San Marino is a residential city in Los Angeles County, United States. It was incorporated on April 25, 1913; as of the 2010 census the population was 13,147. The city is one of the wealthiest places in the nation in terms of household income. By extension, with a median home price of $2,699,098, San Marino is one of the most expensive and exclusive neighborhoods in the nation; the city takes its name from the ancient Republic of San Marino, founded by Saint Marinus who fled his home in Dalmatia at the time of the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. Marinus took refuge at Monte Titano on the Italian peninsula, where he built a chapel and founded a monastic community in 301 A. D; the state which grew from the monastery is the world's oldest surviving republic. The seal of the City of San Marino, California is modeled on that of the republic, depicting the Three Towers of San Marino each capped with a bronze plume, surrounded by a heart-shaped scroll with two roundels and a lozenge at the top.
The crown representing the monarchy on the original was replaced with five stars representing the five members of the City's governing body. Beneath the city's seal are crossed palm fronds and orange branches. Note that other than the city's use of the name and copy of the Republic of San Marino seal there is no historical connection between them; the city celebrated its centennial in 2013, including publication by the San Marino Historical Society of a 268-page book, San Marino, A Centennial History, by Elizabeth Pomeroy. In September 2014, this book and author Elizabeth Pomeroy received a prestigious Award of Merit for Leadership in History from the American Association for State and Local History; the site of San Marino was occupied by a village of Tongva Indians located where the Huntington School is today. The area was part of the lands of the San Gabriel Mission. Principal portions of San Marino were included in an 1838 Mexican land grant of 128 acres to Victoria Bartolmea Reid, a Gabrieleña Indian..
She called the property Rancho Huerta de Cuati. After Hugo Reid's death in 1852, Señora Reid sold her rancho in 1854 to Don Benito Wilson, the first Anglo owner of Rancho San Pascual. In 1873, Don Benito conveyed to his son-in-law, James DeBarth Shorb, 500 acres, including Rancho Huerta de Cuati, which Shorb named "San Marino" after his grandfather's plantation in Maryland, which, in turn, was named after the Republic of San Marino located on the Italian Peninsula in Europe. In 1903, the Shorb rancho was purchased by Henry E. Huntington, who built a large mansion on the property; the site of the Shorb/Huntington rancho is occupied today by the Huntington Library, which houses a world-renowned art collection and rare-book library, botanical gardens. In 1913 the three primary ranchos of Wilson and Huntington, together with the subdivided areas from those and smaller ranchos, such as the Stoneman and Rose ranchos, were incorporated as the city of San Marino; the first mayor of the city of San Marino was George Smith Patton, the son of a slain Confederate States of America colonel in the U.
S. Civil War, he married the daughter of Don Benito Wilson. Their son was George S. Patton Jr.. To a prior generation of Southern Californians, San Marino was known for its old-money wealth and as a bastion of the region's WASP gentry. By mid-century, other European ethnic groups had become the majority. In 1970, the city was 99.7% White. In 1984, at Huntington Middle School, a Chinese 17 year old youth was brutally attacked with pepper spray and racial slurs by three White teenagers; as a result of racial tensions, the city formed an Ethnic Harmony Commission" to study the new racial make up in the city. By 1990, the city's households were 23.7% Asian. In 2000, the city's Asian households increased to 40%. In recent decades, immigrants of Chinese and Taiwanese ancestry have come to represent more than 60% of the population due to its location in the San Gabriel Valley, known to be a popular destination for East Asian immigrants. Stephen Hillenburg, the marine biologist who created the Nickelodeon animated series SpongeBob SquarePants died in San Marino in 2018 at the age of 57.
The city is located in the San Rafael Hills, is divided into seven zones, based on minimum lot size. The smallest lot size is about 4,500 square feet, with many averaging over 30,000 square feet; because of this and other factors, most of the homes in San Marino, built between 1920 and 1950, do not resemble the houses in surrounding Southern California neighborhoods. San Marino has fostered a sense of historic preservation among its homeowners. With minor exceptions, the city's strict design review and zoning laws have thus far prevented the development of large homes found elsewhere in Los Angeles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles all land. San Marino is restrictive of commercial operations in the city, it is one of the few cities that requires commercial vehicles to have permits to work within the city. The rationale is that commercial vehicle operators and service providers, such as gardeners, pool service providers and maintenance workers, are more to cause social disruption within the city, so must be preauthorized for crime control and prosecutorial purposes.
This regulation and others, including the bans on apartme
Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs. Human gait is defined as bipedal, biphasic forward propulsion of center of gravity of the human body, in which there are alternate sinuous movements of different segments of the body with least expenditure of energy. Different gait patterns are characterized by differences in limb-movement patterns, overall velocity, forces and potential energy cycles, changes in the contact with the surface. Human gaits are the various ways in which a human can move, either or as a result of specialized training. Human gaits are classified in various ways; every gait can be categorized as either natural or trained. Examples of the latter include hand walking and specialized gaits used in martial arts. Gaits can be categorized according to whether the person remains in continuous contact with the ground. One variable in gait is foot strike – how the foot contacts the ground which part of the foot first contacts the ground. Forefoot strike – toe-heel: ball of foot lands first midfoot strike – heel and ball land heel strike – heel-toe: heel of foot lands plantar flexes to ballIn sprinting, gait features a forefoot strike, but the heel does not contact the ground.
Some researchers classify foot strike by the initial center of pressure. In this classification: a rearfoot strike has the initial center of pressure in the rear third of the shoe. Foot strike varies to some degree between strides, between individuals, it varies and notably between walking and running, between wearing shoes and not wearing shoes. Barefoot walking features heel or midfoot strike, while barefoot running features midfoot or forefoot strike. Barefoot running features heel strike because the impact can be painful, the human heel pad not absorbing much of the force of impact. By contrast, 75% of runners wearing modern running shoes heel strike, running shoes being characterized by a padded sole, stiff soles and arch support, sloping down from a more padded heel to a less padded forefoot; the cause of this change in gait in shoe running is unknown, but Liebermann noted that there is correlation between the foot-landing style and exposure to shoes. In some individuals, the gait pattern is unchanged – the leg position and foot position are identical in barefoot and shoe running – but the wedge shape of the padding moving the point of impact back from the forefoot to the midfoot.
In other cases, it is conjectured that the padding of the heel softens the impact and resulting in runner modifying their gait to contact further back in the foot. A 2012 study involving Harvard University runners found that those who "habitually rearfoot strike had twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike"; this was the first study that investigated the link between foot injury rates. However, earlier studies have shown that smaller collision forces were generated when running forefoot strike compared to rear-foot strike; this may protect the ankle joints and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries experienced by rear-foot strikers. In a 2017 article called "Foot Strike Pattern in Children During Shod-Unshod Running," there was a study done where over 700 children were observed from the ages of 6-16 to see their foot strike patterns and neutral support, they wanted to see what outside factors to shod and unshod conditions and sex.
This study used multiple video recording devices to get their results. The results showed that most foot patterns such as foot rotation and the rearfoot strike were similar in boys and girls at the same ages; the central nervous system regulates gait in a ordered fashion through a combination of voluntary and automatic processes. The basic locomotor pattern is an automatic process that results from rhythmic reciprocal bursts of flexor and extensor activity; this rhythmic firing is the result of Central Pattern Generators which operate regardless of whether a motion is voluntary or not. CPGs do not require sensory input to be sustained. However, studies have identified that gait patterns in deafferented or immobilized animals are more simplistic than in neurologically intact animals; the complexity of gait arises from the need to adapt to expected and unexpected changes in the environment. Visual, vestibular and tactile sensory information provides important feedback related to gait and permits the adjustment of a person’s posture or foot placement depending on situational requirements.
When approaching an obstacle, visual information about the size and location of the object is used to adapt the stepping pattern. These adjustments involve change in the trajectory of leg movement and the associated postural adjustments required to maintain their balance. Vestibular information provides information about position and movement of the head
Mihailo Dinić was a Serbian historian and member of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. He was among the key figures of the Serbian historiography of the 20th century, he was among many notable scholars in Serbia who bequeathed their personal libraries to the National Library of Serbia. "Стефан Драгутин „гех Serviae"", Glasnik IDNS 4, 1931, 436-437 "Dubrovacka srednjevekovna karavanska trgovina" Jugoslovenski Istoriski Casopis 3 "Трг Дријева и околина у средњем веку". Годишњица НЧ. Belgrade. 47. 1938. Zemlje Hercega Svetoga Save. 1940. "Два савременика о боју на Косову", Serbian Royal Academy, CLXXXII, 1940 "Jedan prilog za istoriju patarena u Bosni" - Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta, I, Belgrade 1948 Dušanova carska titula u očima savremennika. 1951. Notae et acta cancellariae Ragusinae. Academia Scientiarum et Artium Slavorum Meridionalium. 1951. "Област краља Драгутина после Дежева", Glas 203, 1951, 61-82 Tri povelje iz ispisa Ivana Lučića. 1955. За историју рударства у средњевековној Србији и Босни: I део. издавачко предузеће "Научна книга.
1955. Државни сабор средњевековне Босне. Научна књига. 1955. "Humsko-Trebinjska vlastela" Beograd, 1967, 114 p. Naucno delo, S. A. N. Posebna izdanja "Španski najamnici u srpskoj službi" Zbornik Radova Vizantološkog Instituta, VI, Belgrade, 1960, str. 15-28 "Odnos između kralja Milutina i Dragutina" Zbornik Radova Vizantološkog Instituta, br. 3, str. 49-82 "Nastanak dva naša srednjovekovna grada", Prilozi, XXXI, sveska 3-4, Belgrade 1965 Spomenica posvećena preminulom akademiku Mihailu Diniću. 1971. Srpske zemlje u srednjem veku: istorijsko-geografske studije. Srpska književna zadruga. 1978. Biography on the website of SANU Nova Zbirka Radova Mihaila Dinića — Teme, XXX, Br. 1, pp: 167—171