Government of San Francisco
It is the only consolidated city-county in California, and one of only thirteen charter counties of California. The fiscal year 2007–08 city and county budget was approximately $6 billion, San Francisco utilizes the strong mayor form of mayoral/council government, composed of the mayor, Board of Supervisors, several elected officers, and numerous other entities. San Francisco voters use ranked-choice voting to elect the mayor, the Mayor of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the city and county government. The mayor serves a term and is limited to two successive terms. If the mayor dies or resigns, the President of the Board of Supervisors assumes the office, the Board of Supervisors is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets. Proposition K - 2009-2034, Different formula for local streets and local and regional public transit, pursuant to its charter, San Francisco causes to be published several codified version of its ordinances and regulations, the San Francisco Municipal Codes.
Every act prohibited or declared unlawful, and every failure to perform an act required, by the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes, San Franciscans make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation. In addition, several regional governmental units in San Francisco operate independently of the municipal government, there are several school districts that are co-extensive with San Francisco. The San Francisco Unified School District is governed by the elected seven-member San Francisco Board of Education, the community college district of the City College of San Francisco is governed by an elected seven-member Board of Trustees. Also notable are the independent police forces of the University of California, San Francisco and the Park Police of the Presidio Trust and the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The San Francisco Democratic Central Committee, the body of the San Francisco Democratic Party, is a county central committee of the California Democratic Party for San Francisco. The SFDCC is elected from the two Assembly districts in San Francisco and consists of 24 members, with a 14/10 member split between the two Assembly districts based on number of registered Democrats
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. Headquartered in Sacramento, it is chaired by veteran Democratic politician and former United States Representative John L. Burton and it is the majority party in both chambers of the California State Legislature, i. e. the State Assembly and the Senate. In regards to businesses and economics, the California Democratic party takes a stance that protects consumers, small businesses, the platform makes a point to champion the economic reforms of President Barack Obama. The 2012 platform addresses the issues of family in several sections, the platform promises to protect seniors and all types of families with fair economic and social policies. These policies range from continuing Medicare for the elderly and keeping playgrounds safe for children, the platform highlights the right of a woman to make choices for her own body and claims that healthcare is a natural right of all people.
The California democrats further promise to protect the dignity of disabled citizens, the platform is dedicated to advocating for the rights of women through equal pay and affirmative action. The party prioritizes the creation of a sustainable and earth-friendly state, focus is placed on the development of alternative forms of energy and how energy is consumed. In addition, the stresses that green jobs are a solution to economic. Finally, the platform takes stances on open internet use, the Democrats of California support the right of the people to express their thoughts and ideas through any media, and their right to assemble. The party believes that laws should be fair and that immigrants should not be discriminated against. The party wishes to bring education to the forefront, aiming to turn California into a state for academic achievement. A Detailed description of the California Democratic Partys position on all of the issues can be found in their 2012 Platform document. The California Democratic Party passes multiple resolutions every year as a way of expressing their opinion to lawmakers statewide, while the partys resolutions have no legal force themselves, they are official documents that elected representatives should take into account when making decisions.
A few recent resolutions are summarised below,2012 Buy American This resolution, written 18 November 2012, encourages all arms of government to favor American suppliers of goods and services. The above are three of a long list of Resolutions passed by the California Democratic Party in 2012 and in preceding years. The history of the Democratic Party of California is complex and long, the State has traded hands every few cycles since its admission into the union in 1850. At that time, the state was firmly in the hands of the Democratic Party, until the early 1880s after the Republican Party abolished slavery, the Republicans held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti-corporate, anti freedom of attainment position, in 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, and the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry
Telegraph Hill, San Francisco
Telegraph Hill is a neighborhood in San Francisco, California. It is one of San Franciscos 44 hills, and one of its original Seven Hills, the San Francisco Chronicle defines the Chinatown, North Beach, and Telegraph Hill areas as bounded by Sacramento Street, Taylor Street, Bay Street, and the water. Originally named Loma Alta by the Spaniards, the hill was known as Goat Hill by the early San Franciscans. From 1825 through 1847, the area between Sansome and Battery and Vallejo streets was used as a ground for foreign non-Catholic seamen. The hill owes its name to a semaphore, a structure erected in September 1849. The information was used by operating for financiers, merchants. Knowing the nature of the cargo carried by the ship they could predict the local prices for those goods. Those who did not have information on the cargo might pay a too-high price from a merchant unloading his stock of a commodity — a price that was about to drop. On October 18,1850, the ship Oregon signaled to the hill as it was entering the Golden Gate the news of Californias recently acquired statehood, prompting a rogue in the gallery to shout, Sidewheel steamer.
Sailing ships brought cargo to San Francisco, but needed ballast when leaving, rocks for ballast were quarried from the bay side of Telegraph Hill. A second semaphore system was built at Point Lobos in 1853, with the advent of the electrical telegraph in 1862, both became obsolete. Telegraph Hill retained its name and is now registered as California Historical Landmark #91, in the 1920s, Telegraph Hill became with North Beach a destination for poets and bohemian intellectuals, dreaming of turning it into a West Coast West Village. Telegraph Hill is primarily an area, much quieter than adjoining North Beach with its bustling cafés. Aside from Coit Tower, it is known for its gardens flowing down Filbert Street down to Levi Plaza. Today Telegraph Hill is known for supporting a flock of parrots, primarily red-masked parakeets. The flock was popularized by a book and subsequent documentary, both titled The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill and they range widely, including along The Embarcadero and in the Presidio.
A controversial San Francisco city ordinance passed on June 5,2007, the feeding ban was championed by Mark Bittner, the birds most outspoken supporter who fed them for years and wrote the book The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill. Other local conservationists supported the ban, though some continue to object
Maiden Lane (San Francisco)
Maiden Lane is a pedestrian mall located in San Francisco, United States. A former section of the red light district, Maiden Lane is now home to high-end boutiques. The street serves as the location of San Franciscos only Frank Lloyd Wright designed building, prior to the 1906 earthquake, the street was called Morton Street and was the center of San Franciscos red-light district. Historically, the street reported one murder a week, the earthquake, which leveled much of the city, rendered this two-block stretch rubble, and the brothels were destroyed. It was renamed Maiden Lane by a jeweler who wanted to conjure the Maiden Lanes of London. In 1955, on the initiative of merchants, cars were prohibited from the lane during certain times of day. Maiden Lane has trees along its sidewalks, redwood benches to invite the sightseer or window shopper or buyer to linger, sidewalks of colored paving, all the merchants do things differently, some put out tables with their wares, some hang out window boxes and grow vines.
All the buildings and new, look individual, the most celebrated is an expanse of tan brick with a curved doorway, the pedestrians welfare is supreme, during the rush of the day, he has the street. Maiden Lane is an oasis with a sense of intimacy, cheerfulness. It is one of San Franciscos most powerful downtown magnets, downtown cant be remade into a bunch of Maiden Lanes, and it would be insufferably quaint if it were. But the potential illustrated can be realized by any city and in its own particular way, in 1961, the San Francisco Chronicles columnist Herb Caen praised Maiden Lane as a busy little block of intriguing shops. Today, the street is a pedestrian mall lined with boutiques, the pedestrian mall stretches two blocks, between Kearny and Stockton Streets. The street is blocked from traffic from 11 am until 5 pm by wrought iron gates, the most notable building on the street is the V. C. Morris Gift Shop, which is a San Francisco Designated Landmark. The building is the only Frank Lloyd Wright designed space in the city
Chinatown, San Francisco
The Chinatown centered on Grant Avenue and Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, is the oldest Chinatown in North America and the largest Chinese community outside Asia. It is the oldest of the four notable Chinatowns in the city, since its establishment in 1848, it has been highly important and influential in the history and culture of ethnic Chinese immigrants in North America. Chinatown is an enclave that continues to retain its own customs, places of worship, social clubs, there are two hospitals, numerous parks and squares, a post office, and other infrastructure. Chinatown has been defined by the neighborhoods of North Beach, and Telegraph Hill areas as bound by Bush Street, Taylor Street, Bay Street. Officially, Chinatown is located in downtown San Francisco, covers 24 square blocks, within Chinatown there are two major thoroughfares. It is dominated by buildings that are three to four stories high, with shops on the ground floor and residential apartments upstairs. A major focal point in Chinatown is Portsmouth Square, since it is one of the few open spaces in Chinatown and sits above a large underground parking lot, Portsmouth Square bustles with activity such as Tai Chi and old men playing Chinese chess.
A replica of the Goddess of Democracy used in the Tiananmen Square protest was built in 1999 by Thomas Marsh and it is made of bronze and weighs approximately 600 lb. According to the San Francisco Planning Department, Chinatown is the most densely populated area west of Manhattan. In the 1970s, the density in Chinatown was seven times the San Francisco average. The estimated total population in the 2000 Census was at 100,574 residents, during the time from 2009 to 2013, the median household income was $20,000 - compared to $76,000 citywide - with 29% of residents below the national poverty threshold. The median age was 50 years, the oldest of any neighborhood, as of 2015, two thirds of the residents lived in one of Chinatowns 105 single room occupancy hotels,96 of which had private owners and nine were owned by nonprofits. Most residents are speakers of Mandarin or Cantonese, in 2015. Many of those Chinese immigrants who gain some wealth while living in Chinatown leave it for the Richmond District, working-class Hong Kong Chinese immigrants began arriving in large numbers in the 1960s.
Despite their status and professional qualifications in Hong Kong, many took low-paying employment in restaurants, an increase in Cantonese-speaking immigrants from Hong Kong and Mainland China has gradually led to the replacement in Chinatown of the Hoisanese/Taishanese dialect by the standard Cantonese dialect. These outer neighborhoods have been settled largely by Chinese from Southeast Asia, there are many suburban Chinese communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially in Silicon Valley, such as Cupertino and Milpitas, where Taiwanese Americans are dominant. Despite these developments, many continue to commute in from these neighborhoods and cities to shop in Chinatown, causing gridlock on roads and delays in public transit. To address this problem, the public transit agency, Muni, is planning to extend the citys subway network to the neighborhood via the new Central Subway
State Board of Equalization (California)
The State Board of Equalization is a public agency charged with tax administration and fee collection in the state of California in the United States. The authorities of the Board fall into four areas and use taxes, property taxes, special taxes. The BOE is the publicly elected tax commission in the United States. The current board members are, The terms of all five members, including the State Controller, as of 2008, the agency employed approximately 3,950 people throughout the state. The State Board of Equalization was created in 1879 by ratification of the second California Constitution and its original mandate was to ensure that property tax assessments were uniform and equal across all counties in the state. Of course, assessors were tempted to boost their popularity with county voters by undervaluing voters property, for the purposes of tax administration, the BOE divides the state into four Equalization districts, each with its own elected board member. Following the 2011 redistricting, the new districts have been in effect since January 1,2015, before 2015, most of this area was the second district.
Before 2015, most of area was the first district. The fourth Equalization District is made up of the counties, Orange, San Diego, a portion of Los Angeles
Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician who became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Milk moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 amid a migration of gay men to the Castro District and he took advantage of the growing political and economic power of the neighborhood to promote his interests, and three times ran unsuccessfully for political office. His theatrical campaigns earned him increasing popularity, and Milk won a seat as a city supervisor in 1977, his election made possible by, and a key component of, a shift in San Francisco politics. Milk served almost 11 months in office and was responsible for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city, despite his short career in politics, Milk became an icon in San Francisco and a martyr in the gay community. In 2002, Milk was called the most famous and most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States, anne Kronenberg, his final campaign manager, wrote of him, What set Harvey apart from you or me was that he was a visionary.
He imagined a world inside his head and he set about to create it for real. Milk was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009, Milk was born in Woodmere, New York, to William Milk and Minerva Karns. He was the son of Lithuanian Jewish parents and the grandson of Morris Milk. As a child, Harvey was teased for his ears, big nose, and oversized feet. He played football in school, and developed a passion for opera, in his teens, he acknowledged his homosexuality to himself, under his name in the high school yearbook, it read, Glimpy Milk—and they say WOMEN are never at a loss for words. Milk graduated from Bay Shore High School in Bay Shore, New York, in 1947 and attended New York State College for Teachers in Albany from 1947 to 1951 and he wrote for the college newspaper. One classmate remembered, He was never thought of as a possible queer—thats what you called them then—he was a mans man, after graduation, Milk joined the United States Navy during the Korean War. He served aboard the rescue ship USS Kittiwake as a diving officer.
He transferred to Naval Station, San Diego to serve as a diving instructor, in 1955, he was discharged from the Navy at the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. Milks early career was marked by frequent changes, in years he would take delight in talking about his metamorphosis from a middle-class Jewish boy. He began teaching at George W. Hewlett High School on Long Island, in 1956, he met Joe Campbell, at the Jacob Riis Park beach, a popular location for gay men in Queens. Campbell was seven years younger than Milk, and Milk pursued him passionately, Even after they moved in together, Milk wrote Campbell romantic notes and poems. Campbell and Milk separated after almost six years, it would be his longest relationship, Milk tried to keep his early romantic life separate from his family and work
Nob Hill, San Francisco
Nob Hill is a neighborhood in San Francisco, centered on the intersection of California Street and Powell Street. It is one of San Franciscos 44 hills, and one of its original Seven Hills, prior to the 1850s, Nob Hill was called California Hill. It was renamed after the Central Pacific Railroads Big Four – called the Nobs – built mansions there, the actual peak of Nob Hill lies slightly to the northwest, approximately at the intersection of Jones and Sacramento Streets. South of Nob Hill is Lower Nob Hill neighborhood, the district of Union Square, the Tenderloin neighborhood. To the east is San Franciscos Chinatown and a little farther, northeast of Nob Hill is North Beach and Telegraph Hill. North of Nob Hill is Russian Hill, and eventually, the areas of the waterfront such as Pier 39. The area was settled in the rapid urbanization happening in the city in the late 19th century, because of the views and its central position, it became an exclusive enclave of the rich and famous on the west coast who built large mansions in the neighborhood.
This included prominent tycoons such as Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University, for this reason, its early citizens were known as nabobs, which was shortened to nob, giving the area its eventual name. The neighborhood was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and fire, except for the walls surrounding the Stanford, Huntington. Those walls remain and black caused by smoke from the intense fires that burned after the quake can still be seen. Also gutted by the fires was the newly completed Fairmont Hotel at Mason and California Streets, both structures had stone exteriors that survived the fires, and both buildings were subsequently cleaned and refurbished. The Fairmont Hotel remains in operation to day and the Flood Mansion is the headquarters of the exclusive Pacific-Union Club. While the neighborhood was able to maintain its affluence following the quake, some rebuilt mansions further west in San Francisco, for example, in Pacific Heights and Cow Hollow. In place of where the mansions had been located, swank hotels were erected, hotels built over the ruins of the former mansions include the Mark Hopkins and Stanford Court.
Nob is disparaging British slang abbreviation of noble/nobility referring to the monied, the location is derisively referred to as Snob Hill. The intersection of California and Powell streets is the location of two of its four well-known and most expensive hotels, the Fairmont Hotel, the Mark Hopkins Hotel, the Mark Hopkins Hotel and the Huntington Hotel are located one block away at Mason & California. The hotels were named for three of The Big Four, four entrepreneurs of the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad, Leland Stanford, the fourth, Charles Crocker has a garage named after him in the neighborhood. The Fairmont is named for a San Francisco tycoon, James G. Fair, opposite the Fairmont Hotel and Pacific Union Club is Grace Cathedral, one of the citys largest houses of worship
Malia Cohen is an American elected official in San Francisco, California. She serves as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing Supervisorial District 10, born in the Richmond District and a graduate of Lowell High School, she resides in the Potrero Hill neighborhood. Cohen received her B. A. in Political Science from Fisk University, in the 2010 election, she initially finished third out of a field of 22, but eventually won the election based on ranked choice voting. In October 2013, Cohen introduced legislation that expanded an existing San Francisco law making it illegal to sell firearms with magazines capable of holding more than 10 rounds. In 2014, Cohen was re-elected for a term to represent District 10 after being challenged by Marlene Tran. In 2015, Cohen publicly defended San Franciscos sanctuary city Laws, after the shooting death of Kathryn Steinle by an undocumented immigrant, OReilly had been critical of San Francisco and its elected officials. OReilly said that Cohen should be placed under arrest for her comments defending San Franciscos Sanctuary City Policy and she married Warren Pulley in 2016, a workers compensation attorney.
Office of Supervisor Malia Cohen Campaign website
Members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors
The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislative body of San Francisco, California. The body consists of members elected from single-member districts through ranked choice voting. From 1977 to 1979, and starting again in 2000, supervisors were elected from eleven single-member districts, prior to 1977 and from 1980 to 1998, members were elected at-large, all running on one ballot, with the top vote-getters winning office. Similar cases of supervisors elected to truncated terms happened in 1977 and 2000, several members were initially appointed by the mayor. A few members were elected to the board, but appointed to their seat by the mayor during the weeks between the election and the beginning of their term. This has generally been done when supervisors were elected to the state legislature, the most recent example occurred in 2008, when David Campos was elected to the District 9 seat held by Tom Ammiano. In the same election, Ammiano was elected to the California State Assembly, mayor Gavin Newsom appointed Campos to the seat on December 4,2008, a month before he would otherwise have taken office.
The president of the Board of Supervisors presides over all meetings and appoints members to board committees. Board presidents are elected by their colleagues at the beginning of every odd-numbered year, no official list of supervisors in office prior to 1906 exists as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed all Board of Supervisors records. However, the names of San Francisco supervisors are recorded in many documents, the San Francisco Common Council was the predecessor of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. The Common Council was made up of the Board of Aldermen, the first elections to these posts took place on May 1,1850, and the Common Council took office on May 6,1850. The Common Council had authority only within the city limits, which stretched west to Divisadero and Castro streets, the first Board of Supervisors served only from July 8 to November 15,1856, and consisted of one justice of the peace for each of the citys four districts. These four men chose George J. Whelan as the citys mayor, Supervisors from the 19th century are listed in surviving copies of municipal reports, contemporary newspapers, and similar sources.
Former mayors of the city were allowed non-voting seats on the board, members who served as president of the Board of Supervisors during part of their tenure on the board are denoted with an asterisk. Supervisors are elected on non-partisan ballots, but all current members of the Board of Supervisors are registered Democrats, supervisor Jane Kim was previously a member of the Green Party, but switched her registration to Democratic before running for supervisor. 1996 Charter of the City and County of San Francisco,1996 Charter of the City and County of San Francisco. AIDS activist Sheehy to succeed Wiener as SF supervisor
Daniel James Dan White was a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. He assassinated San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, on Monday, November 27,1978, in a controversial verdict that led to the coining of the legal slang Twinkie defense, White was convicted of manslaughter rather than murder in the deaths of Milk and Moscone. White served five years of a prison sentence. Less than two years after his release, he returned to San Francisco and committed suicide, daniel James White was born in Long Beach, the second of nine children. He was raised by Irish-American, working parents in a Roman Catholic household in the Visitacion Valley neighborhood of San Francisco. He attended Riordan High School until he was expelled for violence in his junior year and he went on to attend Woodrow Wilson High School, where he was valedictorian of his class. White enlisted in the United States Army in June 1965 and he was a sergeant in the 101st Airborne Division in the Vietnam War from 1969 to 1970 and was honorably discharged in 1971.
White worked as a security guard at A. J. Dimond High School in Anchorage, Alaska and he returned to San Francisco to work as a police officer. White joined the San Francisco Fire Department, while on duty, according to the San Francisco Weekly story, Whites rescue of a woman and her baby from a seventh-floor apartment in the Geneva Towers was covered by the San Francisco Chronicle. The citys newspapers referred to him as an all-American boy, in 1977, White was elected as a Democrat to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors from District 8, which included several neighborhoods near the southeastern limits of San Francisco. At that time, supervisors were elected by district and not at-large, as they had been before and he had strong support from the police and firefighter unions. His district was described by The New York Times as a largely white, as a supervisor, White openly saw himself as the boards defender of the home, the family and religious life against homosexuals, pot smokers and cynics.
Despite their personal differences and Supervisor Harvey Milk initially had several areas of political agreement, Harvey Milk was one of three people from the city hall invited to the baptism of Whites newborn child shortly after the election. White persuaded Dianne Feinstein, president of the board of supervisors, to appoint Milk chairman of the Streets, the account said White was strongly opposed, while Milk supported the facility, and their difference of opinion led to a conflict between the two. White held a record on gay rights, opposing the anti-gay Briggs Initiative, yet voting against an ordinance prohibiting discrimination against gays in housing. After his disagreement with Milk over the rehab center, White frequently clashed with Milk as well as other members of the board. On November 10,1978, White resigned his seat as supervisor, White had opened a baked-potato stand at Pier 39, which failed to become profitable. He reversed his resignation on November 14,1978 after his supporters lobbied him to seek reappointment from George Moscone, Moscone initially agreed to Whites request, but refused the appointment at the urging of Milk and others. F