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Tratayenia

Tratayenia is an extinct genus of megaraptoran theropod dinosaurs known from remains found in the Santonian-age Bajo de la Carpa Formation of Argentina. The type and only species, Tratayenia rosalesi, was described in March 2018. Tratayenia can be distinguished from other megaraptorans on the basis of three autapomorphies of the front portion of each dorsal vertebra, as well as a single autapomorphy of the sacrum. Tratayenia is the youngest known genus of megaraptoran, having lived only about 83 million years ago; the holotype consists of a well-preserved partial skeleton, MUCPv 1162, which includes several articulated portions of the backbone. One portion of the skeleton is a string of five dorsal vertebrae the seventh to eleventh dorsals; the largest articulated portion of the skeleton is a string of vertebrae including the last two dorsals as well as the five sacrals and much of the right ilium. Other preserved bones include two partial dorsal fragments of the pubis and ischium; this skeleton was first discovered in 2006 at a Bajo de la Carpa Formation fossil site by Universidad Nacional del Comahue technician Diego Rosales.

Shortly thereafter it was excavated by UNC paleontologist Juan D. Porfifi. Porfiri and his colleagues published a preliminary report on the new dinosaur in a 2008 abstract, suggested that it may have been a relative of Carcharodontosauridae. In 2018, the new taxon was described with the generic name Tratayenia, named after Tratayén, the fossil site at which it was excavated; the specific name Tratayenia rosalesi honors Diego Rosales. Tratayenia was a medium-sized megaraptoran, it was related to genera such as Megaraptor and Murusraptor. Like most other megaraptorans, it had large claws on its hands for use in hunting prey. Analysis of the Baja de la Carpa indicates that Tratayenia may have been geologically the youngest megaraptoran yet discovered. Tratayenia is the largest-bodied carnivorous animal named from the Bajo de la Carpa Formation, reinforcing the hypothesis that megaraptorids were apex predators in southern South America from the Turonian through the Santonian or early Campanian, following the extinction of carcharodontosaurids.

The dorsal vertebrae were tall and narrow, with large pits known as pleurocoels on the side of their centra. These features are common in the vertebrae of large carnivorous theropods; some of the vertebrae had fragments of bone in the pleurocoels, which were remnants of thin bony walls known as septa which divided the pits. Septa are known in other megaraptorans and carcharodontosaurids; the neural arches of the vertebrae are taller and narrower in Tratayenia than in most other theropods. The tubular transverse to the side. A large and deep excavation is located directly below each transverse process, bounded from the front and rear by thin laminae; the front edge is formed by the paradiapophyseal lamina and the rear edge is formed by the posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina. These features are known in the megaraptoran Murusraptor; the prezygapophyses are rectangular when see from the side, with the front and lower edges converging at nearly a right angle. This is an autapomorphy of Tratayenia. A ridge known as a prezygodiapophyseal lamina connects the prezygapophyses to the transverse processes.

Another autapomorphy of Tratayenia is that the prezygodiapophyseal lamina is parallel to the paradiapophyseal lamina. Other theropods either have a weakly developed paradiapophyseal lamina, or one, angled relative to the prezygodiapophyseal lamina; the front edge of each vertebra has a third autapomorphy, related to two pairs of laminae connecting the prezygapophyses to the neural spines. At the base of the neural spines, the two laminae comprising each pair are close together, but as the laminae get closer to the prezygapophyses, they diverge into a shape akin to an inverted Y. There are two of these inverted Y-like structures visible from the front, for both the left and right sides of a vertebra; the postzygapophyses are more typical in shape, the rear edge of each vertebra has a small, blade-like hyposphene which splits into three ridges from below. The neural spines are tall and rectangular when seen from the side, uniformly thin when seen from the front. Most are vertically, but one of the dorsal vertebrae preserved near the hip inclines forward as in various allosauroids.

Preserved rib fragments are hollow. They connected to the vertebrae by means of two distinct condyles, separated by a large opening which may have been continuous with the inner cavity. Tratayenia has five sacral vertebrae, they are similar to the dorsal vertebrae in various aspects, such as the presence of large pleurocoels and narrow centra, laminae-bound excavations below the transverse processes. However, they only have a single autapomorphy: the anteroposterior width of the neural spine increases drastically in the second to fifth sacral vertebrae compared to the first vertebra. In fact, the fifth sacral's neural spine is twice as long anteroposteriorly than that of the first; this trait has been observed in Tyrannosaurus and an unnamed megaraptoran sacrum from the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation in Brazil, so its status as an autapomorphy of Tratayenia is not concrete. Some of the sacral vertebrae have neural spines which are fused together, the last three curve backwards; the fourth sacral has a shape similar to those of the Santana Formation sacrum.

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Wake Me Up When September Ends

"Wake Me Up When September Ends" is a song by American rock band Green Day, released on August 31, 2005, as the fourth single and eleventh track from the group's seventh studio album, American Idiot. The song was written by frontman Billie Joe Armstrong about the death of his father; the song became a hit single, peaking at number six on the Billboard Hot 100. It was a top ten single in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, was a number one single in the Czech Republic. In the United States, the song became symbolic after Hurricane Katrina, where it was dedicated to victims of the disaster, regarded as a dedication to the victims of the September 11 attacks that occurred in 2001; the song was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. The song's music video depicts a couple broken apart by the Iraq War, intended to convey the song's central theme of loss. "Wake Me Up When September Ends" was written by frontman Billie Joe Armstrong about his father, who died from esophageal cancer in September 1982, when Armstrong was 10 years old.

Armstrong, at one point, dubbed the song the most autobiographical he had written to that point, considering it "therapeutic" but difficult to perform. The song is notable in that it is unrelated to the storyline that runs throughout the rest of the album; the single peaked at number six in the United States. It peaked at number eight in Canada and the UK, while reaching number 13 in Australia; the song was certified Gold in the United Kingdom for sales of 400,000. The song ended the streak of Green Day's three consecutive number-one hits on the Modern Rock Tracks chart, but it peaked at number two on the chart, kept from number one by Gorillaz' "Feel Good Inc." The song made it to number two on the Adult Top 40 chart and the Mainstream Top 40 chart. This was the band's most successful song in the adult contemporary market, hitting number three on the Adult Contemporary Chart and their only song to appear on that specific chart other than "Boulevard of Broken Dreams". "Wake Me Up When September Ends" had sold 1,652,000 copies as of May 2010.

Rob Sheffield of Rolling Stone deemed the song a sequel to the group's 1997 single "Good Riddance". The song's music video was directed by Samuel Bayer, best known for his work with Nirvana and Metallica. Bayer wrote the treatment for the video. Bayer brought the idea of an Iraq War-themed video to the trio after interviewing soldiers who had signed up to fight after being persuaded by a television advertisement; the song's music video thus attempts to "turn the machine on itself" by acting as a commercial for "free thought or peace." Although it was far from the song's literal meaning, Armstrong felt it appropriate considering the song's theme of loss. Bayer noted that he felt bored with predictable music videos, wanted to produce a video that felt like a film, he and a crew spent a month casting actors for the roles and conducted rehearsals, uncommon for music videos. The clip was filmed in Los Angeles in late March 2004; the video focuses on a couple in love. The boyfriend promises never to leave his girlfriend but they argue when the boyfriend enlists in the United States Marine Corps.

The boyfriend interprets his actions as a way to show her that he loves her so much that he would put his life on the line to keep her safe. However, the girlfriend is heartbroken; the video shows the boyfriend in battle in Iraq being ambushed by insurgents. This scene is intercut with scenes of the girlfriend tearfully mourning in a quiet field; the video ends on this juxtaposition, emphasizing the pain and heartache of losing loved ones due to the war. The clip prompted criticism from conservative media pundits. On the subject of the clip being seen as exploitive of the war for entertainment purposes, Green Day's Mike Dirnt rejected this notion: "Rock & roll should be dangerous, it should be striking and stir questions, I think that that video, at the end of the day, comes down to that core emotion of loss." Bayer considered it his best production to that point, remarking, "'September' is hands down the greatest thing I've done."The video reached number one on Total Request Live, came in second for best video of the year in a 2005 Reader's Poll by Rolling Stone.

"Wake Me Up When September Ends" became associated with Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, three days before the start of September. "Wake Me Up When September Ends" became symbolic in the aftermath. Green Day performed the song days after the disaster on ReAct Now: Music & Relief, a benefit concert broadcast on MTV and its associated properties. A live version of the song, recorded on September 3, 2005 at Gillette Stadium in Foxborough, was released soon after and dedicated to the hurricane's victims; the song was performed live with U2 guitarist The Edge in the pregame show of the Monday Night Football game between the New Orleans Saints and the Atlanta Falcons. Every year, between the dates of September and October 1, internet memes circulate on social media, featuring captions ordering Armstrong to wake up because September has ended, a literal interpretation of the song's title. Armstrong has stated that he is uncomfortable with the memes and has joked about wanting to write a song in response called, "Shut the F*** Up When October Begins".

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