Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist and the founder of Stanford University. Migrating to California from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, continued to build his business empire, he spent one two-year term as Governor of California after his election in 1861, eight years as a United States Senator. As president of Southern Pacific Railroad and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California, he is considered a robber baron. Stanford was born in 1824 in what was Watervliet, New York, he was one of eight children of Elizabeth Phillips Stanford. Among his siblings were New York State Senator Charles Stanford and Australian businessman and spiritualist Thomas Welton Stanford, his immigrant ancestor, Thomas Stanford, settled in Massachusetts, in the 17th century. Ancestors settled in the eastern Mohawk Valley of central New York about 1720. Stanford's father was a farmer of some means.
Stanford was raised on family farms in the Lisha Roessleville areas of Watervliet. The family home in Roessleville was called Elm Grove; the Elm Grove home was razed in the 1940s. Stanford attended the common school until 1836 and was tutored at home until 1839, he attended Clinton Liberal Institute, in Clinton, New York, studied law at Cazenovia Seminary in Cazenovia, New York, in 1841–45. In 1845, he entered the law office of Wheaton and Hadley in Albany. After being admitted to the bar in 1848, Stanford moved with many other settlers to Port Washington, where he began law practice with Wesley Pierce, his father presented him with a law library said to be the finest north of Milwaukee. In 1850, Stanford was nominated by the Whig Party as Wisconsin district attorney. On September 30, 1850, Stanford married Jane Elizabeth Lathrop in New York, she was the daughter of Dyer Lathrop, a merchant of that city, Jane Anne Lathrop. The couple did not have any children for years, until their only child, a son, Leland DeWitt Stanford, was born in 1868 when his father was forty-four.
In 1852, having lost his law library and other property to a fire, Stanford followed his five brothers to California during the California Gold Rush. His wife, returned temporarily to Albany and her family, he went into business with his brothers and became the keeper of a general store for miners at Michigan City, California the name changed to Michigan Bluff in Placer County. He served as a justice of the peace and helped organize the Sacramento Library Association, which became the Sacramento Public Library. In 1855, he returned to Albany to join his wife but found the pace of Eastern life too slow after the excitement of developing California. In 1856, he and Jane moved to Sacramento. Stanford was one of the four merchants known popularly as "The Big Four" who were the key investors in Chief Engineer Theodore Dehone Judah's plan for the Central Pacific Railroad, which the five of them incorporated on June 28, 1861, of which Stanford was elected president; the other three associates were Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington.
The railroad's first locomotive, named "Gov. Stanford" in his honor, is on display today at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento. Stanford ran unsuccessfully for governor of California in 1859, he won the election. He served one term limited to two years. In May 1868, he joined Lloyd Tevis, Darius Ogden Mills, H. D. Bacon and Crocker in forming the Pacific Union Express Company, it merged in 1870 with Wells Company. Stanford was a director of Wells Fargo and Company from 1870 to January 1884. After a brief retirement from the board, he served again from February 1884 until his death in June 1893. In May 1868, he started the Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company and served as its first president from 1868 to 1876. While the Central Pacific was under construction and his associates in 1868 acquired control of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Stanford was elected president of the Southern Pacific, a post he held until 1890 when he was ousted by Collis Huntington; as head of the railroad company that built the western portion of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" over the Sierra Nevada mountains in California and Utah, Stanford presided at the ceremonial driving of "Last Spike" in Promontory, Utah on May 10, 1869.
The grade of the CPRR met that of the Union Pacific Railroad, built west from its western terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska. He was given the honor of driving the final spike. Stanford moved with his family from Sacramento to San Francisco in 1874, where he assumed presidency of the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company, the steamship line to Japan and China associated with the Central Pacific; the Southern Pacific Company was organized in 1884 as a holding company for the Central Pacific-Southern Pacific system. Stanford was president of the Southern Pacific Company from 1885 until 1890 when he was forced out of that post by Collis Huntington; this was thought to be retaliation for Stanford's election to the United States Senate in 1885 over Huntington's friend, A. A. Sargent. Stanford was elected chairman of the Southern Pacific Railroad's executive committee in 18
Santa Clara Valley
The Santa Clara Valley runs south-southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. The northern, urbanized end of the valley is part of a region locally known as the "South Bay" and part of the electronics and technology area known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara Valley consists of most of Santa Clara County, including its county seat, San Jose, as well as a small portion of San Benito County; the valley, named after the Spanish Mission Santa Clara, was for a time known as the Valley of Heart's Delight for its high concentration of orchards, flowering trees, plants. Until the 1960s it was the largest fruit producing and packing region in the world with 39 canneries. Once agricultural because of its fertile soil, Santa Clara Valley is now urbanized, although its far southern reaches south of Gilroy remain agrarian; the most northern urban areas are considered part of Silicon Valley. As Silicon Valley is not an actual valley, parts of the San Francisco Peninsula farther north are included in the Silicon Valley region as well.
Locally, the urbanized areas of Santa Clara Valley are referred to as part of the South Bay. Few traces of its agricultural past can still be found, but the Santa Clara Valley American Viticultural Area remains a large wine-making region, it was one of the first commercial wine-producing regions in California, utilizing high-quality French varietal vines imported from France. The northern end of the Santa Clara Valley is at the southern tip of the San Francisco Bay, the southern end is in the vicinity of Hollister; the valley is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest, which separate Santa Clara Valley from the Pacific Ocean, by the Diablo Range on the northeast. The valley is 30 miles long by 15 miles wide, its largest city, by an 86.7% margin, is San Jose. The population of the valley is 1.81 million people along with 865,700 wage and salary jobs. Santa Clara Valley has a Mediterranean semi-arid climate; the earliest inhabitants on the Santa Clara Valley are the Ohlone people, who had eight distinct languages and tribes in the coastal region.
Mission Santa Clara de Asís, which had control over a vast tract of land stretching from Palo Alto to Gilroy, was founded by Franciscans in 1777. San Jose was California's first town and was founded in 1777 by Spain as an agricultural pueblo. There were 66 original settlers. In Spanish and Mexican times the land was devoted to cattle. Following the Mexican–American War San Jose was the Capital of California; the influx of Americans resulted in relocation of many of the native Mexican and Indian people of San Jose to the mission at Santa Clara, under control of Jesuits from 1850. In 1860, as an American town, the population of San Jose was 4,579, with cattle ranching still the main agricultural activity. For a time wheat became the main crop, but in the 1870s fruit became the main crop and processing of fruit by drying or canning the predominant industry; the railroad reached San Jose in 1860. The valley with its scenic beauty, mild climate, thousands of acres of blooming fruit trees was known as "The Valley of Heart's Delight".
Various fruit cooperatives were formed in the area to deals with economic issues, including The California Fruit Union and the Santa Clara County Fruit Exchange. Prunes were a major crop, the valley was producing the majority of prunes in California by 1900 and they were shipped internationally. Water was supplied from an artesian aquifer and when the water table dropped, wells were pumped. Many orchards were small with fruit growing in a dispersed pattern. By the 1920s and 1930s, the agricultural and horticultural industries were doing well in the valley and included 18 canneries, 13 dried-fruit packing houses, 12 fresh-fruit and vegetable shipping firms, they were shipping internationally. Del Monte and Sunsweet are two brands; the need for workers exceeded the local population and in the nineteenth century and Japanese immigrants met that need. Toward the end of the nineteenth century many Italians and other immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe came to the valley and worked in the orchards and canneries.
During the 20th century there were Filipino immigrants and increasing numbers of immigrants from Mexico who during World War II became the dominant agricultural workforce. The town of San Jose was dominated by its business community, in part composed of Irish Catholics, who had a self-contained social life which did not include immigrant labor. There was marked prejudice against Asians Chinese, who left the valley. Deflation and overproduction hurt the orchards and packers of the Santa Clara Valley during the Great Depression. Bankrupt farmers from the Dust Bowl, the Okies, made the trek to California. Desperate to feed their families they joined a workforce, itself impacted by unemployment; the growers, with record low prices and surplus supply, could pay little. Labor organizers and goon squads battled in the labor camps. Woody Guthrie's songs were on the radio and he wrote a regular column in the San Francisco-based The Daily People's World. San Francisco had a strong labor union tradition. During the "March Inland" organizing drive the International Longshore and Warehouse Union backed the Cannery and Agricultural Workers' Industrial Union, a Communist-controlled union headquartered in San Jose, which had considerable success organizing farm and cannery workers in
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Menlo Park, California
Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States. It is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north and east. Menlo Park is one of the most educated cities in the state of the United States. Menlo Park had 32,026 inhabitants according to the 2010 United States Census, which had grown to an estimated 34,357 inhabitants by 2017. Menlo Park is the site of Facebook's main campus. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.4 square miles, of which 9.8 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. The total area is 43.79% water. Menlo Park is narrow on a northeast to southwest axis; the northeast portion borders the San Francisco Bay and includes the Dumbarton Bridge that connects Menlo Park to Fremont on the east side of the bay. The city shoreline includes the city's largest park, Bedwell Bayfront Park 160 acres and the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. San Francisquito Creek marks much of the southeast border of the city.
West Menlo Park along Alameda de las Pulgas nearly separates the southwestern part of the city from the rest. The extreme southwest is clipped by Interstate 280; the Bayshore Freeway traverses Menlo Park northwest to southeast near the shoreline and somewhat parallel to it to the southwest is El Camino Real. The intersection of El Camino Real and Santa Cruz Avenue is considered the heart of the city. Nearby, the Menlo Park Civic center is bounded by Ravenswood Avenue, Alma Street, Laurel Street and Burgess Drive, it contains the council offices, police station and Burgess Park which has various recreational facilities. Other major roads include Sand Hill Road in the Sharon Heights area; the residential areas of Menlo Park are unofficially divided into several neighborhoods. Belle Haven is the only neighborhood east of the Bayshore Freeway. Between Middlefield road and Bayshore are the neighborhoods of the Willows, Suburban Park, Lorelei Manor, Flood Triangle, Vintage Oaks, South of Seminary. Between Middlefield and El Camino Real are Felton Gables, Linfield Oaks, Park Forest.
West of El Camino Real until the hills are the neighborhoods of Downtown Menlo Park, Central Menlo Park, Allied Arts. In the hills are Sharon Heights and Stanford Hills. Several other neighborhoods are associated with Menlo Park but are in unincorporated San Mateo county; the area of Menlo Park was inhabited by the Ohlone people. In 1795 the Rancho de las Pulgas land grant was made. In 1851 two Irish immigrants, Dennis J. Oliver and his brother-in-law D. C. McGlynn, purchased a 1,700-acre tract of land on the former Rancho de las Pulgas. In 1854, they erected a gate with a wooden arch bearing the inscription "Menlo Park" and the date "August 1854" at the entrance to their property; the word "Menlo" derived from the owners' former home of Menlo in County Galway, is an Anglicized version of the original Irish name of the place, meaning "middle lake."In 1863, the San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road had built the railroad from San Francisco to as far as Mayfield and started running trains to the area.
They named a nearby station "Menlo Park" after the sign. The 1867 station building still stands on the platform of the current Caltrain station, used by the local Chamber of Commerce; the town of Menlo Park grew up around this station, becoming a popular home for San Francisco businessmen. A post office arrived in 1870, the city was incorporated in 1874; the original arch which gave its name to the stations and the city, survived until 1922, when the original arch was destroyed in an automobile accident. The origin of the name of Menlo Park, California pre-dates any work done by Thomas Edison in Menlo Park, New Jersey. In 1917/1918 a large portion of Menlo Park was the site of Camp Fremont, a training camp for, at its height, 27,000 men being sent to fight in World War I, it didn't last long, but army engineers paved the first streets in Menlo Park and laid the first water and gas lines. The army did retain the camp hospital, it is now the site of a Veterans Administration hospital off of Willow road in Menlo Park.
In the autumn of 1918 a flu pandemic hit Camp Fremont and killed 147. At the start of World War II, the US government bought the 260-acre estate of Timothy Hopkins from his widow and created the Palo Alto General Hospital renamed the Dibble General Hospital. After the war ended, some of the land was sold to the city and became the sites of the main library and city hall. More of
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Union Iron Works
Union Iron Works, located in San Francisco, California, on the southeast waterfront, was a central business within the large industrial zone of Potrero Point, for four decades at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. The Donahue Brothers and James, Irish immigrants, founded Union Iron Works in the south of Market area of San Francisco in 1849. After years as the premiere producer of mining, railroad and locomotive machinery in California, Union Iron Works, led by I. M. Scott, entered the ship building business and relocated to Potrero Point where its shipyards still exist, making the site on the north side of the Potrero the longest running owned shipyard in the United States. After Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation bought the works in 1905, the consolidated company came to include the Alameda Works Shipyard, located across the San Francisco Bay in Alameda and the Hunter's Point shipyard to the south. In 1885, the Union Iron Works launched the first steel hulled ship on the west coast, the Arago, built with steel from the Pacific Rolling Mills.
In 1886, UIW was awarded a $1,000,000 contract to build a Naval cruiser, the Charleston, which they completed in eighteen months. From the completion of the Arago in 1884 to 1902, UIW built seventy-five marine vessels, including two of the most famous vessels of the Spanish–American War, the Olympia and the Oregon. An 1892 description of the yards stated that between 1200 and 1500 men were employed and the yearly gross revenue was between $2,000,000 and $4,000,000. By the turn of the century, the shipyard had expanded in area and employment had more than doubled to 3,500; these industrial facilities used five types of power, distributed throughout. Union Iron works built a number of ships for the United States Navy; these ships include the USS Oregon laid down in 1891, Adder-class submarines Grampus and Pike which were launched in 1902 and 1903, respectively. The latter two were subcontracted from the Holland Torpedo Boat Company, were the first submarines built on the West Coast. In 1902, the Union Iron Works was absorbed into a combine called the United States Shipbuilding Company and was mired in three years of litigation.
In 1905, the entire 40-acre shipyard was purchased by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation for one million dollars. Charles M. Schwab stood on the steps of the UIW office building on 20th Street during the auction. At this point, he was the only bidder. Schwab was believed to have engineered the demise of the U. S. Shipbuilding Corporation in order to gain control of the industry. Whether or not, true, he benefited from the collapse of the US Shipbuilding combine. At the time of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the coastal passenger liner Columbia of the San Francisco and Portland Steamship Company had been undergoing a refit at the yard's hydraulic drydock; the earthquake caused the iron hulled Columbia to shift off her supports and roll onto the drydock on her starboard side. This rendered a key feature of the yard, damaged beyond economic repair; the Columbia on the other hand, despite being flooded and damaged, was repaired and returned to service in January 1907. In 1908, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation bought the Hunters Point, San Francisco, California drydocks.
In the pre-World War I era, Union Iron Works built several navy ships that became internationally famous due to the Spanish–American War including Commodore Dewey's flagship the Olympia. After 1905, the shipyard operated as part of Bethlehem Steel, produced both warships and merchant ships; the named locomotives built by Union Iron Works were: "California" for the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad "Atlantic" for the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad "A. A. Sargent" for the Central Pacific Railroad "Mt. Diablo" for the Pittsburg Railroad "Boston" for the Pittsburg Railroad "Union" for the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad "Sampson" for the Pittsburg Railroad "D. O. Mills" for the Black Diamond Coal Mining Railroad "Calistoga" for the California Pacific Railroad "Lyon" for the Virginia and Truckee Railroad "Ormsby" for the Virginia and Truckee Railroad "Storey" for the Virginia and Truckee Railroad "J. G. Downey" for the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad "W. C. Ralston" for the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad "Geyser" for the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad "Santa Rosa" for the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad "John D. Hall" for the Battle Mountain and Lewis Railroad "S. H. Harmon" for the Gualala Railroad "Starr Grove" for the Battle Mountain and Lewis Railroad "F. Camacho" for the Acajutla and Sonsonate Railroad "Ukiah" for the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad Some of the ships and ferries built by Union Iron Works include: El Primero launched in 1893 USS Oregon launched in 1893 USS Wisconsin launched in 1898 Berkeley, 1898 Southern Pacific Railroad ferry, constructed with the USS Wisconsin in an adjacent drydock.
First complete ferry built by Union Iron Works San Pablo, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad passenger ferry. 1899. Sold for scrap in 1937. Hull became first fish reduction plant on San Pablo Bay Tamalpais, 1900 Northwest Railroad passenger ferry. Burned for scrap 1947 USS Ohio launched in 1901 USS Monterey launched in 1891 USS Wyoming launched in 1900 USS Wheeling launched in 1897 USS Marietta launched in 1897 USS Charleston launched in 1888 USS San Francisco launched 26 October 1889 USS Olympia launched in 1892. Admiral Dewey's flagshi
The Bayshore Cutoff is the rail line between San Francisco and San Bruno along the eastern shore of the San Francisco Peninsula. It was completed by Southern Pacific in 1907 at a cost of $7 million, included a series of five tunnels, four of which are still used daily by Caltrain, the successor to Southern Pacific's Peninsula Commute service. Fill excavated from the five tunnels was used to build the Visitacion or Bayshore Yard, the main SP classification yard near the city of Brisbane; the original alignment of the Coast Line completed in 1863 took it around the western side of San Bruno Mountain, through the cities of Colma and Daly City. Rail traffic along the original route was forced to use helper engines to traverse heavy grades and sharp curves along an indirect route nearly 13 miles long; the Bayshore Cutoff reduced the distance to 10.5 miles with a maximum grade of 0.3 percent. Once the Bayshore Cutoff was completed, mainline traffic was shifted to it, the former route was renamed the Ocean View line and relegated to branch status.
It was used to carry coffins to Colma before it was abandoned in the 1940s. In the late 1980s, BART purchased the right-of-way of the abandoned Ocean View line to use for the San Francisco International Airport extension south from Daly City. One tunnel on the Bayshore Cutoff was abandoned when the line was rerouted east to accommodate the Bayshore Freeway in the 1950s; the rail yard was in operation until the 1970s, the site is being considered for redevelopment for light industrial/retail use as part of the Brisbane Baylands development project. The original route between San Francisco and San Bruno was laid by the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad, one of the companies, absorbed into the Southern Pacific. From the station in San Francisco at Mariposa and 18th, tracks were laid bearing west-southwest through the Mission District close to the present-day route of San Jose Avenue. Southern Pacific took over the Peninsula Corridor in 1870 from the SF&SJ and began operating the Peninsula Commute between San Francisco and San Jose.
Surveys were conducted for an alternate route east of San Bruno Mountain as early as 1878 and in 1894, it was revealed that SP had secretly purchased a more direct route along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay through an agent, Alfred E. Davis, who had built a narrow-gauge railroad to Santa Cruz. By 1900, the Bayshore Cutoff route, including five tunnels, had been designed and plans were announced to start work "within a few weeks"; the San Francisco Board of Supervisors attempted to compel SP to start using the Bayshore route by passing an ordinance in 1900 directing the Board of Public Works to tear up the existing tracks. SP was granted an injunction to prevent that action, but BPW Commissioner Maguire planned to bring witnesses "to testify that the clanging of bells, shrieks of whistles, etc. interferes with the comfort and peace of the surrounding residents."SP announced firm plans to build the Bayshore Cutoff and double-track the line in late 1901. President E. H. Harriman reiterated SP's plans to construct the Cutoff in mid-1902, predicting completion within the calendar year.
Double-tracking from Burlingame south to San Jose was announced as well, completed by 1903. In conjunction with the Dumbarton Cutoff, the Bayshore Cutoff was designed to facilitate transcontinental rail service into San Francisco. Instead of being a remote spur terminal, San Francisco would become "practically the same as a main line station" with the completion of the two new cutoffs, transcontinental freight could be loaded directly on trains without having to be ferried across the Bay; the San Jose-based Evening News touted the benefits of the Cutoff, saying the fifteen minute savings in travel time combined with a more temperate climate would lead to increased population in San Jose: "The warmer and more climatic conditions make far preferable for residence to a place where the men feel the need of an overcoat in the evening of the warmest days, where the ladies scarcely know what it is to dress in light clothing and walk out in the evening." In 1903, the route of the Bayshore Cutoff was adjusted slightly.
Over a one-year period, Joseph B. Coryell acted as agent for SP to purchase properties bordering Islais Creek to allow the rerouting of the line; the Bayshore Railway company was founded as a subsidiary of the Southern Pacific to build the Bayshore Cutoff. Construction started in 1904 and was completed in 1907 at a cost of $7 million, one of the most expensive rail lines constructed to date. In comparison, the Lucin Cutoff, which included a trestle across the northern end of the Great Salt Lake and saved 44 miles of distance, cost $9 million; the Bayshore Cutoff, along with the Lucin and Montalvo Cutoffs, alleviated three key bottlenecks for Southern Pacific. Rail traffic to and from San Francisco shifted over to the new Bayshore Cutoff and has remained along that route since its completion. Caltrain operates daily commuter train service through four of the tunnels constructed for the Bayshore Cutoff; the fifth tunnel at Sierra Point was bypassed with the completion of the Bayshore Freeway in the 1950s.
The prior route west of San Bruno Mountain was renamed the Ocean View line and relegated to branch status. Although the Ocean View line was abandoned in 1942, the rails remained in place until the right-of-way was sold to the Bay Area Rapid Transit District and construction bega