes a Ring-bearer. He does not succumb to it.

Sam rescues Frodo from the Orcs who hold him captive. Sam returns the ring to Frodo; the two journey alone through Mordor and into the heart of Mount Doom, where Gollum attacks Frodo and reclaims the Ring, only to inadvertently destroy both it and himself by falling into the mountain's lava. After the hobbits' return home and the Battle of Bywater, Sam travels the length and breadth of the Shire replanting trees, cut down during Saruman's reign, he uses the gift of earth given to him by Lady Galadriel, which causes the saplings he plants to grow at an accelerated rate. Sam marries moves into Bag End with Frodo. Sam and Rosie have 13 children. After Sam and Rose's first child is born, Frodo tells Sam he will leave Middle-earth, along with Bilbo Baggins and most of the remaining High Elves, for the Undying Lands. Before Frodo leaves, he gives the estate of Bag End to Sam, as well as the Red Book of Westmarch for Sam to continue, hinting that Sam might be allowed to travel into the West eventually.

The novel ends with Samwise returning to meet his family at Bag End. At the start of The Lord of the Rings Sam for a hobbit, had never before ventured far from the immediate area where he lived. Unusually for a hobbit, Sam had been fond of legends and other fantastical stories since childhood. Sam was interested in the Elves, always hoped to one day see one. Sam was literate, having been taught by Bilbo and Frodo, unusual for most hobbits given their rustic culture. Sam showed a talent for poetry. Tolkien called Sam the "chief hero" of the saga in one of his letters: he places special emphasis on Sam's "rustic love" for Rosie, a union that serves to establish a family in which allusions to Elvish wonders are combined with the best qualities of traditional Shire-life. Sam and his descendants became the keepers of the history of the War of the Ring and upheld the memory of events that most'ordinary' hobbits took little interest in. During the journey to destroy the Ring, Sam's relationship with Frodo exemplifies that of a military servant or batman to his assigned officer in the British Army, in particular in the First World War in which Tolkien had served as an officer with his own batmen at different times.

As John Garth has written: "The relationship between Frodo and Sam reflects the hierarchy of an officer and his servant. Officers had a middle-class background. Working-class men stayed at the rank of private or at best sergeant. A social gulf divides the literate, leisured Frodo from his former gardener, now responsible for wake-up calls and packing... Tolkien maps the gradual breakdown of restraint until Sam can take Frodo in his arms and call him "Mr Frodo, my dear." " Tolkien wrote in a private letter: "My Sam Gamgee is indeed a reflexion of the English soldier, of the privates and batmen I knew in the 1914 war, recognised as so far s

Triplet-triplet annihilation

Triplet-triplet annihilation is an energy transfer mechanism between two molecules in their triplet state, is related to the Dexter energy transfer mechanism. If triplet-triplet annihilation occurs between two molecules in their excited states one molecule transfers its excited state energy to the second molecule, resulting in one molecule returning to its ground state and the second molecule being promoted to a higher excited singlet, triplet or quintet state. Triplet-triplet annihilation was first discovered in the 1960s to explain the observation of delayed fluorescence in anthracene derivatives; as triplet-triplet annihilation combines the energy of two triplet excited molecules onto one molecule to produce a higher excited state it has been used to convert the energy of two photons into one photon of higher energy, a process known as photon upconversion. To achieve photon upconversion through triplet-triplet annihilation two types of molecules are combined: a sensitizer and an emitter.

The sensitizer absorbs the low energy photon and populates its first excited triplet state through intersystem crossing. The sensitizer transfers the excitation energy to the emitter, resulting in a triplet excited emitter and a ground state sensitizer. Two triplet excited emitters can undergo triplet-triplet annihilation, if a singlet excited state of the emitter is populated fluorescence results in an upconverted photon

List of artistic depictions of Grendel

This list of artistic depictions of Grendel refers to the figure of Grendel. He is one of three antagonists in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf. Grendel has been adapted in a number of different media including film and graphic/illustrated novels or comic books. Vincent Hammond portrayed Grendel in Graham Baker's film Beowulf. Among the artistic liberties taken in this version set in a post-apocalyptic future, Grendel is stated to be the son of Hrothgar and he is shown to be capable of rendering himself invisible in a Predator-like manner, his manner of death differs from the original source. As with the poem, Beowulf tears off Grendel's arm during their first battle, though Grendel survives the wound in the film. Beowulf kills Grendel on by stabbing his stump; the film Beowulf & Grendel purports to be a more realistic depiction of the legend. Grendel, played by Ingvar Eggert Sigurðsson, is portrayed as a large, Neanderthal-looking primitive man, whom King Hrothgar and his men believe to be a "troll".

His mother, referred in the credits as a "sea hag", is portrayed as more inhuman-looking. Crispin Glover portrayed Grendel in Beowulf; this version changes elements of the poem by introducing a relationship between Grendel's mother and Hrothgar which results in the birth of Grendel, much like Graham Baker's adaptation eight years prior. In the film, Grendel is portrayed as a diseased and deformed creature, resembling the pale man from Pan's Labyrinth and Gollum. Described by the film crew as "The embodiment of pain", he was born with a large external eardrum which causes him pain whenever the singing in Heorot echoes in his lair; this weakness, an attempt to explain Grendel's ability to hear the singing in the original poem despite his cave being many miles from the hall, is exploited by Beowulf in his battle with the monster. When frightened or weakened, Grendel is shown to shrink in size; when not attacking the Danes, he is shown to be a timid, childlike creature who speaks in Old English in the presence of his mother.

During his battle with Beowulf, his arm is severed and he bleeds to death. Philosophy professor Stephen T. Asma argued in the December 7 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education that, "Zemeckis's more tender-minded film version suggests that the people who cast out Grendel are the real monsters; the monster, according to this charity paradigm, is just misunderstood rather than evil. The blame for Grendel's violence is shifted to the humans, who sinned against him earlier and brought the vengeance upon themselves; the only real monsters, in this tradition, are prejudice. In the film, Grendel is visually altered after his injury to look like an innocent, albeit scaly, little child. In the original Beowulf, the monsters are outcasts because they're bad, but in the newer adaptation of Beowulf the monsters are bad because they're outcasts Contrary to the original Beowulf, the new film wants us to understand and humanize our monsters." Grendel Grendel Grendel is an animated film based on Grendel.

The Wendol are members of a fictional enemy race in the film The 13th Warrior Ingvar Eggert Sigurðsson and Hringur Ingvarsson portrayed Grendel in Beowulf & Grendel Grendel - a made-for-television movie on the Sci Fi Channel. Christian Boeving portrayed Grendel in Beowulf: Prince of the Geats. In the film How to Train Your Dragon, the Red Death is called "the bride of Grendel" by Tuffnut, one of the teen Vikings; the Moorwen in the film Outlander is based on Grendel. The Moorwen is the last of its species having been massacred by humans. Thus, it seeks revenge on humans; the Moorwen is killed when it is forced off a cliff. Grendel Comics written and drawn by Matt Wagner Anand and Bill Carroll. Beowulf 1975-1976: Beowulf: Dragon Slayer Issue #2, July 1995.. Grendel is a character in series published by Marvel Comics, who has appeared in a few episodes as an antagonist of Thor and Hercules, he is a member of the Dark Elves. TalesOfLegend Comics is a webcomic of the story of Beowulf told from Grendel's perspective.

2009:In the Secret Six title, Grendel is the spawn of the supervillain Vandal Savage. He is killed by Wonder Woman. Grendel is featured in issue #3 and issue #6 in the second volume of the ongoing Ghostbusters IDW comic series. Grendel appears in the speech Harold E. Varmus gave for winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on oncogenes, at the Nobel Banquet, December 10, 1989, he stated a cancer cell is "like Grendel, a distorted vision of our normal selves". Grendels are one of the breeds featured in the artificial life program Creatures. Grendel is the name of the heavy assault rifle in Crysis 2. Grendel is a monster in the Dragon Quest series. Grendel is a boss mob in the PlayStation 2 game Everquest Online Adventures. Final Fantasy VIII features a boss monster, which becomes an incidental monster, called Grendel which depicts the beast as being four-legged. Grendel's Cave: a MUD role-playing fantasy game based on the original story. Final Fantasy Tantics Grendel is one of the bosses in the PSP game Lord of Arcana by Square Enix.

The MMORPG Runescape features a monster named the Kendal, a reference to Grendel. It is revealed that this monster is a cannibalistic human serial killer in a bearsuit. Skies of Arcadia features a monster named Grendel. Grendel is a Boss character in Too Human, known as "GRNDL-1". In

Brockenhurst railway station

Brockenhurst railway station serves the village of Brockenhurst in Hampshire, England. It is located on the South Western Main Line from London Waterloo to Weymouth, it is the junction of the Lymington Branch Line with the main line. It is 92 miles 66 chains down the line from Waterloo, it is managed and served by South Western Railway and it is served by CrossCountry trains The station was winner of the 2009 National Rail Award for best medium-sized station, with the judges stating they "were impressed by the standard of customer service, station presentation and innovation they observed, all of which ensure that the station provides a smooth and pleasant departure and arrival point for the travelling customer". The station was winner of a National Cycling Award, for a system which informs passengers of where cycle spaces are on approaching trains, allowing them to speed boarding, partnerships with local bike-hire firms. Brockenhurst station was opened on 1 June 1847 as part of the Southampton and Dorchester Railway with services running to Southampton in one direction and Dorchester via Ringwood and Wimborne Minster the other.

The following year, the railway was amalgamated with the South Western Railway. On 12 July 1858 the Lymington Branch Line opened, beginning shuttle services between the station and Lymington, turning the station into a junction station and leading to its name being changed between 1876 and 1888 to Brockenhurst Junction to emphasise this. On 5 March 1888 the direct line from Brockenhurst via Sway to Bournemouth and Poole and bypassing the longer'Corkscrew', opened to traffic; this massively increased the number of trains passing through the station for both routes and enhancing its status as an interchange after the downgrading of the'corkscrew' in 1893 to that of a branch line. Brockenhurst station, along with the L&SWR was taken over by Southern Railway in 1923 and under their ownership, the station was extended in 1936 to include two new platforms. Services over the old Southampton and Dorchester line via Ringwood fell victim to the Beeching Axe, ceasing in May 1964; the track through the station was electrified in 1967 and the station saw minor changes as part of British Rail's Network SouthEast region.

In 2014 the station received £4.6 million of government grants as part of the Access for All initiative to replace the footbridge at Brockenhurst with a new bridge complete with lift shafts. Step-free access to platforms 1 and 2 was by a rotating turntable bridge across the tracks while step-free access to platforms 3 and 4 was across the track bed itself; the station consists of four platforms, arranged in two island platforms, with a ticket office housed in the main building nearest Platform 1 on the side closest to the village. The platforms, ticket office and car park are all connected by footbridge, with the ticket office at one end and the car park and bicycle hire point at the other end of the walkway. Platform 1 - Up loop platform used by stopping services from Poole where it is overtaken by the express services from Weymouth and CrossCountry services from Bournemouth on platform 2; this platform is used by Lymington services and a weekday evening service to Portsmouth and Southsea Platform 2 - for through services towards Southampton and London Waterloo.

Platform 3 - for through services towards Bournemouth and Weymouth. Platform 4 - Down loop platform for Lymington services, this can be used by other down services, but this is rare. A signal box and level crossing is located at the northern end of the station; the station is served by South Western Railway, who operate fast and semi-fast trains from Waterloo to Weymouth, stopping services from Waterloo to Poole, local stopping services to Lymington Pier. In addition, CrossCountry operate hourly services from Bournemouth to Manchester Piccadilly via Reading and Birmingham New Street; some peak time South Western Railway services by-pass the station without stopping. Local bus routes serve the bus stop located outside the ticket hall. There is a year-round Bluestar 6 service to Lymington in the south, Lyndhurst to the north and onward connections to Totton and Southampton. In the summer time, this is supplemented by the seasonal New Forest Tour green and blue routes to Lymington, Beaulieu and Lyndhurst and Burley, New Milton, Barton on Sea, Milford on Sea and Lymington.

Brockenhurst station at South Western Railway Brockenhurst station at National Rail Enquiries

Coca-Cola with Lemon

Coca-Cola with Lemon is a soft drink brand owned by The Coca-Cola Company, launched to compete with Pepsi Twist. It is distributed by The Coca-Cola Company's bottlers. Diet Coke with Lemon was introduced in the United States in 2001, is still available as a semi sugar free version in Coca-Cola Freestyle machines. Coca-Cola Light with Lemon is still available in: Coca-Cola Light with Lemon has been discontinued in: Australia Canada Chile Denmark Finland Ireland Israel Mexico New Zealand Sweden United Kingdom In July 2014, Coca-Cola with Lemon was temporarily restocked in Japan; the product went to 16,622 different stores of 7-Eleven throughout Japan. The bottle was reintroduced with new packaging, was only on shelves until supplies lasted. There are different variations of one being Coca-Cola Lemon Zero Sugar; this drink is only exclusive only to Italy. The drink is sold in a glass bottle, PET, aluminium cans

Battle of Benadir

The second Ajuran–Portuguese Conflict was an armed engagement between the Ajuran Sultanate and the Portuguese Empire. After the Portuguese conducted a large-scale naval expedition to Suez in 1541, the Ottoman Empire dedicated greater resources into protecting the Red Sea from Portuguese intrusion. To such effect, about 25 galleys were stationed at Aden; the Portuguese captain of Sofala, João de Sepúlveda, was informed of the presence of these forces by allied Swahili city-states Malindi, who reported that the hostile Ajuran Sultanate had appealed to the Ottomans for military support, in preparation for a rebellion against Portuguese suzerainty in the region. João de Sepúlveda thus set out with 6 small galleys and 100 soldiers to conduct a preemptive strike against the coastal cities of the Ajuran Sultanate, he was joined by an unrecorded number of warriors from Malindi. At Mogadishu, João de Sepúlveda "destroyed the city and did them great damage and injury". Moving a few leagues north, he reached a popular anchorage for tradeships coming from the Red Sea, where he learned that the Turks would not be sailing to East Africa that year.

Thus he returned to what remained of Mogadishu, made a peace deal with its rulers. Passing by Barawa, the city was sacked, in retaliation for its inhabitants having delivered a few Portuguese prisoners to the Turks. After sealing peace with Barawa, João de Sepúlveda returned to Malindi; the word benadir means coast in Somali referring to the richness of southern Somali coast. Battle of Barawa Ajuran Empire History of Somalia