Lopez Adobe, located at 1100 Pico Street in San Fernando, California, is one of the two oldest private residences in the San Fernando Valley. Built by early settlers of the San Fernando Valley a short distance from the San Fernando Mission, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971; the Grand-Reopening of the property occurred on March 22, 2015 and is now open for public tours once every 4th Sunday of the month from 12-4 P. M. Geronimo Lopez had served as an army messenger in 1847 for Andrés Pico during the Mexican–American War, delivering the Articles of Capitulation to General John C. Fremont, that ended the war in southern Alta California. Catalina Lopez had grown up at the Mission San Fernando Rey de España, where her father once served as major-domo. Geronimo and Catalina Lopez purchased 40 acres of land near the Mission San Fernando in 1861 and built an adobe home along the Butterfield Overland Mail 1st Division, on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road wagon route that connected Los Angeles and San Francisco.
The original adobe became known as Lopez Station. The couple operated the San Fernando Valley's first general store, its first English language school, the first post office at the site. One account of the early days of the San Fernando Valley noted the significance of the Lopez family: In the late 1860s and early 1870s a traveler riding through the high wild mustard fields of the San Fernando Valley would find little evidence of people except for the mission, a few other adobes, cattle grazing in the fields and a stage house built by Geronimo Lopez and his wife, Catalina.... The Lopez family played an important role in the valley's development and were responsible for establishing the first post office and the first English-speaking school; the original Lopez Station adobe was destroyed in the 1910s for the construction of the San Fernando Reservoir, part of the new Los Angeles Aqueduct system. After the 1971 San Fernando earthquake the foundation was again exposed in the reservoir basin, it was covered by the vehicle track when the Los Angeles Police Department built the Davis Training Center in the late 1990s.
Between 1882 and 1883, the Lopez family built a larger adobe using sun-baked blocks. The surviving adobe home was built by Geronimo's cousin and brother-in-law, it was the first two-story adobe built as a residence in the San Fernando Valley. It is considered the City of San Fernando's oldest standing building, it has been recognized for its blend of Victorian architectural styles. Catalina Lopez designed the residence's Victorian features; the first local newspaper, the San Fernando Times, was printed in April 1889 from the Lopez Adobe. Catalina Lopez died in 1918, Geronimo Lopez died in 1921, at age 90. In 1928, several modifications were made to the house by one of the Lopez daughters, Louisa Lopez McAlonan; the balcony staircase was changed, some rooms were divided to form apartments. Modern plumbing and electrical fixtures were added at the time; the original shake shingle roof was replaced by clay-tile roof. Members of the Lopez family continued living in the adobe until 1961; the last Lopez to live in the adobe was another daughter, Kate Lopez Millen, who lived in an upper apartment from 1931 until shortly before her death in 1961.
The property remained in the Lopez family until 1971. The City of San Fernando announced plans to purchase the property from the Lopez family in 1970, but took more than a year to come up with the $70,000 purchase price. Plans to obtain a HUD grant fell through, in early 1971, the owners imposed a deadline on the purchase, indicated the building would be razed and the land cleared; when the adobe was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in May 1971, HUD agreed to provide a $40,000 historical preservation grant, the purchase was completed in late 1971. The building was restored between 1974 and 1975 and opened as a historical site in 1975; the adobe is operated by the San Fernando Historical Preservation Commission. Funding difficulties hampered the city's plans to renovate the property and to operate it as a full-time museum and tourist attraction; the adobe was operated by volunteers, was open only three days a week. That was reduced to one Sunday per month. In 1983, the adobe's volunteer curator, Carolyn Riggs, noted: "Unfortunately, the city is so small that it can support its school and police systems.
There's just no money to support it except for what we have scraped together."In 1982, more than 100 descendants of the Lopez family gathered at the adobe to celebrate its 100th anniversary. Geronimo and Catalina Lopez had thirteen children. Though the City of San Fernando is the oldest town in the San Fernando Valley, the Lopez Adobe is all that remains of its early years; the authors of An Architectural Guidebook to Los Angeles observed: "The one remaining shred of the Victorian period is the Geronimo Lopez Adobe at the northwest corner of Pico Street and Maclay Avenue. It is two-story Monterey style with some pretty Queen Anne sawed gingerbread across the gallery. Otherwise, all signs of the old town have disappeared, except for the railroad." In the book, Historic Adobes of Los Angeles County, the author makes note of the woodwork along the balconies: "One of the striking features of the house is that the upper and lower stories have verandas with hand cut wooden railings and a jigsaw pattern balustrade, painted in a turquoise blue.
This beautiful house is furnished to reflect the period between 1883 and 1910."The J. Paul Getty Trust gave a "Preserve L. A." grant to the adobe in 2002, described the stru
Antelope Valley is located in northern Los Angeles County and the southeast portion of Kern County and constitutes the western tip of the Mojave Desert. It is situated between the San Gabriel Mountains; the valley was named for the pronghorns that roamed there until they were all but eliminated in the 1880s by hunting, or resettled in other areas. The principal cities in the Antelope Valley are Lancaster; the Antelope Valley comprises the western tip of the Mojave Desert, opening up to the Victor Valley and the Great Basin to the east. Lying north of the San Gabriel Mountains and southeast of the Tehachapis, this desert ecosystem spans 2,200 square miles. Precipitation in the surrounding mountain ranges contributes to groundwater recharge; the Antelope Valley is home to a wide range of animals. This includes hundreds of plants such as the California Juniper, Joshua tree, California Scrub Oak and wildflowers, notably the California poppy. Winter brings much-needed rain which penetrates the area's dry ground, bringing up native grasses and wildflowers.
Poppy season depends on the precipitation, but a good bloom can be killed off by the unusual weather in the late winter and early spring months. The Antelope Valley gets its name from its history of pronghorn grazing in large numbers. In 1882-85, the valley lost 30,000 head of antelope half of the species for which it was named. Unusually heavy snows in both the mountains and the valley floor drove the antelope toward their normal feeding grounds in the eastern part of the valley. Since they would not cross the railroad tracks, many of them starved to death; the remainder of these pronghorn were hunted for their fur by settlers. Once abundant, they migrated into the Central Valley. A drought in the early 1900s caused a scarcity in their main food source. Now the sighting of a pronghorn is rare, although there are still a small number in the western portion of the valley. Human water use in the Antelope Valley depends on pumping of groundwater from the valley's aquifers and on importing additional water from the California Aqueduct.
Long-term groundwater pumping has lowered the water table, thereby increasing pumping lifts, reducing well efficiency, causing land subsidence. While aqueducts supply additional water that meets increasing human demand for agricultural and domestic uses, diversion of water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California has caused and causes adverse environmental and social effects in the delta: "Over decades, competing uses for water supply and habitat have jeopardized the Delta’s ability to meet either need. All stakeholders agree the estuary is in trouble and requires long-term solutions to ensure reliable, quality water supplies and a healthy ecosystem." The Antelope Valley's population growth and development place considerable stress on the local and regional water systems. According to David Leighton of the United States Geological Survey: "A deliberate management effort will be required to meet future water demand in the Antelope Valley without incurring significant economic and environmental costs associated with overuse of the ground-water resource."
The first peoples of the Antelope Valley include the Kawaiisu, Kitanemuk and Tataviam. Europeans first entered during the colonization of North America. Father Francisco Garces, a Spanish Franciscan friar, is believed to have traveled the west end of the valley in 1776; the Spanish established El Camino Viejo through the western part of the valley between Los Angeles and the missions of the San Francisco Bay in the 1780s. By 1808, the Spanish had moved the native people out into missions. Jedediah Smith came through in 1827, John C. Fremont made a scientific observation of the valley in 1844. After Fremont's visit the 49ers crossed the valley via the Old Tejon Pass into the San Joaquin Valley on their way to the gold fields. A better wagon road, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road route to Tejon Pass, followed in 1854. Stagecoach lines across the southern foothills came through the valley along this wagon road, were the preferred method for travelers before the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876.
The rail service linking the valley to the Central Valley and Los Angeles started its first large influx of white settlers, farms and towns soon sprouted on the valley floor. The aircraft industry took hold in the valley at Plant 42 in 1952. Edwards AFB called Muroc Army Air Field, was established in 1933. In recent decades the valley has become a bedroom community to the Greater Los Angeles area. Major housing tract development and population growth took off beginning in 1983, which has increased the population of Palmdale around 12 times its former size as of 2006. Neighboring Lancaster has increased its population since the early 1980s to around three times its former level. Major retail has followed the population influx, centered on Palmdale's Antelope Valley Mall; the Antelope Valley is home to over 475,000 people. Non-Hispanic whites make up 48% of the population of the Antelope Valley and form a majority or plurality in most of its cities and towns. Hispanics are the next largest group, followed by Asian Americans.
Some long-term residents living far out in the desert have been cited by Los Angeles County's nuisance abatement teams for code violations, forcing residents to either make improvements or move. One of the properties is a church building, used as a filming location for Kill Bill; the code enforcers have arrived on some of their visits in SWAT team formats. Edwards Air Force Base lie
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Interstate 405 (California)
Interstate 405 known as the San Diego Freeway is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass auxiliary route of Interstate 5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles urban area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north; the entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway, passes the Los Angeles International Airport. The 405 is a traveled thoroughfare by both commuters and by freight haulers along its entire length and is the busiest and most congested freeway in the United States; the freeway's annual average daily traffic between exits 21 and 22 in Seal Beach reached 374,000 in 2008, making it the highest count in the nation. It has played a crucial role in the development of dozens of cities and suburbs along its route through Los Angeles and Orange counties. Interstate 405 begins at the El Toro Y interchange with Interstate 5 in southeastern Irvine, it runs northwest through Orange County to Long Beach in Los Angeles County.
The freeway roughly follows the outline of the Pacific coast, varying between five and ten miles inland before crossing over the Sepulveda Pass in the Santa Monica Mountains. I-405 travels through the San Fernando Valley, before its termination with I-5 in the Mission Hills district of Los Angeles. Large portions of the route parallel Sepulveda Boulevard; the freeway's congestion problems are legendary, leading to jokes that the road was numbered 405 because traffic moves at "four or five" miles per hour, or because drivers had spent "four or five" hours to travel anywhere. Indeed, average speeds as low as 5 mph are recorded during morning and afternoon commutes, its interchanges with the Ventura Freeway and with the Santa Monica Freeway each rank among the five most congested freeway interchanges in the United States; as a result of these congestion problems, delays passing through the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area using this bypass route instead of using the primary route I-5 through Downtown may be present.
Of the major reasons for the excessively heavy traffic on the freeway, I-405 is the only major north–south freeway in the densely populated areas between West Los Angeles and Downtown, crossing the Santa Monica Mountains and connecting San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles basin. Another parallel freeway is proposed to connect the Valley and the LA basin, but has faced upper class home-owner opposition. Despite 4 years of construction disruptions, billions of dollars of public money, LA Times commentary claims traffic with the lane expansions is just as bad or worse. I-405 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the freeway from present-day I-10 to I-5 near San Fernando is known as the San Diego Freeway, less as the Sepulveda Freeway. There are a number of points of interest that I-405 connects to. For transportation, these include John Wayne Airport in Orange County, Long Beach Municipal Airport and Los Angeles International Airport.
With connections, it is very close to the Port of Long Beach, the Port of Los Angeles and Burbank Airport. Some of the educational institutions it passes include the California state universities at Dominguez Hills, Long Beach, Northridge. I-405 passes cultural facilities such as the Getty Center, the Skirball Cultural Center and the Segerstrom Center for the Arts. In addition, several shopping malls such as Sherman Oaks Galleria, Westfield Culver City, The Promenade at Howard Hughes Center, Westminster Mall, South Coast Plaza and the Irvine Spectrum Center are located along I-405; the route passes by or through many recreation and commercial destinations. These include more than ten California state beaches, several other beaches owned by counties and municipalities, many of the beach cities favored by tourists, as well as Century City and Marina del Rey. I-405 was approved as a chargeable interstate in 1955. Construction began in 1957 with the first section north of LAX Airport being completed in 1961 followed by sections west of Interstate 605 within the following few years.
The highway was renumbered to Interstate 405 during the 1964 renumbering. The final section covering most of Orange County opened in 1969. Construction required the existing Mulholland Highway to be re-routed 1.1 miles to the south along a new 579-foot-long bridge, the Mulholland Drive Bridge, to span Interstate 405. A section of I-405 was closed over the weekend of Friday, July 15, 2011 as part of the Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project. Before the closing, local radio DJs and television newscasts referred to it as "Carmageddon" and "Carpocalypse", parodying the notion of Armageddon and the Apocalypse, since it was anticipated that the closure would impact traffic. In reality, traffic was lighter than normal across a wide area. California Department of Transportation reported that fewer vehicles used the roads than usual, those who did travel by road arrived more than on a normal weekend; the Metrolink commuter train system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership since it began operating in 1991.
Porter Ranch, Los Angeles
Porter Ranch is an affluent neighborhood in the northwest region of the San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The neighborhood is bounded by Brown's Canyon/Chatsworth on the south and west, Northridge on the south, Granada Hills on the northeast and east; the Santa Susana Mountains, which separate the San Fernando and Santa Clarita valleys, lie to the north. The principal thoroughfares are Mason Ave. Corbin Ave. Porter Ranch Drive, Tampa Ave. and Reseda Blvd. running north-south, Sesnon Blvd. Rinaldi St. and the Ronald Reagan Freeway, running west. The Porter Ranch ZIP code is 91326. Porter Ranch is in the hilly northwestern tip of the San Fernando Valley, according to a 2008 Los Angeles Times article, it was a "calm outpost of Los Angeles" that attracted residents "seeking sanctuary from the urban hubbub." It was noted that the neighborhood had "some of the cleanest air in the Valley year-around—some of, attributable to winds that sweep through the community regularly."
"those same winds, which have been clocked at 70 mph, take down trees and holiday lights." New home building that took place in the Porter Ranch area in the 1990s–2000s, including the Renaissance Summit development, was mired in controversy and Los Angeles politics in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Existing residents of the Porter Ranch area feared the increased traffic that would be brought by the planned building of an area commercial complex to service the new homes being built. Developments were criticized for destroying the natural beauty of the brush and wild areas that inhabited the space before the houses were built. However, Shapell Homes, a company founded by Nathan Shapell, a major Los Angeles builder, brought together powerful Los Angeles political figures to support the new home building. In the late 80s, there was an attempt to connect Sesnon Boulevard, the road that flanks the north side of the neighborhood, to its counterpart across the Aliso Canyon named Sesnon, via a bridge to be named the "Aliso Canyon Bridge".
This plan never came to fruition due to demonstrations from the residents of Porter Ranch, the primary opponents of the bridge, who believed that connecting the road to the neighborhood across the canyon would bring "crime...drag racing, drug dealing". Residents were afraid of Sesnon becoming "a 118 alternate route", which would "send many cars through Porter Ranch". Proponents of the bridge said that there was a "critical need" to build a bridge because "the city of Los Angeles has installed heavy-duty guard rails to stop any vehicle, out of control as it moves east at Beaufait. There is a much smaller rail 200 feet farther east...however, the first guard rail is partially broken because of out-of-control vehicles hitting it. Before it can be repaired, there is no protection to prevent a vehicle from falling into Aliso Canyon. Additionally, if a vehicle heading west on Sesnon becomes lost, there is no barrier to prevent it from falling into this deep canyon." Despite the proponents' argument about the severity of the situation, the bridge was never built.
There is still evidence of the bridge seen from Sesnon heading east towards the canyon, the road is visible heading towards the canyon just short of the bridge, the counterpart is still visible on the west-bound side. Limekiln canyon is a wonderful place to hike along a wooded stream; the hiking trail is parallel to Tampa road, while close to the roads, while hiking one cannot see the main roads. However, one needs to be careful as roving packs of coyotes have been spotted along this trail, as well as large rattlesnakes, mountain lions roam through here, as well as occasional ticks and mosquitoes. On October 23, 2015, Southern California Gas Company workers discovered a leak in one of the over 110 wells at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility, about three miles north of homes in Porter Ranch; the gas blowout began spewing 110,000 pounds of methane per hour. The blowout involved gas stored under pressure in an underground reservoir; the California Air Resources Board estimated that the leak increased California's methane-gas emissions by 25%.
By order of the Los Angeles County Dept of Health, the company relocated thousands of families from the Porter Ranch area. On December 15, the county of Los Angeles declared a state of emergency, two days it approved a plan to close two schools in the area. Officials estimated. On January 11, 2016 Mitchell Englander, the LA City Councilman representing Porter Ranch, said "Most people weren't aware that one of the largest gas storage facilities in the United States was in their backyard. There are wells located off Mullholland on the border of Calabasas and Woodland Hills, 57 of them to be exact; those wells are over 50 years old and pose a threat."On February 18, 2016, state officials announced that the leak was permanently plugged. On March 12, 2016, Los Angeles County Public Health Department officials say its test of dust in Porter Ranch homes turned up the presence of metals, including barium, that could have caused the kinds of health symptoms some residents have reported experiencing after the big gas blowout was plugged.
According to the U. S. Census in 2000, the population was 24,923. Based on the Los Angeles Department of City Planning estimates, the population was 30,571 in 2008. With a population density of 4,462 people per square
Bishop Alemany High School
Bishop Alemany High School is a Roman Catholic secondary school located in the San Fernando Valley community of Mission Hills in Los Angeles, California. It is within the San Fernando Pastoral Region of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles; the school is accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. Founded in 1947 as a school for girls, the school was named St. Ferdinand High School. In 1956, boys were admitted for the first time and the school was renamed to Bishop Alemany High School after Joseph Sadoc Alemany, the first archbishop of San Francisco, it was co-instructional, with separate divisions for girls and boys, until 1970 when it became coeducational. Alemany used to be located on the north side of Rinaldi St, just east of Sepulveda Blvd, but the Northridge earthquake in 1994 forced the school to move across the street into the nearby buildings of Our Lady Queen of Angels Seminary at the historic San Fernando Mission; the high school shared the campus with the seminarians for one year.
The seminary closed in 1995. The 1971 Sylmar earthquake did considerable damage to Alemany's campus, as well. Andy Dominique – MLB catcher and former NCAA baseball standout at The University of Nevada, Reno Judy Baca – Chicana artist/muralist David Berganio, Jr. – Professional golfer. Casey Clausen – University of Tennessee quarterback Alyssa Diaz – Actress Richard "Cheech" Marin – Comedian & actor Jim Pons – Bass guitarist for The Leaves, The Turtles, The Mothers of Invention Francia Raisa – Actress Douglas Tait –Producer, filmmaker John Tejada – Techno recording artist, remixer, DJ, label owner Charli Turner Thorne – Head Women's Basketball Coach at Arizona State University Robert Torti – Tony Award nominated, Broadway actor, film & television performer Vernon Adams - Eastern Washington/Oregon quarterback Kevin Lenik - baseball player Media related to Bishop Alemany High School at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Greater Los Angeles
Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast. It consists of three metropolitan areas in Southern California. Throughout the 20th century, it was one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, although growth has slowed since 2000; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of nearly 13 million residents. Meanwhile, the larger metropolitan region's population at the 2010 census was estimated to be over 17.8 million residents, a 2015 estimate reported a population of about 18.7 million. Either definition makes it the second largest metropolitan region in the country, behind the New York metropolitan area, as well as one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world; the agglomeration of the urbanized Greater Los Angeles area surrounds the urban core of Los Angeles County.
The regional term is defined to refer to the more-or-less continuously urbanized area stretching from Ventura County to the southern border of Orange County and from the Pacific Ocean to the Coachella Valley in the Inland Empire. The US Census Bureau defines the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area as including the entire Los Angeles County, Ventura County, Orange County and the two counties of the Inland Empire. However, this Census definition includes large, sparsely populated and desert swaths of Los Angeles, San Bernardino and Riverside counties that are not part of the urbanized region; the term "Greater Los Angeles" does not include San Diego County, whose urbanized area is separated from San Clemente, the southernmost contiguous urbanized area south of Los Angeles, by a 16.4-mile stretch of the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a total area of 4,850 square miles, while the wider combined statistical area covers 33,954 square miles, making it the largest metropolitan region in the United States by land area.
However, more than half of this area lies in the sparsely populated eastern areas of Riverside and San Bernardino counties. In addition to being the nexus of the world's largest entertainment industry, Greater Los Angeles is a global center of business, international trade, media, tourism and technology, transportation. Los Angeles has a long-standing reputation for sprawl; the area is in fact sprawling, but according to the 2000 census, the "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim" Urbanized Area had a population density of 7,068 inhabitants per square mile, covering 1,668 square miles of land area, making it the most densely populated Urbanized Area in the United States. For comparison, the "New York–Newark" Urbanized Area as a whole had a population density of 5,309 per square mile, covering 3,353 square miles of land area. Los Angeles' sprawl may originate in the region's decentralized structure, its major commercial and cultural institutions are geographically dispersed rather than being concentrated in a single downtown or central area.
The population density of Los Angeles proper is low when compared to some other large American cities such as New York, San Francisco and Chicago. Densities are high within a 5-mile radius of downtown, where some neighborhoods exceed 20,000 people per square mile. What gives the entire Los Angeles metro region a high density is the fact that many of the city's suburbs and satellites cities have high density rates. Within its urbanized areas, Los Angeles is noted for having small lot sizes and low-rise buildings. Buildings in the area are low when compared to other large cities due to zoning regulations. Los Angeles became a major city just as the Pacific Electric Railway spread population to smaller cities much as interurbans did in East Coast cities. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the area was marked by a network of dense but separate cities linked by rail; the ascendance of the automobile helped fill in the gaps between these commuter towns with lower-density settlements. Starting in the early twentieth century, there was a large growth in population on the western edges of the city moving to the San Fernando Valley and out into the Conejo Valley in eastern Ventura County.
Many working class whites migrated to this area during the 1960s and 1970s out of East and Central Los Angeles. As a result, there was a large growth in population into the Conejo Valley and into Ventura County through the US 101 corridor. Making the US 101 a full freeway in the 1960s and expansions that followed helped make commuting to Los Angeles easier and opened the way for development westward. Development in Ventura County and along the US 101 corridor remains controversial, with open-space advocates battling those who feel business development is necessary to economic growth. Although the area still has abundant amount of open space and land all of it was put aside and mandated never to be developed as part of the master plan of each city; because of this, the area, once a inexpensive area to buy real estate, saw rising real estate prices well into the 2000s. Median home prices in the Conejo Valley for instance, ranged from $700,000 to