Sassofeltrio is a comune in the Province of Pesaro e Urbino in the Italian region Marche, located about 90 kilometres northwest of Ancona and about 30 kilometres west of Pesaro. Sassofeltrio borders the following municipalities: Chiesanuova, Fiorentino, Mercatino Conca, Monte Grimano, San Leo, Verucchio. Caderzone Terme, Italy
Forte di San Leo
The Fortress of San Leo is a castle on the border of the Romagna and Marche. It was one of the palaces owned by Federico da Montefeltro and his wife Battista Sforza and was a fortified, palatial retreat, it is now a museum. The first fortification on the top of the mountain was built by the Romans. In the Middle Ages it was bitterly fought over by the Byzantines, Goths and Lombards. Between 961 and 963 Berengar II, the last king of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy, was besieged by Otto I of Saxony. Around the middle of the eleventh century the Counts of Montecopiolo came to Montefeltro, the ancient name of San Leo, from which they took the name and title. In the second half of the 14th century the Malatesta were able to capture the fortress, but until the middle of the 15th century, the castle was retaken by the Montefeltro. In 1441 the young Federico da Montefeltro scaled the walls of the fort. Faced with the new military dangers, he had the fortress rebuilt, entrusting the task to the Sienese engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini.
The new structure allowed for a dynamic counter-offensive. The fortress sides were equipped with artillery and the access points were rendered unreachable by enemy fire thanks to military outposts. In 1502, Cesare Borgia, with the support of Pope Alexander VI, took possession of the fortress. At the death of the pope, in 1503, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro took possession of his dominions. In 1516 the Florentine troops, supported this time by Pope Leo X and guided by Antonio Ricasoli, penetrated the city and commandeered the fort. From 1527 until the devolution to the Papal State from the Duchy of Urbino in 1631, San Leo belonged to the Della Rovere. With the new ownership, the fortress was used as a prison. Among the inmates were Felice Orsini and Freemason Alessandro Cagliostro. In 1906 the fortress ceased to be a prison and for eight years, until 1914, it hosted a "compagnia di disciplina". In the period of Italia Unita, the municipality of San Leo belonged to the province of Marche, until 15 August 2009 when it was separated together with six other municipalities of the Valmarecchia, following the outcome of a referendum held on 17 and 18 December 2006.
The castle houses a museum and an art gallery in arms. In the fortress there are two distinct parts: the keep, with its square turrets and the gothic entrance is the older part and residential wing; the two towers, the wall, the keep surround the so-called Place d'Armes. The area is dotted with rocky peaks. On each of these peaks, the ruins of a castle or fort recall a tumultuous past. To the visitor who walks up the Romagna plain, the City-Fortress appears as a huge shield of high smooth rock, it appears like a ship with the bow to the East, the bell tower like a mast, the handful of houses scattered around. It played a large part in the 1991-film Hudson Hawk as the fictional castle of Leonardo da Vinci. Photographs of the village and museum
Italian National Institute of Statistics
The Italian National Institute of Statistics is the main producer of official statistics in Italy. Its activities include the census of population, economic censuses and a number of social and environmental surveys and analyses. Istat is by far the largest producer of statistical information in Italy, is an active member of the European Statistical System, coordinated by Eurostat, its publications are released under creative commons "Attribution" license. Istat was created in 1926 as "Central Institute of Statistics", to collect and organize essential data about the nation, it took its current denomination with the reform of 1989. This gave Istat statutory responsibility for the coordination and standardization of official statistics collected or published under the aegis of the national statistical system SISTAN, whose membership includes the statistical offices of ministries, national agencies, provinces, chambers of commerce, similar bodies. Since 4 August 2009, Enrico Giovannini, former Chief statistician of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has been the President of the institute.
Istituto Centrale di Statistica: Alberto Canaletti Gaudenti Lanfranco Maroi Giuseppe De Meo Guido Maria Rey Istituto Nazionale di Statistica: Guido Maria Rey Alberto Zuliani Luigi Biggeri Enrico Giovannini Antonio Golini Giorgio Alleva Istat has 18 regional offices which host public access points named Centri di informazione statistica, in English Statistical information centers. The center in Rome offers data from Eurostat; the library, established in 1926, is open to the public and contains Istat publications and international works on statistical and socioeconomics subjects, journals from other national statistical institutes and international organizations. The library collection receives about 2800 periodical journals. There are 1500 volumes printed prior to 1900. Official Website SISTAN
City of San Marino
The City of San Marino is the capital city of the Republic of San Marino, Southern Europe. The city has a population of 4,044, it is on the western slopes of Monte Titano. Although not the capital, most of the businesses are in Borgo Maggiore, it is the third largest city in the country, after Borgo Maggiore. It borders the San Marino municipalities Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore and Chiesanuova and the Italian municipality San Leo. Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino is centered here. Due to its being the capital and the only city in San Marino, the history of this city is the same as the History of San Marino. For more information on that topic, see that article; the city was founded by Saint Marinus and several Christian refugees in the year 301. From on the city became a center of Christian refugees who fled from Roman persecution; the urban heart of the city was protected by three towers: the first, constructed in the 11th century, was famous for being impenetrable, which to a great extent discouraged attacks on the city.
Due to the Crusades, it was felt necessary to construct Cesta. But the Sanmarinense defensive system was not completed until the construction of a third tower, the Montale - the smallest of all and constructed on the last of the summits of Monte Titano. With the population of the city increasing, the territory of the country was extended by a few square kilometers. Since the Sanmarinese policy was not to invade or to use war to obtain new territories, it was by means of purchases and treaties that San Marino obtained the other eight castelli which make up San Marino; the City of San Marino has the following 7 parishes or wards: Cà Berlone, Casole, Montalbo, Santa Mustiola The economy of the city of San Marino has always been bound to that of the country. Until the main economic activities of the locality were stone extraction and carving. Today, there is a more varied economy, including tourism, sale of postage stamps, a small agricultural industry, although the latter is in decline; the city is visited by more than three million people per year, has developed progressively as a tourist centre.
Of the tourists, 85% are Italian. There are more than a thousand retail outlets, where one can find a great variety of products. Basilica di San Marino Palazzo dei Capitani Palazzo Pubblico The Three Towers of San Marino Piazza del Titano Piazza Garibaldi Monastery of Santa Clara Grand Hotel San Marino The town is known for its long, winding cobblestoned streets, as its altitude and steep approach put it beyond the reach of the San Marino Superhighway. San Marino is notable in that cars are prohibited in much of the town center. Before the Second World War, a railway was built from San Marino to Rimini under the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini, its tunnels, the railway station'Piazzale Lo Stradone', still exist. Proposals for the reopening of this railway have been presented to the government on several occasions, but thus far without action. There is a regular bus service to Rimini, a 1.5 kilometres cable car line connects the capital with Borgo Maggiore. A series of lifts connects the upper part of town with the lower.
The city of San Marino has two football teams: the S. S. Murata and the S. P. Tre Penne; the city had the Olympic Flame pass through San Marino during the run-up to the 2006 Winter Olympics. City of San Marino is twinned with: San Leo, Italy Rab, Croatia Rønne, Denmark Scranton, United States Media related to San Marino at Wikimedia Commons San Marino's page on giuntedicastello.sm
Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna, it has an area of 22,446 km2, about 4.4 million inhabitants. Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. Emilia-Romagna is a cultural and tourist centre, being the home of the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, containing Romanesque and Renaissance cities, a former Eastern Roman Empire capital such as Ravenna, encompassing eleven UNESCO heritage sites, being a centre for food and automobile production and having popular coastal resorts such as Cervia, Cesenatico and Riccione. In 2018, the Lonely Planet guide named Emilia Romagna as the best place to see in Europe; the name Emilia-Romagna is a legacy of Ancient Rome. Emilia derives from the via Aemilia, the Roman road connecting Piacenza to Rimini, completed in 187 BC and named after the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Romagna derives from Romània, the name of the Eastern Roman Empire applied to Ravenna by the Lombards when the western Empire had ceased to exist and Ravenna was an outpost of the east. Before the Romans took control of present-day Emilia-Romagna, it had been part of the Etruscan world and that of the Gauls. During the first thousand years of Christianity trade flourished, as did culture and religion, thanks to the region's monasteries. Afterwards the University of Bologna—arguably the oldest university in Europe—and its bustling towns kept trade and intellectual life alive, its unstable political history is exemplified in such figures as Matilda of Canossa and contending seigniories such as the Este of Ferrara, the Malatesta of Rimini, the Popes of Rome, the Farnese of Parma and Piacenza, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio. In the 16th century, most of these were seized by the Papal States, but the territories of Parma and Modena remained independent until Emilia-Romagna became part of the Italian kingdom between 1859 and 1861.
After the referendum of 2006, seven municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join that of Rimini on 15 August 2009. The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. On 20 and 29 May 2012 two powerful earthquakes hit the area, they caused churches and factories to collapse. 200 were injured. The 5.8 magnitude quake left 14,000 people homeless. The region of Emilia-Romagna consists of nine provinces and covers an area of 22,446 km², ranking sixth in Italy. Nearly half of the region consists of plains while 27 % is 25 % mountainous; the region's section of the Apennines is marked by areas of badland erosion and caves. The mountains stretch for more than 300 km from the north to the south-east, with only three peaks above 2,000 m – Monte Cimone, Monte Cusna and Alpe di Succiso; the plain was formed by the gradual retreat of the sea from the Po basin and by the detritus deposited by the rivers. Marshland in ancient times, its history is characterised by the hard work of its people to reclaim and reshape the land in order to achieve a better standard of living.
The geology varies, with lagoons and saline areas in the north and many thermal springs throughout the rest of the region as a result of groundwater rising towards the surface at different periods of history. All the rivers rise locally in the Apennines except for the Po, which has its source in the Alps in Piedmont; the northern border of Emilia-Romagna follows the path of the river for 263 km. The region has a temperate broadleaved and mixed forests and the vegetation may be divided into belts: the Common oak-European hornbeam belt, now covered with fruit orchards and fields of wheat and sugar beet, the Pubescent oak-European hop-hornbeam belt on the lower slopes up to 900 m, the European beech-Silver fir belt between 1,000 and 1,500 m and the final mountain heath belt. Emilia-Romagna has two Italian National Parks, the Foreste Casentinesi National Park and the Appennino Tosco-Emiliano National Park. Emilia-Romagna has been a populated area since ancient times. Inhabitants over the centuries have radically altered the landscape, building cities, reclaiming wetlands, establishing large agricultural areas.
All these transformations in past centuries changed the aspect of the region, converting large natural areas to cultivation, up until the 1960s. The trend changed, agricultural lands began giving way to residential and industrial areas; the increase of urban-industrial areas continued at high rates until the end of the 2010s. In the same period and mountainous areas saw an increase in the registration of semi-natural areas, because of the abandonment of agricultural lands. Land use changes can have strong effects on ecological functions. Human interactions such as agriculture and deforestation affect soil function, e.g. food and other biomass production, storing and transformation, habitat and gene pool. In the Emilia-Romagna plain, which represents half of the region and where three quarters of the population of the region live, the agricultural land area has been reduced by 157 km2 while urban and industrial areas
Romagnol is a group of related dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the historical region of Romagna, today in the south-eastern part of Emilia-Romagna. The name itself is derived from the Lombard name for the region Romania, it is spoken outside the region in the neighboring province of Pesaro-Urbino and in the independent country of San Marino. It is classified as a threatened language, due to older generations having “neglected to pass on the dialect as a native tongue to the next generation”. While contemporaneous with modern Standard Italian, it is technically a member of the Gallo-Italic branch and more comparable to the “northern group” of Italian dialects; this includes the dialects Emilian, Ligurian and Piedmontese. It is sometimes considered a subdialect of a larger Emilian-Romagnol language, which encompasses a broad continuum of dialects spanning the region of Emilia-Romagna. West of Romagna, the Emilian language is spoken; the border with Emilian-speaking areas is the Sillaro river, which runs 25 km east from Bologna to the west of.
Emilian is spoken, to the east, in Imola, the language is Romagnol. In Emilia-Romagna, Emilian is spoken in all the rest of the region moving from the Sillaro river to the west, up to Piacenza; the Reno River is the dialect of Ferrara. Romagnol is spoken in some villages northwards of the Reno River, such as Argenta, Emilia–Romagna and Filo, where people of Romagnol origin live alongside people of Ferrarese origin. Ferrara goes into Emilian language territory. Outside Emilia-Romagna, Romagnol is spoken in the Republic of San Marino, in the Marecchia Valley, in the Conca Valley and in all of the Pesaro e Urbino province. Romagnol's first acknowledgement outside regional literature was in Dante Alighieri’s treatise De vulgari eloquentia, wherein Dante compares “the language of Romagna” to his native Tuscan dialect. In 1629, the author Adriano Banchieri wrote the treatise Discorso della lingua Bolognese, which countered Dante’s claim that the Tuscan dialect was better, arguing his belief that Bolognese was superior in “naturalness, softness and usefulness.”
Romagnol received more recognition. There is a large repertoire of folklore legends and fables in Romagnol, due to its role in local geopolitical history. Romagna’s geographic diversity was home to a variety of lifestyles and trade backgrounds, such as “the mountaineers of the Alps, the fisherman of the Adriatic, the farmers of the plains, the city folk,” which in turn, allowed for a large range of topics and themes present in the literature. Darker themes, such as poverty and pessimism, are known to be common subjects of Romagnol poetry and prose; the first appearance of a distinct Romagnol literary work is "Sonetto romagnolo" by Bernardino Catti, from Ravenna, printed 1502. It is written in a mixture of Romagnol; the first Romagnol poem dates back to the end of 16th century: E Pvlon matt. Cantlena aroica, a mock-heroic poem based on Orlando Furioso and written by an anonymous author from San Vittore di Cesena; the original poem comprised twelve cantos. The first Romagnol poet to win fame was the cleric Pietro Santoni.
He was the teacher of one of the most famous Italian poets of his time. In 1840 the first Romagnol-Italian Dictionary was published by Antonio Morri, printed in Faenza; the 20th century saw a flourishing of Romagnol literature. Theatrical plays and books of a high quality were produced; some of the best known Romagnol authors are: Raffaello Baldini, who won in 1988 the "Premio Viareggio" and in 1995 the "Premio Bagutta," known for long pessimistic poems and prose Tonino Guerra, wrote poems during his exile to WWII-era Germany, focusing on people of suffering and poverty Olindo Guerrini, with "Sonetti romagnoli" Aldo Spallicci, an antifascist exiled from Romagna. He wrote poems such as "Rumâgna" that were descriptive of Romagna Unlike Standard Italian, not all nouns end in a theme vowel. Masculine nouns lack theme vowels and feminine nouns terminate in "a." To form plurals, masculine nouns and adjectives undergo lexically-specified ablaut. In the case of feminine nouns and adjectives, "a" becomes "i" or deletes if after a consonant cluster or double consonant.
Though both languages derive their lexicon from Vulgar Latin, some words differ in gender. Italian and Romagnol share much of the same features. Both languages are SVO in simple sentences. Verbs are conjugated according to tense and person. Romagnol has 4 conjugations compared to Italian's 3: the 1st, êr. One marked difference in syntax between Romagnol and Italian is that pronouns are obligatory, some verbs in Romagnol use a reflexive construction where Italian uses an intransitive construction. Verbs that are impersonal in Romagnol use "avèr," in contrast with Italian which uses "essere." Though the subject is null, an expletive pronoun inserts itself in the specifier position, much like English's "it". Italian: è piovuto, It rained Romagnol: l'à piuvù, It rainedAdditionally, whereas Standard Italian and other Northern dialects omit the definite article before “singular names and names of relatives,” Romagnol
Mondaino is a comune in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 130 kilometres southeast of Bologna and 25 kilometres southeast of Rimini. Mondaino borders the following municipalities: Montecalvo in Foglia, Montefiore Conca, Saludecio, Tavullia, Urbino. Official website