Johannes Wilde CBE was a Hungarian art historian and teacher of art history. He became an Austrian, a British, citizen, he was a noted expert on the drawings of Michelangelo. Wilde was a pioneer of the use of X-rays as a tool for the study of both the creation and the state of conservation of paintings. From 1948 to 1958 he was deputy director of the Courtauld Institute of Art in London. Johannes Wilde was born János Wilde on 2 July 1891 in Hungary, he was the last of six children of his wife Rosa née Somlyaky. From 1909 to 1914 he studied art and archeology at the University of Budapest and from 1915 to 1917 studied for a doctorate under Max Dvořák at the University of Vienna, defending his thesis summa cum laude in July 1918, he returned to Budapest and was until 1922 an assistant to Simon Meller in the department of prints and drawings of the Museum of Fine Arts. In the brief period of the Hungarian Soviet Republic of Béla Kun in 1919, Wilde worked with Frederick Antal on the sequestration of owned works of art of national significance.
Max Dvořák died in February 1921, in 1922 Wilde moved permanently to Vienna in order to work with Carl Maria Swoboda on a collected edition of Dvořák's writings. This was published between 1924 and 1929, he became an Austrian citizen in 1928, on 6 February 1930 married the art historian Julia Gyárfás. From 1923 Wilde worked as an assistant Keeper, as a Keeper, at the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna, where he worked principally on Italian Renaissance paintings. Many of the paintings in the collections of the museum were in a poor state of conservation in the Hofburg, he researched and catalogued the Italian paintings, many of which were documented in David Teniers the Younger's Theatrum Pictorium, though with incorrect attributions. It was Wilde who discovered that the hitherto separate paintings by Antonello da Messina in the collection "St. Nicolas and a Female Saint", "The Virgin and Child Enthroned", "St. Dominic and St. Ursula", were all fragments of one altarpiece and he oversaw the reconconstruction of the San Cassiano Altarpiece in 1928.
By about 1928 Wilde and the restorer Sebastian Isepp were using X-radiation as a systematic aid to understanding both the physical condition of paintings and the artistic processes by which those paintings had been created. At first they made use of the facilities of the Röntgenologisches Institut of Vienna University, but in 1930 an X-ray laboratory was installed at the Kunsthistorisches Museum. While Wilde was not the first to use X-rays to examine pictures, this was the first such laboratory in Europe, he first published his findings on The Gypsy Madonna and The Three Philosophers' In the next eight years Wilde made more than 1000 X-ray photographs of works in the museum. He maintained a steady flow of scholarly publications. After the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria into the German Third Reich on 12 March 1938, Wilde's Hungarian Jewish wife Julia was at risk. With the help of friends including Count Antoine Seilern, the couple left Vienna for the Netherlands in April 1939 to visit an art exhibition.
Wilde soon went to Aberystwyth to work on Seilern's pictures, sent to the National Library of Wales for safety at the beginning of the Second World War. He worked on the pictures of the National Gallery, which were in the same building; the British Museum collection of Italian drawings was housed there and, through Arthur Ewart Popham, Wilde was asked in June 1940 by the Trustees of the museum to start work on cataloguing them too. In the same year, in what Kenneth Clark describes as a "revolting incident", Wilde was charged with signalling to enemy submarines, interned in a concentration camp, deported to another camp in Canada, where he survived; the publications of Johannes Wilde include: Max Dvořák. Studien zur abendländischen Kunstentwicklung. München: R. Piper, 1924 ———, Das Rätsel der Kunst der Brüder van Eyck: mit einem Anhang über die Anfänge der holländischen Malerei. München: R. Piper, 1925 ———, Geschichte der italienischen Kunst im Zeitalter der Renaissance akademische Vorlesungen.
München: R. Piper, 1927–28 ———, Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Kunstgeschichte. München: R. Piper, 1929 Arthur Ewart Popham and Johannes Wilde, The Italian Drawings of the XV and XVI Centuries... at Windsor Castle. London: Phaidon Press, 1949 Johannes Wilde, Italian drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum: Michelangelo and his studio. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1953 ——— and Arthur Ewart Popham, Italian drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum: Artists working in Parma in the sixteenth century. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1967 ——— Venetian art from Bellini to Titian. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974. ISBN 019817327X ———. Oxford studies in the history of architecture. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198173168
Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina, was an Italian painter from Messina, active during the Early Italian Renaissance. His work shows strong influences from Early Netherlandish painting although there is no documentary evidence that he travelled beyond Italy. Giorgio Vasari credited him with the introduction of oil painting into Italy. Unusually for a south Italian artist of the Renaissance, his work proved influential on painters in northern Italy in Venice. Antonello was born at Messina around 1429 -- 1431, to Giovanni de Antonio Mazonus. According to a letter written in 1524 by the Neapolitan humanist Pietro Summonte, in about 1450 he was a pupil of the painter Niccolò Colantonio at Naples, where Netherlandish painting was fashionable; this account of his training is accepted by most art historians. Antonello returned to Messina from Naples during the 1450s. In around 1455, he painted the so-called Sibiu Crucifixion, inspired by Flemish treatments of the subject, now in the Muzeul de Artǎ in Bucharest.
A Crucifixion in the Royal Museum of Antwerp dates from the same period. These early works shows a marked Flemish influence, now understood to be inspired by his master Colantonio and from paintings by Rogier van der Weyden and Jan van Eyck that belonged to Colantonio's patron, Alfonso V of Aragon. In his biography of the artist, Giorgio Vasari remarked that Antonello saw an oil painting by Jan Van Eyck belonging to King Alfonso V of Aragon at Naples and introduced oil painting to Italy.. Recent evidence indicates that an Antonello di Sicilia was in contact with Van Eyck's most accomplished follower, Petrus Christus, in Milan in early 1456, it appears that Antonello di Sicilia was in fact Antonello da Messina as this would explain why Messina was one of the first Italians to master Eyckian oil painting, Christus was the first Netherlandish painter to learn Italian linear perspective. Messina's paintings after that date show an observation of microscopic detail and of minute gradations of light on reflecting or light absorbent objects, close to the style of the Netherlandish masters, suggesting Messina had personal instruction from Christus.
As well, his works' calmer expressions on peoples' faces and calmness in the works' overall composition appears to be a Netherlandish influence. Between the years of 1456 and 1457, Antonello proved himself to be a master painter in Messina, he shared his home with Paolo di Ciacio, a student from Calabria. The artist's earliest documented commission, in 1457, was for a banner for the Confraternità di San Michele dei Gerbini in Reggio Calabria, where he set up a workshop for the production of such banners and devotional images. At this date, he was married, his son Jacobello had been born. In 1460, his father is mentioned leasing a brigantine to bring back Antonello and his family from Amantea in Calabria. In that year, Antonello painted the so-called Salting Madonna, in which standard iconography and Flemish style are combined with a greater attention in the volumetric proportions of the figures indicating a knowledge of works by Piero della Francesca. From around 1460 are two small panels depicting Abraham Served by the Angels and St. Jerome Penitent now in the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in Reggio Calabria.
In 1461 Antonello's younger brother Giordano entered his workshop. In that year Antonello painted a Madonna with Child for the Messinese nobleman Giovanni Mirulla, now lost. Historians believe, they follow a Netherlandish model, the subject being shown bust-length, against a dark background, full face or in three-quarter view, while most previous Italian painters had adopted the medal-style profile pose for individual portraits. John Pope-Hennessy described him as "the first Italian painter for whom the individual portrait was an art form in its own right". Although Antonello is mentioned in many documents between 1460 and 1465, establishing his presence in Messina in those years, a gap in the sources between 1465 and 1471 suggests that he may have spent these years on the mainland. In 1474, he painted the Annunciation, now in Syracuse, the St. Jerome in His Study dates from around this time. Antonello went to Venice in 1475 and remained there until the fall of 1476, his works of this period begin to show a greater attention to the human figure, regarding both anatomy and expressivity, indicating the influence of Piero della Francesca and Giovanni Bellini.
His most famous pictures from this period include the Condottiero, the San Cassiano Altarpiece and the St. Sebastian; the San Cassiano Altarpiece was influential on Venetian painters, as it was one of the first of the large compositions in the sacra conversazione format, perfected by Giovanni Bellini. It is likely that Antonello passed on both the techniques of using oil paints and the principles of calmness on subjects' faces and in the composition of paintings to Giovanni Bellini and other Venetian painters during that visit. While in Venice he was offered, but did not accept, the opportunity to become the court portrait painter to the Duke of Milan. Antonello had returned to Sicily by September 1476. Works from near the end of his life include the famous Virgin Annunciate, now in the Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo, the San Gregorio Polyptych, he died at Messina in 1479. His testament dates from February of that year, he
Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion and resurrection. She is mentioned by name twelve times in the canonical gospels, more than most of the apostles. Mary's epithet Magdalene most means that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee; the Gospel of Luke 8:2–3 lists Mary as one of the women who traveled with Jesus and helped support his ministry "out of their resources", indicating that she was relatively wealthy. The same passage states that seven demons had been driven out of her, a statement, repeated in the longer ending of Mark. In all four canonical gospels, she is a witness to the crucifixion of Jesus and, in the Synoptic Gospels, she is present at his burial. All four gospels identify her, either alone or as a member of a larger group of women, as the first witness to the empty tomb, the first to testify to Jesus's resurrection.
For these reasons, she is known in many Christian traditions as the "apostle to the apostles". Mary is a central figure in apocryphal Gnostic Christian writings, including the Dialogue of the Savior, the Pistis Sophia, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, the Gospel of Mary; these texts, which scholars do not regard as containing accurate historical information, portray her as Jesus's closest disciple and the only one who understood his teachings. In the Gnostic gospels, Mary Magdalene's closeness to Jesus results in tension with the other disciples Simon Peter. During the Middle Ages, Mary Magdalene was conflated in western tradition with Mary of Bethany and the unnamed "sinful woman" who anoints Jesus's feet in Luke 7:36–50, resulting in a widespread but inaccurate belief that she was a repentant prostitute or promiscuous woman. Elaborate medieval legends from western Europe tell exaggerated tales of Mary Magdalene's wealth and beauty, as well as her alleged journey to southern France.
The identification of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the unnamed "sinful woman" was a major controversy in the years leading up to the Reformation and some Protestant leaders rejected it. During the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church used Mary Magdalene as a symbol of penance. In 1969, the identification of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the "sinful woman" was removed from the General Roman Calendar, but the view of her as a former prostitute has persisted in popular culture. Mary Magdalene is considered to be a saint by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran churches—with a feast day of July 22. Other Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith; the Eastern Orthodox churches commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of one of the Western Three Marys traditions. Speculations that Mary Magdalene was Jesus's wife or that she had a sexual relationship with him are regarded by most historians as dubious, it is accepted among secular historians that, like Jesus, Mary Magdalene was a real historical figure.
Nonetheless little is known about her life. Unlike Paul the Apostle, Mary Magdalene has left behind no writings of her own, nor were any works forged under her name, as was common for the other disciples, she is never mentioned in any of the general epistles. The earliest and most reliable sources about her life are the three Synoptic Gospels of Mark and Luke, which were all written during the first century AD. Mary Magdalene's epithet Magdalene most means that she came from Magdala, a village on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, known in antiquity as a fishing town. Mary was, by far, the most common Jewish given name for females during the first century, so it was necessary for the authors of the gospels to call her Magdalene in order to distinguish her from the other women named Mary who followed Jesus. Although the Gospel of Mark, the earliest surviving gospel, does not mention Mary Magdalene until Jesus's crucifixion, the Gospel of Luke 8:2–3 provides a brief summary of her role during his ministry: Soon afterwards he went on through cities and villages and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God.
The twelve were with him, as well as some women, cured of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, Joanna, the wife of Herod's steward Chuza, Susanna, many others, who provided for them out of their resources. The statement that Mary had been possessed by seven demons is repeated in Mark 16:9, part of the "longer ending" of that gospel – this is not found in the earliest manuscripts, is a second-century addition to the original text based on the Gospel of Luke. In the first century, demons were believed to be the cause of physical and psychological illness. Bruce Chilton, a scholar of early Christianity, states that the reference to the number of demons being "seven" may mean that Mary had to undergo seven exorcisms over a long period of time, due to the first six being or wholly unsuccessful. Bart D. Ehrman, a New Testament scholar and historian of early Christianity, contends that the number seven may be symbolic, since, in Jewish tradition, seven was the number of completion, so the statement that Mary was possessed by seven demons may mean she was overwhelmed by their power.
In either case, Mary must have suffered from severe emotional or psychological trauma in order for an exorcism of this kind to have been perceived as necessary. Her devotion to Jesus on account of t
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria. Housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, it is crowned with an octagonal dome; the term Kunsthistorisches Museum applies to the main building. It is the largest art museum in the country, it was opened around 1891 at the same time as the Natural History Museum, Vienna, by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary. The two museums face each other across Maria-Theresien-Platz. Both buildings were built between 1871 and 1891 according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer; the two Ringstraße museums were commissioned by the emperor in order to find a suitable shelter for the Habsburgs' formidable art collection and to make it accessible to the general public. The façade was built of sandstone; the building is rectangular in shape, topped with a dome, 60 meters high. The inside of the building is lavishly decorated with marble, stucco ornamentations, gold-leaf, paintings; the museum's primary collections are those of the Habsburgs from the portrait and armour collections of Ferdinand of Tirol, the collections of Emperor Rudolph II, the collection of paintings of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, of which his Italian paintings were first documented in the Theatrum Pictorium.
Notable works in the picture gallery include: Jan van Eyck: Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati Antonello da Messina: San Cassiano Altarpiece Raphael: Madonna of the Meadow St Margaret and the Dragon Albrecht Dürer: Avarice Adoration of the Trinity Titian: The Bravo Portrait of Isabella d'Este Lorenzo Lotto: Madonna and Child with Saint Catherine and Saint James Tintoretto: Susanna and the Elders Pieter Brueghel the Elder: The Fight Between Carnival and Lent Children's Games The Tower of Babel The Procession to Calvary The Gloomy Day The Return of the Herd The Hunters in the Snow The Peasant and the Nest Robber, 1568 The Peasant Wedding The Peasant Dance Giuseppe Arcimboldo: The Four Seasons Summer Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: The Crowning with Thorns Madonna of the Rosary David with the Head of Goliath Peter Paul Rubens: Miracles of St. Francis Xavier Angelica and the Hermit Ildefonso Altarpiece Self-Portrait The Fur Rembrandt: Self Portrait Johannes Vermeer: The Art of Painting Diego Velázquez: Several portraits of the Spanish royal family, a branch of the Habsburg, sent to Vienna.
Thomas Gainsborough: Landscape in Suffolk The collections of the Kunsthistorisches Museum: Egyptian and Near Eastern Collection Collection of Greek and Roman Antiquities Collection of Sculpture and Decorative Arts Coin Cabinet Library Ephesus Museum Collection of Ancient Musical Instruments Collection of Arms and Armour Archive Secular and Ecclesiastical Treasury Museum of Carriages and Department of Court Uniforms Collections of Ambras Castle the Austrian Theatre Museum in Palais LobkowitzAlso affiliated are the: Museum of Ethnology in the Neue Burg. It was featured in an episode of Museum Secrets on the History Channel, it had been the biggest art theft in Austrian history. The museum is the subject of Johannes Holzhausen's documentary film The Great Museum, filmed over two years in the run up to the re-opening of the newly renovated and expanded Kunstkammer rooms in 2013. Imperial Treasury, Vienna List of largest art museums Media related to Kunsthistorisches Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Photoartkalmar.com: Spherical panorama of entrance Flickr.com: Hofburg's Armory photo gallery
Themes in Italian Renaissance painting
This article about the development of themes in Italian Renaissance painting is an extension to the article Italian Renaissance painting, for which it provides additional pictures with commentary. The works encompassed are from Giotto in the early 14th century to Michelangelo's Last Judgement of the 1530s; the themes that preoccupied painters of the Italian Renaissance were those of both subject matter and execution- what was painted and the style in which it was painted. The artist had far more freedom of both style than did a Medieval painter. Certain characteristic elements of Renaissance painting evolved a great deal during the period; these include perspective, both in terms of how it was achieved and the effect to which it was applied, realism in the depiction of humanity, either as symbolic, portrait or narrative element. The Flagellation of Christ by Piero della Francesca demonstrates in a single small work many of the themes of Italian Renaissance painting, both in terms of compositional elements and subject matter.
Apparent is Piero's mastery of perspective and light. The architectural elements, including the tiled floor which becomes more complex around the central action, combine to create two spaces; the inner space is lit by an unseen light source. Its exact location can be pinpointed mathematically by an analysis of the diffusion and the angle of the shadows on the coffered ceiling; the three figures who are standing outside are lit from a different angle, from both daylight and light reflected from the pavement and buildings. The religious theme is tied to the present; the ruler is a portrait of the visiting Emperor of Byzantium. Flagellation is called "scourging"; the term "scourge" was applied to the plague. Outside stand three men representing those who buried the body of Christ; the two older and Joseph of Arimathaea, are believed to be portraits of men who lost their sons, one of them to plague. The third man is the young disciple John, is a portrait of one of the sons, or else represents both of them in a single idealised figure, coinciding with the manner in which Piero painted angels.
Renaissance painting differed from the painting of the Late Medieval period in its emphasis upon the close observation of nature with regards to human anatomy, the application of scientific principles to the use of perspective and light. The pictures in the gallery below show the development of linear perspective in buildings and cityscapes. In Giotto's fresco, the building is like a stage set with one side open to the viewer. In Paolo Uccello's fresco, the townscape gives an impression of depth. Masaccio's Holy Trinity was painted with calculated mathematical proportions, in which he was assisted by the architect Brunelleschi. Fra Angelico uses the simple motif of a small loggia drafted to create an intimate space. Gentile Bellini has painted a vast space, the Piazza San Marco in Venice, in which the receding figures add to the sense of perspective. Leonardo da Vinci did detailed and measured drawings of the background Classical ruins preparatory to commencing the unfinished Adoration of the Magi.
Domenico Ghirlandaio created an exceptionally complex and expansive setting on three levels, including a steeply descending ramp and a jutting wall. Elements of the landscape, such as the church on the right, are viewed through other structures. Raphael's design for Fire in the Borgo shows buildings around a small square in which the background events are highlighted by the perspective; the depiction of landscape was encouraged by the development of linear perspective and the inclusion of detailed landscapes in the background of many Early Netherlandish paintings of the 15th century. Through this influence came an awareness of atmospheric perspective and the observation of the way distant things are affected by light. Giotto uses a few rocks to give the impression of a mountain setting. Paolo Uccello has created a surreal setting as a stage for many small scenes. In Carpaccio's Deposition of the Body of Christ, the desolate rocky landscape echoes the tragedy of the scene. Mantegna's landscape has a sculptural, three-dimensional quality, suggestive of a real physical space.
The details of the rocks, their strata and fractures, suggest that he studied the geological formations of the red limestone prevalent in areas of Northern Italy. Antonello da Messina sets the grim scene of the Crucifixion in contrast to the placid countryside which rolls into the far distance, becoming paler and bluer as it recedes. Giovanni Bellini has created a detailed landscape with a pastoral scene between the foreground and background mountains. There are numerous levels in this landscape, making it the equivalent of Ghirlandaio's complex cityscape. Perugino has set the Adoration of the Magi against the familiar hilly landscape of Umbria. Leonardo da Vinci, displays a theatrical use of atmospheric perspective in his view of the precipitous mountains around Lago di Garda at the foothills of the Alps in Northern Italy. Light and shade exist in a painting in two forms. Tone is the lightness and darkness of areas of a picture, graded from white to black. Tonal arrangement is a significant feature of some paintings.
Chiaroscuro is the modelling of apparent surfaces within a picture by the suggestion of light and shadow. While tone was an important feature of paintings of the Medieval period, chiaroscuro was not, it became important to painters of the 15th century, transforming the depiction of three-dimensional space. Taddeo Gaddi's Annunciation to the Shepherds is the first known large painting of a night scene; the internal light source of the picture is the angel. In Fra Angelico's painting, dayli
Theatrum Pictorium, or Theatre of Painting, is a short-hand name of a book published in the 1660s by David Teniers the Younger for his employer, the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria. It was a catalog of 243 Italian paintings in the Archduke's collection of over 1300 paintings, with engravings of the paintings taken from small models that Teniers had prepared. A second edition with page numbers was published in 1673. During the years 1646-1656 Leopold Wilhelm was governor of the Netherlands and formed one of the greatest art collections of his age. Teniers became its curator after the death of his predecessor Jan van den Hoecke in 1651. Leopold Wilhelm's collection came to hold works by Hans Holbein the Elder, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Jan van Eyck, Giorgione, Paolo Veronese and more than 15 works by Titian. Teniers made a list of the painters in the collection as part of the forward to his 1673 catalog: This list is an important document that reflects the contemporary taste in paintings in Brussels at that time.
Of all the painters, the names Magdalena Woutiers and Madonna Fitta de Milano are the only women whose work is documented as being in the Archduke's collection. No matter how illustrious the name however, only works by the better known Italian painters were chosen to be engraved for illustrations. At the end of his governorship, the Archduke and his collection moved to the Stallburg; this archducal collection now forms the heart of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Before moving to Vienna in 1659, Archduke Leopold Wilhelm formed his art collection in Brussels, where David Teniers the Younger painted views of the most prized possessions of his Brussels gallery, he painted several of these in various compositions which are now spread among various collections: Teniers employed a team of 12 engravers for reproducing the 243 paintings in the Theatrum. He produced small copies in oil of each of the chosen paintings, issuing these as models to his engravers and 120 of which were auctioned by the estate of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough in 1886.
Teniers’ painted copies measuring 17 x 25 cm are now spread among various collections. The Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery holds 14 of these works, the largest group in any public collection. Of the 12 engravers, the five who contributed most were Jan van Troyen with 56, Lucas Vorsterman the Younger with 52, Pieter van Lisebetten 40, Theodoor van Kessel 27, Coryn or Quirin Boel 25. Johannes Popels contributed five engravings; the works listed in the book that survive are in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, while the modelli or small models for the engravings have been lost or are in other collections. The engravings and the modelli were inscribed with the dimensions of the original paintings, though their characteristics were adjusted to take advantage of the maximum illustration possibilities of the album page size; the dimensions were in the form "4 alta 3 lata", which means 4 palm-widths high and 3 palm-widths wide, such as the case with the engraving after Bassano's Boy with a Flute: Complete set of images from the 1660s version with associated metadata listing titles, original artist names, page numbers, engravers in the Slovak National Gallery Copy of the 1673 book in the Getty Research Institute on archive.org Le Grand Cabinet Des Tableaux De L'Archi-Duc Leopold-Guillaume &c. &c. &c. record for a version published in Amsterdam and Leipzig by Arkstée & Merkus, 1755 Information about an exhibition about this book called David Teniers’s Theatrum Pictorium and the John G. Johnson Collection, June 12, 2010 - January 2011, at the Philadelphia Museum of Art