Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga was a Roman noble of Japanese imperial descent with ancestral ties to Emperor Kanmu and a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the daimyō of Sendai. In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain. This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, and follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582, on the return trip and his companions re-traced their route across Mexico in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manila, and sailing north to Japan in 1620. He is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in the Americas, although Hasekuras embassy was cordially received in Europe, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking, Hasekura returned to Japan in 1620 and died of illness a year later, his embassy seemingly ending with few results in an increasingly isolationist Japan.
Japans next embassy to Europe would only occur more than 200 years later, little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent and had ties with Emperor Kanmu. He was a noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle that was constructed in Hasekura Ward, Kawasaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, the place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura Village, now Hasekura Ward in Kawasaki City. Hasekura and Date Masamune were of roughly the age. It is recorded that Hasekura served as a samurai during the Japanese invasion of Korea under the Taikō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in 1612, Hasekuras father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, and he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, and his son should normally have been executed as well, however, gave him the opportunity to redeem his honour by placing him in charge of the Embassy to Europe, and soon gave him back his territories as well.
The Spanish started trans-Pacific voyages between New Spain and the Philippines in 1565, the famous Manila galleons carried silver from Mexican mines westward to the entrepôt of Manila in the Spanish possession of the Philippines. There, the silver was used to purchase spices and trade goods gathered from throughout Asia, Spanish ships were periodically shipwrecked on the coasts of Japan due to bad weather, initiating contacts with the country. The Spanish wished to expand the Christian faith in Japan, some Japanese, such as Christopher and Cosmas, are known to have crossed the Pacific onboard Spanish galleons as early as 1587. It is known that gifts were exchanged between the governor of the Philippines and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who thanks him in a 1597 letter, writing The black elephant in particular I found most unusual. In 1609, the Spanish Manila galleon San Francisco encountered bad weather on its way from Manila to Acapulco, the sailors were rescued and welcomed, and the ships captain, Rodrigo de Vivero, former interim governor of the Philippines, met with the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Vizcaino arrived in Japan in 1611 and had meetings with the Shogun
Red seal ships
Red-seal ships were Japanese armed merchant sailing ships bound for Southeast Asian ports with red-sealed letters patent issued by the early Tokugawa shogunate in the first half of the 17th century. Between 1600 and 1635, more than 350 Japanese ships went overseas under this permit system, from the 13th to the 16th century, Japanese ships were quite active in Asian waters, often in the role of wakō pirates who plundered the coast of the Chinese Empire. Official trading missions were sent to China, such as the Tenryūji-bune around 1341. Altogether 150 Ryukyuan ships are recorded between the kingdom and Southeast Asia,61 of them for Annam,10 for Malacca,10 for Pattani,8 for Java etc. Their commerce disappeared around 1570 with the rise of Chinese merchants and the intervention of Portuguese and Spanish ships, the Ryūkyū kingdom was finally invaded by Japan in 1609. The Red Seal system appears from at least 1592, under Hideyoshi, the first actually preserved Shuinjō is dated to 1604, under Tokugawa Ieyasu, first ruler of Tokugawa Japan.
Tokugawa issued red-sealed permits to his feudal lords and principal merchants who were interested in foreign trade. By doing so, he was able to control Japanese traders and his seal guaranteed the protection of the ships, since he vowed to pursue any pirate or nation who would violate it. Besides Japanese traders,12 European and 11 Chinese residents, including William Adams, at one point after 1621, Jan Joosten is recorded to have possessed 10 Red Seal Ships for commerce. Portuguese, Dutch, English ships and Asian rulers basically protected Japanese red seal ships, only Ming China had nothing to do with this practice, because the Empire officially prohibited Japanese ships from entering Chinese ports. The complement was about 200 people per ship, the ships were built in various places. Some of them, built in Nagasaki, combined Western and Chinese ship designs. And once the trade with Southeast Asia became well established, numerous ships were ordered and purchased in Ayutthaya in Siam, due to the excellence of the construction and the quality of Thai wood.
The funds for the purchase of merchandise in Asia were loaned to the managers of the expedition for an interest of 35% to 55% per trip, going as high as 100% in the case of Siam. Japanese merchants mainly exported silver, copper and other artifacts and spices were rarely imported into Japan, where people did not eat a great deal of meat due to the local preponderance of adherents to the Buddhist belief system. Southeast Asian ports provided meeting places for Japanese and Chinese ships, the crew of the red seal ships were international, for many Chinese and Dutch pilots and interpreters joined the sails. The first Red Seal ships were required to have a Portuguese pilot on board, the Portolan maps used on the Red Seal ships were drawn on the Portuguese model, with directions in the Japanese language. A Dutch commander wrote, they are a rough and a people, lambs in their own country
Length overall, often abbreviated as is the maximum length of a vessels hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship and it is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is used for calculating the cost of a marina berth. LOA is usually measured on the hull alone, for sailing ships, this may exclude the bowsprit and other fittings added to the hull. This is how some racing boats and tall ships use the term LOA, other sources may include bowsprits in LOA. Sparred length, Total length including bowsprit, Mooring length and LOA including bowsprit are other expressions that might indicate the length of a sailing ship. Often used to distinguish between the length of a vessel including projections from the length of the hull itself, the Length on Deck or LOD is often reported and this is especially useful for smaller sailing vessels, as their LOA can be significantly different from their LOD. In ISO8666 for small boats, there is a definition of LOH and this may be shorter than a vessels LOA, because it excludes other parts attached to the hull, such as bowsprits.
Another measure of length is LWL which is useful in assessing a vessels performance. In some cases LWL can be shorter than LOA. Overall length in cartridges The National Register of Historic Vessels Length between perpendiculars Hayler, William B, John M. American Merchant Seamans Manual. Turpin, Edward A. McEwen, William A
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from the Pope in 1209. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, the austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans traveled and preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties, Saint Clare, under Franciss guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans. The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in final revision of the Rule in 1223, the degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the Observant branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the Capuchins and Conventuals.
The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases, Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, the name of original order, Friars Minor, means lesser brothers, and stems from Francis of Assisis rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully. Francis adopted of the tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order. Those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First Order The First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are commonly called simply the Franciscans and this Order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi.
Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum, St. Francis thus referred to his followers as Fraticelli, meaning Little Brothers. Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor, known as the Observants, most commonly simply called Franciscan friars, official name, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or simply Capuchins, official name, Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name, Friars Minor Conventual, Second Order The Second Order, most commonly called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters. The order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as The Poor Ladies, The Poor Enclosed Nuns
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Uraga is a subdivision of the city of Yokosuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It is located on the eastern side of the Miura Peninsula, at the northern end of the Uraga Channel. The area was tenryō territory under control of the shogunate. In 1846, Captain James Biddle of the United States Navy anchored two warships, the USS Columbus and the USS Vincennes in Uraga Channel and this was a first step in what turned out to be an unsuccessful effort to an open trading relationship between Japan and the United States. On July 14,1853, the American Commodore Perry and his Black ships anchored in front of Uraga, on the return of the squadron in 1854, the ships passed Uraga to anchor closer to Edo at Kanagawa, which is where the city of Yokohama now stands. In 1860, the Kanrin Maru Japans first sail and screw-driven steam corvette departed Uraga with the first Japanese Embassy to the United States, in the Meiji period, the town of Uraga was administratively part of Miura District of Kanagawa Prefecture.
It was merged into the city of Yokosuka on April 1,1943, dock number 2 is still in operation. Uraga is now primarily a community for commuters to Yokohama. A History of Japan, 1582-1941, Internal and External Worlds, the Logbook of the Captains Clerk, Adventures in the China Seas, Maine, Chas H. Glass & Co. National Archives of Japan, Digital Gallery, Marine survey chart, Uraga harbor, published 1878
Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98. 5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999, Carpenters are usually the first tradesmen on a job and the last to leave. Carpenters normally framed post-and-beam buildings until the end of the 19th century and it is common that the skill can be learned by gaining work experience other than a formal training program, which may be the case in many places. The word carpenter is the English rendering of the Old French word carpentier which is derived from the Latin carpentrius, the Middle English and Scots word was wright, which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright. An easy way to envisage this is that first fix work is all that is done before plastering takes place, second fix is done after plastering takes place. Second fix work, the construction of such as skirting boards, architraves. Carpentry is used to construct the formwork into which concrete is poured during the building of such as roads.
In the UK, the skill of making timber formwork for poured, or in situ, although the. work of a carpenter and joiner are often combined. Joiner is less common than the finish carpenter or cabinetmaker. The terms housewright and barnwright were used historically, now used by carpenters who work using traditional methods. Someone who builds custom concrete formwork is a form carpenter, wood is one of mankinds oldest building materials. The ability to shape wood improved with technological advances from the age to the bronze age to the iron age. The oldest surviving, complete text is Vitruvius ten books collectively titled De architectura which discusses some carpentry. By the 16th century sawmills were coming into use in Europe, the founding of America was partly based on a desire to extract resources from the new continent including wood for use in ships and buildings in Europe. In the 18th century part of the Industrial Revolution was the invention of the steam engine and these technologies combined with the invention of the circular saw led to the development of balloon framing which was the beginning of the decline of traditional timber framing.
The 19th century saw the development of engineering and distribution which allowed the development of hand-held power tools, wire nails. In the 20th century portland cement came into use and concrete foundations allowed carpenters to do away with heavy timber sills. Also, drywall came into common use replacing lime plaster on wooden lath, engineered lumber and chemically treated lumber came into use
Another possible origin is the Old French word galie meaning galley, from Byzantine Greek galea. The galea was a warship of the Byzantine navy, and its name may be related to the Greek word galeos, the term was originally given to certain types of war galleys in the Middle Ages. The Annali Genovesi mentions galleons of 80,64 and 60 oars, used for battle and on missions of exploration and it is very likely that the galleons and galliots mentioned in the accounts of the crusades were the same vessels. In the early 16th century, the Venetian galleoni was a new class of galley used to hunt down pirates in the Mediterranean. In Portugal at least, Portuguese carracks were very large ships for their time, while galleons were mostly under 500 tons. One of the largest and most famous of Portuguese galleons was the São João Baptista, there are disputes about its origins and development but each Atlantic sea power built types suited to its needs, while constantly learning from their rivals. It was the captains of the Spanish navy, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and Álvaro de Bazán, the galleon was powered entirely by wind, using sails carried on three or four masts, with a lateen sail continuing to be used on the last masts.
They were used in military and trade applications, most famously in the Spanish treasure fleet, and the Manila Galleons. While carracks played the role in early global explorations, galleons played a part in the 16th and 17th centuries. In fact, galleons were so versatile that a vessel may have been refitted for wartime and peacetime roles several times during its lifespan. The galleon was the prototype of all square-rigged ships with three or more masts for over two and a half centuries, including the full-rigged ship, Galleons were constructed from oak and various hardwoods for hull and decking. The expenses involved in construction were enormous. Hundreds of expert tradesmen worked day and night for months before a galleon was seaworthy, to cover the expense, galleons were often funded by groups of wealthy businessmen who pooled resources for a new ship. Therefore, most galleons were originally consigned for trade, although those captured by rival states were usually put into military service, the most common gun used aboard a galleon was the demi-culverin, although gun sizes up to demi-cannon were possible.
Galleons were a class of blue water sailing ship that combined the easy-to-maneuver fore-and-aft rig of smaller shipping with the rig of late middle ages cargo vessels. On average with three masts, in larger galleons, a fourth mast was added, usually another lateen-rigged mizzen, the oldest known scale drawings in England are in a manuscript called Fragments of Ancient Shipwrightry made in about 1586 by Mathew Baker, a master-shipwright. This manuscript, held at the Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, provides a reference for the size. Based on these plans, the Science Museum, London has built a 1,48 scale model ship that is an exemplar of galleons of this era
Date Masamune was a regional strongman of Japans Azuchi–Momoyama period through early Edo period. Heir to a line of powerful daimyōs in the Tōhoku region. An outstanding tactician, he was all the more iconic for his missing eye. As a legendary warrior and leader, Masamune is a character in a number of Japanese period dramas and he was played by Ken Watanabe in the popular 1987 NHK series Dokuganryū Masamune. Date Masamune was the eldest son of Date Terumune, born in Yonezawa Castle, at the age of 14 in 1581 Masamune led his first campaign, helping his father fight the Sōma family. In 1584, at the age of 17, Masamune succeeded his father, Masamunes army was recognized by its black armor and golden headgear. Masamune is known for a few things that made him out from other daimyōs of the time. In particular, his famous crescent-moon-bearing helmet won him a fearsome reputation, as a child, smallpox robbed him of sight in his right eye, though it is unclear exactly how he lost the organ entirely. Various theories behind the eyes condition exist, some sources say he plucked out the eye himself when a senior member of the clan pointed out that an enemy could grab it in a fight.
Others say that he had his trusted retainer Katakura Kojūrō gouge out the eye for him, the Date clan had built alliances with neighboring clans through marriages over previous generations, but local disputes remained commonplace. Shortly after Masamunes succession in 1584, a Date retainer named Ōuchi Sadatsuna defected to the Ashina clan of the Aizu region, Masamune declared war on Ōuchi and the Ashina for this betrayal, and started a campaign to hunt down Sadatsuna. Formerly amicable alliances were cast aside as he began to attack and conquer the lands of Sadatsunas allies in pursuit, even those of his kin in Mutsu and Dewa Provinces. In the winter of 1585, one of allies, Hatakeyama Yoshitsugu, felt defeat was approaching. Masamune agreed to accept the surrender, but on the condition that the Hatakeyama give up most of their territory to the Date. This resulted in Yoshitsugu kidnapping Masamunes father Terumune during their meeting in Miyamori Castle, the incident ended with both Yoshitsugu and Terumune killed as the fleeing Hatakeyama party clashed with the pursuing Date troops near the Abukuma River.
Various records of the event exist, although they present different accounts of its circumstances, the Date fought many battles with their neighbours afterwards, including the Battle of Hitotoribashi in 1585. After defeating the Ashina at the Battle of Suriagehara in 1589, in 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi seized Odawara Castle and compelled the Tōhoku-region daimyōs to participate in the campaign. Although Masamune refused Hideyoshis demands at first, he had no choice in the matter since Hideyoshi was the virtual ruler of Japan
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos