Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel is a functioning Roman Catholic mission and a historic landmark in San Gabriel, California. The settlement was founded by Spaniards of the Franciscan order on "The Feast of the Birth of Mary," September 8, 1771, as the fourth of what would become 21 Spanish missions in California. San Gabriel Arcángel, named after the Archangel Gabriel and referred to as the "Godmother of the Pueblo of Los Angeles", was designed by Antonio Cruzado, who hailed from Córdoba, Spain. Cruzado gave the building its strong Moorish architectural influence; the capped buttresses and the tall, narrow windows are unique among the missions of the California chain. Mission San Gabriel was founded on September 8, 1771, by Fray Angel Francisco de Sonera and Fray Pedro Benito Cambon; the planned site for the Mission was along the banks of the Río de Los Temblores. The priests chose an alternate site on a fertile plain located directly alongside the Rio Hondo in the Whittier Narrows; the site of the Misión Vieja is located near the intersection of San Gabriel Boulevard and Lincoln Avenue.
In 1776, a flash flood destroyed much of the crops and ruined the Mission complex, subsequently relocated five miles closer to the mountains in present-day San Gabriel. The Mission is the base. On December 9, 1812, a series of massive earthquakes shook Southern California; the 1812 Wrightwood earthquake caused the three-bell campanario, located adjacent to the chapel's east façade, to collapse. A larger, six-bell structure was subsequently constructed at the far end of the Capilla. While no pictorial record exists to document what the original structure looked like, architectural historian Rexford Newcomb deduced the design and published a depiction in his 1916 work The Franciscan Mission Architecture of Alta California. Legend has it that the founding expedition was confronted by a large group of native Tongva peoples whose intention was to drive the strangers away. One of the priests laid a painting of "Our Lady of Sorrows" on the ground for all to see, whereupon the natives, designated by the settlers as the Gabrieliños made peace with the missionaries, because they were so moved by the painting's beauty.
Today the 300-year-old work hangs in front of and to the left of the old high altar and reredos in the Mission's sanctuary. A large stone cross stands in the center of the Campo Santo, first consecrated in 1778 and again on January 29, 1939, by the Los Angeles Archbishop John Cantwell, it serves as the final resting place for some 6,000 "neophytes. Interred at the Mission are the bodies of numerous Franciscan priests who died during their time of service, as well as the remains of Reverend Raymond Catalan, C. M. F. who undertook the restoration of the Mission's gardens. Entombed at the foot of the altar are the remains of eight Franciscan priests: Miguel Sánchez, Antonio Cruzado, Francisco Dumetz, Roman Ulibarri, Joaquin P. Nunez, Gerónimo Boscana, José Bernardo Sánchez, Blas Ordaz. Buried among the priests is centenarian Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné, the "keeper of the keys" under Spanish rule. Well over 25,000 baptisms were conducted at San Gabriel between 1771 and 1834, making it the most prolific in the mission chain.
In its heyday, it furnished food and supplies to settlements and other missions throughout California. A majority of the Mission structures fell into ruins after it was secularized in November 1834; the once-extensive vineyards were falling to decay, with fences broken down and animals roaming through it. The Mission's chapel functioned as a parish church for the City of San Gabriel from 1862 until 1908, when the Claretian Missionaries came to San Gabriel and began the job of rebuilding and restoring the Mission. In 1874, tracks were laid for Southern Pacific Railroad near the mission. In 2012, artifacts from the mission era were found when the tracks were lowered into a trench known as the Alameda Corridor-East. On October 1, 1987 the Whittier Narrows earthquake damaged the property. A significant portion of the original complex has since been restored; the goal of the missions was to become self-sufficient in short order. Farming was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the missions, the native-Americans had developed a self-sufficient culture.
The missionaries believed the native Tongva people were inferior and in need of conversion to Christianity. The mission priests established what they thought of as a manual training school: to teach the Indians their style of agriculture, the mechanical arts, the raising and care of livestock; the missions, utilizing the labor of the neophytes, produced everything they consumed. After 1811, the mission Indians could be said to sustain the entire military and civil government of California."The names of the rancherias associated with San Gabriel Mission were: Acuragna, Awigna, Cahuenga, Chowigna, Hahaulogna, Houtgna, Isanthcogna, Nacaugna, Pasinogna, Pubugna, Sisitcanogna, Suangna, Toviscanga, Yangna."To efficiently manage its extensive lands, Mission San Gabriel established several outlying sub-missions, known as asistencias. Several of these became or were
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
Charles C. Rich
Charles Coulson Rich was an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement. He led one of the first groups of Mormon pioneers west under the leadership of Brigham Young, from Illinois after Joseph Smith's murder. Rich was chosen and served as an apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints under Brigham Young after the Church settled in Utah Territory. President Young asked Charles Coulson Rich to open up San Bernardino, CA. for settlement in 1850, Bear Lake Valley, UT and ID, in 1863. Charles Coulson Rich founded many communities in Bear Lake Valley, including Paris, Fish Haven, Georgetown, St. Charles, Bennington, Dingle, Pergram and Garden City and Laketown. Rich was born in 1809 in Kentucky, to Joseph Rich and Nancy O'Neal; as an adult he reached six feet, 4 inches in height, was considered a tall man for the time period. Rich was baptized into the early Latter Day Saint church by George M. Hinkle in 1832, after having been taught by Lyman Wight in 1831. In 1838, Rich married Sarah D. Pea, whom he had proposed to by letter, the two never having met.
Rich followed the church's principle of plural marriage, taking six wives and fathering a total of 51 children. In 1863, Rich led a party of early Mormons to colonize parts of southeastern Idaho, which at the time was thought to be part of Utah Territory; the communities of Paris and Geneva, Idaho, as well as some other neighboring towns, were under his direction. Rich died in Paris in 1883 after suffering several debilitating strokes, his daughter, Ada May Rich, became the mother of Laraine Day. Rich was a leader in Caldwell County and fought in the Battle of Crooked River in 1838, his log house is the only structure from the Mormon period in 1836–38 in Caldwell County to have survived to this day. After the expulsion of the Latter Day Saints from Missouri, Rich settled in Nauvoo, where he was made an original member of the Council of Fifty, he served as a member of the Nauvoo High Council, as a brigadier and major general in the Nauvoo Legion. After the death of Joseph Smith, Rich followed the leadership of Brigham Young and the surviving Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.
He and his family migrated to what became Utah with the main body of the church in 1847, leading a pioneer company that arrived October of that year. When Young and the other apostles returned that winter to Winter Quarters, Rich served as a counselor to John Smith, who presided over the early pioneers in the Salt Lake Valley. In October 1848, Rich was made the president of the Salt Lake Stake. Brigham Young appointed Rich a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles on February 12, 1849. Rich helped form a Latter-day Saint settlement in California. However, this settlement attracted many people who wanted to avoid Young and other leaders of the LDS Church; the members who supported Young were asked to return to Utah in 1857 at the time of the Utah War. At the request of President Brigham Young, Charles C. Rich settled the Bear Lake region and is the namesake of Rich County, Utah and St. Charles, ID. In the early 1860s, Rich served as president of the British Mission of the church. "Privileges Better Appreciated By Absence—Present Salvation," Journal of Discourses, vol.
4, pp. 353–54 "Sufficiency of the Gospel—Obedience to Truth," Journal of Discourses, vol. 5, pp. 296–300 "Present Opportunities of Obtaining a Knowledge of the Principles of Truth—Importance of Improving Them," Journal of Discourses, vol. 10, pp. 90–95 "Building the Temple—General Duties of the Saints," Journal of Discourses, vol. 10, pp. 160–63 "Labor To Build Up The Kingdom," Journal of Discourses, vol. 12, pp. 3 -- 5 "Saints Should Be Whole-Hearted -- Seek. 19, pp. 26–30 "Expectations Deferred," Journal of Discourses, vol. 19, pp. 161–68 "Blessing the Result of Obedience to Law—Our Agency in the Flesh," Journal of Discourses, vol. 19, pp. 249–58 "No Salvation in Ignorance," Journal of Discourses, vol. 19, pp. 371–76 2005 Deseret Morning News Church Almanac. Leonard J. Arrington, Charles C. Rich: Mormon General & Western Frontiersman John Henry Evans, Charles Coulson Rich: Pioneer Builder of the West Media related to Charles C. Rich at Wikimedia Commons Charles C. Rich at Find a Grave Rich's house in Caldwell County, Missouri is preserved by the Far West Cultural Center Grandpa Bill's G.
A. Pages: Charles C. Rich
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá was the first Franciscan mission in The Californias, a province of New Spain. Located in present-day San Diego, California, it was founded on July 16, 1769, by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay people; the mission and the surrounding area were named for the Catholic Didacus of Alcalá, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. The mission was the site of the first Christian burial in Alta California. San Diego is generally regarded as the site of the region's first public execution, in 1778. Father Luis Jayme, California's first Christian martyr, lies entombed beneath the chancel floor; the current church, built in the early 19th century, is the fifth to stand on this location. The mission site is a National Historic Landmark; the former Spanish settlement at the Kumeyaay Nipawai lies within that area occupied during the late Paleoindian period and continuing on into the present day by the Native society known as the Diegueño. Much is known about the native inhabitants in recent centuries, thanks in part to the efforts of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who explored the coast in the service of Spain.
He documented his observations of life in the coastal villages he encountered along the Southern California coast in October 1542. Cabrillo was the first European to set foot in what is now the state of California and the first to encounter San Diego Bay. On the evening of September 28, 1542, the ships San Salvador and Victoria sailed into the harbor, whereupon Cabrillo christened it "San Miguel." During that expedition a landing party went ashore and interacted with a small group of natives. Some sixty years another Spanish explorer, Sebastián Vizcaíno, made landfall some ten miles from the present Mission site. Under Vizcaíno's command the San Diego, Santo Tomás, frigate Tres Reyes dropped anchor on November 10, 1602, the port was renamed "San Diego de Alcalá." It would be another 167 years. Since the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert the pagans in Nueva España to Roman Catholicism to save souls and to facilitate colonization of these lands.
However, it was not until 1741—the time of the Vitus Bering expedition, when the territorial ambitions of Tsarist Russia towards North America became known—that King Philip V felt such installations were necessary in Upper California. In 1769, Visitador General José de Gálvez sent the expedition of Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolà to found missions and presidios at San Diego and Monterey, thereby securing Spain's claim to the Pacific Coast harbors recommended by Cabrillo and Vizcaino. Two groups traveled from Lower California on foot, while a pair of packet ships traveled up the coast from the Baja California Peninsula. On August 9, 1834, Governor Figueroa issued his "Decree of Confiscation." The missions were offered for sale to citizens, who were unable to come up with the price, so all mission property was broken up into ranchos and given to ex-military officers who had fought in the War of Independence against Spain. On June 8, 1846, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was given to Santiago Argüello by Governor Pío Pico "...for services rendered to the government."
After the United States annexed California, the Mission was used by the military from 1846 to 1862. President Abraham Lincoln signed a proclamation on May 23, 1862, that restored ownership of the Mission proper to the Roman Catholic Church; when Mission San Diego de Alcalá was granted back to the Church, it was in ruins. In the 1880s Father Anthony Ubach began to restore the old Mission buildings. Father Ubach died in 1907 and restoration work ceased until 1931. In 1941, the Mission once again became a parish church, in what is still an active parish serving the Diocese of San Diego. In 1976, Pope Paul VI designated the Mission church as a minor basilica. Mission San Diego de Alcalá is located within San Diego city limits, near the intersection of Interstate 8 and Interstate 15, one mile east of SDCCU Stadium; the parish is funded by a gift shop, self-guided tours of the grounds and buildings are available to the public for a small donation. California Historical Landmark #242 California Historical Landmark #784 – El Camino Real City of San Diego Historic Designation #113 The goal of the missions was, above all, to become self-sufficient in short order.
Farming, was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the establishment of the missions, the native peoples knew how to utilize bone, seashells and wood for building, tool making and much more; the missionaries discovered that the Indians, who regarded labor as degrading to men, had to be taught industry in order to learn how to be self-supportive. The result was the establishment of a manual training school that comprised agriculture, the mechanical arts, the raising and care of livestock. Everything consumed and otherwise utilized by the natives was produced at the missions under the supervision of the padres. Wheat, wine grapes, beans, cattle and sheep were the major crops at San Diego. In 1795, construction on a system of aqueducts was begun to bring water to the fields and the Mission; the building manager was Fray Pedro Panto, poisoned by his Indian cook Nazario before the project was completed. In his testimony, in t
A gristmill grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings. The term can refer to the building that holds it; the Greek geographer Strabo reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC. The early mills had horizontal paddle wheels, an arrangement which became known as the "Norse wheel", as many were found in Scandinavia; the paddle wheel was attached to a shaft which was, in turn, attached to the centre of the millstone called the "runner stone". The turning force produced by the water on the paddles was transferred directly to the runner stone, causing it to grind against a stationary "bed", a stone of a similar size and shape; this simple arrangement required no gears, but had the disadvantage that the speed of rotation of the stone was dependent on the volume and flow of water available and was, only suitable for use in mountainous regions with fast-flowing streams. This dependence on the volume and speed of flow of the water meant that the speed of rotation of the stone was variable and the optimum grinding speed could not always be maintained.
Vertical wheels were in use in the Roman Empire by the end of the first century BC, these were described by Vitruvius. The peak of Roman technology is the Barbegal aqueduct and mill where water with a 19-metre fall drove sixteen water wheels, giving a grinding capacity estimated at 2.4 to 3.2 tonnes per hour. Water mills seem to have remained in use during the post-Roman period, by 1000 AD, mills in Europe were more than a few miles apart. In England, the Domesday survey of 1086 gives a precise count of England's water-powered flour mills: there were 5,624, or about one for every 300 inhabitants, this was typical throughout western and southern Europe. From this time onward, water wheels began to be used for purposes other than grist milling. In England, the number of mills in operation followed population growth, peaked at around 17,000 by 1300. Limited extant examples of gristmills can be found in Europe from the High Middle Ages. An extant well-preserved waterwheel and gristmill on the Ebro River in Spain is associated with the Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda, built by the Cistercian monks in 1202.
The Cistercians were known for their use of this technology in Western Europe in the period 1100 to 1350. Geared gristmills were built in the medieval Near East and North Africa, which were used for grinding grain and other seeds to produce meals. Gristmills in the Islamic world were powered by both wind; the first wind-powered gristmills were built in the 9th and 10th centuries in what are now Afghanistan and Iran. Although the terms "gristmill" or "corn mill" can refer to any mill that grinds grain, the terms were used for a local mill where farmers brought their own grain and received back ground meal or flour, minus a percentage called the "miller's toll." Early mills were always built and supported by farming communities and the miller received the "miller's toll" in lieu of wages. Most towns and villages had their own mill so that local farmers could transport their grain there to be milled; these communities were dependent on their local mill. Classical mill designs are water-powered, though some are powered by the wind or by livestock.
In a watermill a sluice gate is opened to allow water to flow onto, or under, a water wheel to make it turn. In most watermills the water wheel was mounted vertically, i.e. edge-on, in the water, but in some cases horizontally. Designs incorporated horizontal steel or cast iron turbines and these were sometimes refitted into the old wheel mills. In most wheel-driven mills, a large gear-wheel called the pit wheel is mounted on the same axle as the water wheel and this drives a smaller gear-wheel, the wallower, on a main driveshaft running vertically from the bottom to the top of the building; this system of gearing ensures that the main shaft turns faster than the water wheel, which rotates at around 10 rpm. The millstones themselves turn at around 120 rpm, they are laid one on top of the other. The bottom stone, called the bed, is fixed to the floor, while the top stone, the runner, is mounted on a separate spindle, driven by the main shaft. A wheel called the stone nut connects the runner's spindle to the main shaft, this can be moved out of the way to disconnect the stone and stop it turning, leaving the main shaft turning to drive other machinery.
This might include driving a mechanical sieve to refine the flour, or turning a wooden drum to wind up a chain used to hoist sacks of grain to the top of the mill house. The distance between the stones can be varied to produce the grade of flour required; the grain is lifted in sacks onto the sack floor at the top of the mill on the hoist. The sacks are emptied into bins, where the grain falls down through a hopper to the millstones on the stone floor below; the flow of grain is regulated by shaking it in a sloping trough from which it falls into a hole in the center of the runner stone. The milled grain is collected as it emerges through the grooves in the runner stone from the outer rim of the stones and is fed down a chute to be collected in sacks on the ground or meal floor. A similar process is used for grains such as wheat to make flour, for maize to make corn meal. In order to prevent the vibrations of the mill machinery from shaking the building apart, a gristmill will have at least two separate foundations.
Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo
Mission San Carlos Borromeo del río Carmelo or Misión de San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, first built in 1797, is one of the most authentically restored Roman Catholic mission churches in California. Located in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, it is on the National Register of Historic Places and is a National Historic Landmark; the mission was the headquarters of all Alta California missions from 1797 until 1833. It was headed by Saint Junípero Serra from 1770 until his death in 1784, it was the seat of the second presidente, Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, in charge of completing nine more mission churches. The mission buildings and lands were secularized by the Mexican government in 1833, they fell into disrepair by the mid-19th century. The chapel was saved from total destruction when the roof was rebuilt in 1884. In 1886, ownership of the mission was transferred from a group of Franciscans to the Diocese of Monterey; the mission has been a parish within that diocese since. Beginning in 1931, Harry Downie began restoring the mission and worked continuously on the project for the next 50 years.
It is the only Spanish mission in California that has its original bell tower. Mission Carmel, was the second mission built by Franciscan missionaries in Upper California, it was first established as Mission San Carlos Borromeo in Monterey, California near the native village of Tamo on June 3, 1770. It was named for Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan and was the site of the first Christian confirmation in Alta California; when the mission moved, the original building continued to operate as the Royal Presidio chapel and became the current Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo. Pedro Fages, who served as military governor of Alta California from 1770 to 1774, kept his headquarters in the polity's capitol, at the Presidio of Monterey. Fages worked his men harshly and was seen as a tyrant. Serra intervened on behalf of Fages' soldiers, the two men did not get along. Fages regarded the Spanish installations in California as military institutions first, religious outposts second; the soldiers kept them as concubines.
Serra wanted to put Fages' soldiers. Serra found. In May 1771, Spain's viceroy approved Serra's petition to relocate the mission; the mission was established in the new location on August 1, 1771. The name of the relocated mission was extended to Mission San Carlos Borromeo del Río Carmelo, it was within a short distance of the Rumsen Ohlone villages of Achasta. The latter village may have been founded; the mission was about 10 miles from Excelen. "Mission Carmel", as it came to be known, was Serra's favorite and, because it was close to Monterey, the capital of Alta California, he chose it as his headquarters. When he died on August 28, 1784, he was interred beneath the chapel floor. After Serra's death, Father Fermin Lasuén replaced the adobe structure with one made of stone quarried from the nearby Santa Lucia Mountains. After the Carmel mission was moved to the mouth of Carmel Valley, the Franciscans began to baptize some natives. By the end of 1771, the population of mission was 15 with an additional 22 baptized Indians, out of the total population of northern California of 60.
Farming was not productive and for several years the mission was dependent upon the arrival of supply ships. Historian Jame Culleton wrote in 1950, "The summer of'73 came without bringing the supply ship. Neither Carmel nor Monterey was anything like self-supporting."To improve baptismal rates, they sought to convert key members of the Esselen and Rumsen tribes, including chiefs. On May 9, 1775, Junípero Serra baptized what appears to be the first Esselen, Pach-hepas, the 40-year-old chief of the Excelen, he was near death and was baptized in his home village at Xasáuan, about 10 leagues southeast of the mission, in an area now named Cachagua, a close approximation of the Esselen name. The Esselen and Ohlone Indians who lived near the mission were baptized and forcibly relocated and conscripted as forced laborers. About 900 Esselen were baptized and brought to the three missions at Carmel and San Antonio that surrounding their native land. There was extensive "comingling of the Costanoan with peoples of different linguistic and cultural background during the mission period."
The neophytes were taught to be farmers, cowboys, carpenters, furniture makers, tanners and candle makers. Disease, starvation and torture decimated these tribes; the number of natives who died at the missions were high. Deaths exceeded births and the population at Mission San Carlos peaked in 1795, when the population reached a total reported variously as either 876 or 927, but by 1823 the total had dwindled to 381. In the beginning, the mission relied on bear meat from Mission San Antonio de Padua and supplies brought by ship from Mission San Diego de Alcalá. In 1779, four years after the first Esselen baptism, the native Americans at Carmel Mission harvested 1660 bushels of wheat, 700 bushels of barley, 165 bushels of beans, 85 bushels of maize. Four years the native laborers produced enough crops to support 700 people; the mission had sheep. Carmel mission continued to grow during most of the 18th century. By 1800, agriculture production at Carmel Mission was near its peak; the Mission reported