A company town is a place where all stores and housing are owned by the one company, the main employer. Company towns are planned with a suite of amenities such as stores, schools and recreation facilities, they are bigger than a model village. Some company towns have had high ideals. Others developed more or less in unplanned fashion, such as Summit Hill, United States, one of the oldest, which began as a LC&N Co. mining camp and mine site nine miles from the nearest outside road. Traditional settings for company towns were where extractive industries — coal, metal mines, lumber — had established a monopoly franchise. Dam sites and war-industry camps founded other company towns. Since company stores had a monopoly in company towns, it was possible to pay in scrip through a truck system although not all company towns engaged in this particular practice. In the Soviet Union there were several cities of nuclear scientists known as atomgrad. A company town is isolated from neighbors and centered on a large production factory, such as a lumber or steel mill or an automobile plant.
The company may donate a church building to a local congregation, operate parks, host cultural events such as concerts, so on. If the owning company cuts back or goes out of business, the economic effect on the company town is devastating, as people move to jobs elsewhere. Company towns become regular public cities and towns as they grow and attract other settlement, business enterprises, public transportation and services infrastructure. Other times, a town may not be a company town, but it may be a town where the majority of citizens are employed by a single company, thus creating a similar situation to a company town. Further, such dependencies extend to regions of larger cities. In each case, if the primary company falls on lean times, fails outright or the industry fades in importance the communities contract and lose property value and population as people move to find work elsewhere, the youth of the community bears the children of their generation in another demographic region. Paternalism, a subtle form of social engineering, refers to the control of workers by their employers who sought to force middle-class ideals upon their working-class employees.
Paternalism was considered by many nineteenth-century businessmen as a moral responsibility, or a religious obligation, which would advance society whilst furthering their own business interests. Accordingly, the company town offered a unique opportunity to achieve such ends. Although many prominent examples of company towns portray their founders as "capitalists with a conscience", for example, George Cadbury's Bournville, if viewed cynically, the company town was an economically viable ploy to attract and retain workers. Additionally, for-profit shops within company towns were owned by the company, which were unavoidable to its isolated workers, thus resulting in a monopoly for the owners. Although economically successful, company towns sometimes failed politically due to a lack of elected officials and municipally owned services. Accordingly, workers had no say in local affairs and therefore, felt dictated to; this political climate caused resentment amongst workers and resulted in many residents losing long-term affection for their towns.
Although many small company towns existed in mining areas of Pennsylvania before the Civil War, one of the largest, most substantial early company towns in the United States was Pullman, developed in the 1880s just outside the Chicago city limits. The town company-owned, provided housing, markets, a library and entertainment for the 6,000 company employees and an equal number of dependents. Employees were required to live in Pullman, although cheaper rentals could be found in nearby communities; the town operated until the economic panic of 1893, when demand for the company's products declined, employee wages had to be lowered accordingly. Despite this, the company refused to lower rents in the town or the price of goods at its shops, thus resulting in the Pullman Strike of 1894. A national commission formed to investigate the causes of the strikes found that Pullman's paternalism was to blame and labelled it "un-American"; the report condemned Pullman for refusing to negotiate and for the economic hardships he created for workers in the town of Pullman.
"The aesthetic features are admired by visitors, but have little money value to employees when they lack bread." The State of Illinois filed suit, in 1898 the Supreme Court of Illinois forced the Pullman Company to divest ownership in the town, annexed to Chicago. However, government observers maintained that Pullman's principles were accurate, in that he provided his employees with a quality of life otherwise unattainable to them, but recognised that his excessive paternalism was inappropriate for a large-scale corporate economy and thus caused the town's downfall. Accordingly, government observers and social reformers alike saw the need for a balance between control and well-designed towns, concluding that a model company town would only succeed if indepe
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Oracle is a census-designated place in Pinal County, United States. The population was 3,686 at the 2010 census. Buffalo Bill Cody owned the High Jinks Gold Mine in Oracle and, in 1911, appeared as "Santa" for a group of local children; the community is the location of the Biosphere 2 experiment. Oracle was the postal address for environmentalist author Edward Abbey, who never lived in the town but visited often. Oracle is becoming a bedroom community for Tucson, but large-scale development is opposed by many residents. Oracle State Park is adjacent; the Arizona Trail passes through community. Oracle is the gateway to the road up the "back side" of Mount Lemmon, which starts off of American Avenue and offers a secondary route to the top. Prior to the construction of the Catalina Highway on the opposite side of the Santa Catalina range, the Oracle Control Road was the only road access to the mountain community of Summerhaven; the term "control road" derives from the fact that the direction of traffic was restricted to one-way only, either up or down at alternate times of day, to prevent motorists from having to pass one another on the narrow, steep road.
This route is now popular with off-road 4x4 drivers and with off-road or dual-purpose motorcyclists, should not be attempted by regular passenger cars or street motorcycles. This road ends at the Catalina Highway near Loma Linda; the name "Oracle" comes from early prospectors. Albert Weldon came to the area looking for silver, he and some other companions named their first mine The Oracle after the ship Weldon had traveled on. The community was named after its first mine, thus, after a ship; the community began to grow in the late 1870s, as gold and silver were discovered, the Christmas and New Year mines opened. By 1880, a post office had been established; the community became a retreat for people suffering from tuberculosis. The Acadia Ranch – built in Oracle in 1882 by Edwin S. and Lillian Dodge – was, during this time, a sanitorium. On January 1, 2017, in the Arizona Daily Star newspaper, historian David Leighton challenged the accepted history of the town of Oracle: He wrote that Albert Weldon, born about 1840 in New Brunswick, traveled on his uncle Capt. A.
D. Wood's ship Oracle around Cape Horn at the tip of South America and arrived in California between 1857 and 1860. Weldon enlisted as a private in Company E, 5th California Infantry, of the Union Army, in 1861; this unit was attached to the California Column and soon marched to Tucson where Weldon was posted at a nearby stage station before moving east and being honorably discharged in Mesilla New Mexico in 1864. After his military service he returned to California and was involved in mining and lumber. In 1876 he returned to Arizona. Within a couple of years he found a partner in Irishman Jimmie Lee and both men traveled northeast of Tucson into the Santa Catalina Mountains in search of precious metal. Soon he named it Oracle in honor of his uncle's ship; the ship Oracle was built under the supervision of Captain Charles E. Ranlett and was constructed for the shipbuilding firm Chapman & Flint of Maine, it was launched in 1853 and was a temperance ship and sailed to ports across the globe including Melbourne and Shanghai, China.
It was captained by Weldon's uncle for several years. Weldon was soon joined by Alexander McKay, an immigrant from Scotland who located two mining claims named Christmas and New Years because of the days they were discovered. McKay built a one-room house, the first in the area, from it, the village grew; when it was time for a post office to be named, Oracle was the name chosen. Mr. Leighton stated that the town of Oracle takes its name from the Oracle Mine which took its name from the ship Oracle and that he believes the ship took its name from an oracle—a shrine dedicated to a particular god where people went to consult a priest or priestess in times of trouble or uncertainty—called the Temple of Apollo at Didyma in present-day Aydin Province, not the oracle at Delphi, Greece believed by some to be the origin of the name, he explained that there were two ships named Oracle made by the same shipbuilder, the second one being launched in 1876 but that this ship wasn't the boat that Weldon traveled on, as some sources have said.
Oracle has a cold semi-arid climate at an altitude of 4,500 feet. In January, the average high temperature is 56 °F with a low of 35 °F. In July, the average high temperature is 92 °F with a low of 67 °F. Annual precipitation is 24.96 inches. Rainfall increases during August, due to the monsoon effect. Snowfall varies. Vegetation includes mesquite, prickly pear, barrel cactus, cholla, emory oak and grasses. Fauna includes javelinas and Gambel's quail. Oracle and the surrounding area sit on a slab of granite called "Oracle granite", visible as red or grey-and-white speckled "boulders" rising over the scrub and grass, it is porphyritic biotite Precambrian granite with large microcline phenocrysts, has occasional inclusions of white and milky quartz and pegmatite. The granite contains ore and veins of gold or silver, sometimes copper. Oracle is located at 32°36′58″N 110°46′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 16.4 square miles, all of it land. Acadia Ranch Museum, operated by the Oracle Historical Society, local history Biosphere 2 Oracle State Park GLOW, an annual nighttime multimedia art event coinciding with the full moon.
Peppersauce Cave, a limestone cave with one
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
The Galiuro Mountains are a large sky island mountain range of southeast Arizona, USA. It is a northerly mountain range in the Madrean Sky Islands region of southeast Arizona, northern Sonora in northwestern Mexico, the extreme southwest of New Mexico; the range is noted for its height and ruggedness. The Aravaipa Canyon Wilderness encompasses the north perimeter of the range, the large Galiuro Wilderness covers the central-south. To the south, the Galiuro Wilderness borders the Redfield Canyon Wilderness. A river valley borders the range to the southwest, Aravaipa Creek and Valley border its northeast; the Galiuro Mountains are a northwest-southeast trending range. The moderately wide San Pedro Valley and River border its southwest, abutting the northeast of the large sky island Santa Catalina Mountains range; the more narrow canyon northeast is the Aravaipa Valley with Aravaipa Creek. Mammoth, northeast of Tucson and San Manuel, are the closest communities to the range on its northwest; the highest peak of the range is Bassett Peak at 7,663 feet.
Other peaks from north-to-south: Black Butte at 4,573 feet, Sixtysix Peak, Mescal Peak, Horse Mountain at 6,225 feet, Maverick Mountain at 7,003 feet, China Peak, Topout Peak, Kennedy Peak at 7,549 feet, Sunset Peak, Bassett Peak at 7,663 feet, Saddle Mountain at 6,167 feet. Arizona Mountain Ranges Highpoints Galiuro Mountains at mountainzone: Coordinates, Visual Overview via Saguaro Juniper Corporation Bassett Peak, Arizona Peaks,'Climber. Org' Media related to Galiuro Mountains at Wikimedia Commons