Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Dubai is a global business hub of the Middle East, it is a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, aviation, real estate, financial services. Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa; as of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.
Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, similar to the souq in Ba. An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai", meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement; the history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but as far afield as the Levant. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE.
The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra found several artefacts from the Umayyad period; the earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai for its pearling industry. Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.
In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty. Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf; this led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892. In 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds.
The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was subsequently put to death. In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance; these policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh, but those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo; the frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference.
Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh'bids fair to become complete and permanent', that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States. The'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates t
Tennis at the Summer Olympics
Tennis was part of the Summer Olympic Games program from the inaugural 1896 Summer Olympics, but was dropped after the 1924 Summer Olympics due to disputes between the International Lawn Tennis Federation and the International Olympic Committee over how to define amateur players. After two appearances as a demonstration sport in 1968 and 1984, it returned as a full medal sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics and has been played at every edition of the Games since then. In 1896, 1900, 1904, 1988, 1992, semifinal losers shared bronze medals. In all other years, a playoff match for the bronze medal was staged. From the 2004 Athens Olympics until the 2012 London Olympics, results from the Olympics was counted towards both the ATP and WTA world rankings in singles for that calendar year. While the ranking points distribution did not equate to those given at the Grand Slam tournaments, the Olympic tournaments have increased in perceived importance since their reintroduction, with some players and sports pundits considering winning the gold at the Olympics just as prestigious as winning a Grand Slam title.
A player who wins an Olympic gold medal and all four Grand Slam events in the same year is said to have won a Golden Slam. As of 2016, Steffi Graf is the only player to have completed this achievement; the playing surface of the court varies between Olympic Games. It has been on hard court for every game since 1984 except for the 1992 Olympics and the 2012 Olympics; the changing playing surface gives certain players different advantages and disadvantages not seen in most other Olympic sports. = demonstration event, = exhibition event Italics represents that tennis was an exhibition or demonstration tournament at that Olympics. List of Olympic venues in tennis Tennis at the Youth Olympic Games Tennis at the Mediterranean Games Tennis at the Pan American Games List of Olympic medalists in tennis Wheelchair tennis at the Summer Paralympics Olympic Tennis Event website
Nathalie Tauziat is a French former professional tennis player. She was the runner-up in women's singles at the 1998 Wimbledon Championships, her career-high singles ranking was third in 2000. She coaches Canadian tennis player Bianca Andreescu. Tauziat was born in Central African Republic, she is a first cousin of a former captain of the French football team. About a week after Tauziat reached the Wimbledon final on 4 July 1998, Deschamps led France to win the World Cup on 12 July 1998. Tauziat turned professional in 1984, she won her first singles title in 1990. She reached her only Grand Slam singles final at the 1998 Wimbledon Championships, beating Haruka Inoue, Iva Majoli, Julie Halard-Decugis, Samantha Smith, Lindsay Davenport and Natasha Zvereva before losing to Jana Novotná, her appearance in this final was the first by a Frenchwoman since Suzanne Lenglen in 1925. Tauziat was runner-up with partner Kimberly Po in the 2001 US Open women's doubles final, losing to the team of Lisa Raymond and Rennae Stubbs.
She and partner Alexandra Fusai were doubles runners-up at the 1998 Chase Championships. She was part of the 1997 French Fed Cup team, which won its first title in the history of the competition. Tauziat reached her career-high singles ranking of world No. 3 at the age of 32 years and 6 months in the spring of 2000, making her the oldest woman to debut in the top three and the fourth oldest to be ranked in the top three. She retired from the WTA Tour after the 2003 French Open, after having played only doubles in 2002 and 2003. Tauziat won 25 doubles titles in her career, she wrote a book with the title "Les Dessous du tennis féminin" in which she gave her insights about life on the women's professional tennis circuit. In 2004 Tauziat received a state honour – le chevalier de la Légion d'honneur – from French President Jacques Chirac for her contributions to international tennis, she was an official WTA Tour mentor to French tennis player Marion Bartoli, beginning in 2003. Tauziat married Ramuncho Palaurena on 16 July 2005.
The couple have three daughters, one born in 2005 and twin girls in June 2009. Performance timelines for all female tennis players who reached at least one Grand Slam final Nathalie Tauziat at the Women's Tennis Association Nathalie Tauziat at the International Tennis Federation Nathalie Tauziat at the Fed Cup
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Françoise Dürr is a retired French professional tennis player. She over 60 doubles titles. According to Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, Bud Collins, the Women's Tennis Association, Dürr was ranked in the world top ten from 1965 through 1967, from 1970 through 1972, from 1974 through 1976, reaching a career high of World No. 3 in those rankings in 1967. She finished second to Billie Jean King in prize money earnings in 1971. Dürr reached a total of 27 Grand Slam finals – 1 in singles, 18 in women's doubles, 8 in mixed doubles, she won 12 of them. Dürr is best known for winning the singles title at the 1967 French Championships, she defeated Maria Bueno in Lesley Turner Bowrey in the final. In addition to her singles championship, Dürr won seven Grand Slam women's doubles titles and four Grand Slam mixed doubles titles, she was the runner-up in eleven Grand Slam women's doubles events and four Grand Slam mixed doubles events. Dürr won eight doubles titles at the French Championships.
The first of Dürr's record-tying five consecutive women's doubles titles was in 1967. This record is shared with Martina Navratilova and Gigi Fernández, like Dürr, achieved it with separate partners. Dürr teamed with Ann Haydon-Jones to win the titles in 1968 and 1969 and with Gail Sherriff Chanfreau in 1967, 1970, 1971. Dürr was the runner-up in women's doubles in 1965 with Janine Lieffrig, in 1973 with Betty Stöve, in 1979 with Virginia Wade. Dürr teamed with Jean-Claude Barclay to win the mixed doubles title in 1968, 1971, 1973, they were runners-up in 1969, 1970, 1972. In total, Dürr reached 15 finals at the French Open. Dürr won two doubles titles at the US Open, she won the women's doubles title in 1969 in 1972 with Stöve. Dürr was the runner-up in that event in 1971 in 1974 with Stöve. Dürr was the runner-up in mixed doubles in 1969, teaming with Dennis Ralston, she won the Wimbledon mixed doubles title in 1976 with Tony Roche. She was the runner-up in women's doubles at Wimbledon in 1965 with Lieffrig, 1968 with Jones, 1970 with Wade, 1972 with Judy Tegart Dalton, 1973 and 1975 with Stöve.
Additionally, Dürr was a singles semifinalist at the Championships in 1970. Dürr was a participant at the Australian Championships and Australian Open, as she appeared there three times, in 1965, 1967, 1969, she reached the singles quarterfinals in 1965 and 1967 and the doubles semifinals with Jones in 1969. Dürr and Betty Stöve won the 1979 WTA Tour Championships in doubles against Sue Barker and Ann Kiyomura, beating them 7–6, 7–6 in the final, she played the French Open ladies doubles event a last time in 1984, reaching the second round before retiring from Grand Slam competition. Dürr played for France on the France Fed Cup team 14 times, finishing her career with a 31–17 record, she played 27 ties, with a 16 -- a 15 -- 9 doubles record. Dürr was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 2003 for her extraordinary career in doubles and for winning the French Championships in singles. Junior Singles Champion of France, 1959 and 1960. French Singles Champion in the National Championship, 1962, 1964, 1965 and 1966.
French National Champion in Ladies Doubles 8 times between 1961 and 1970 with various partners. French National Champion 5 times in Mixed Doubles between 1964 and 1970 partnered by Jean-Claude Barclay. Winner of the Wimbledon Ladies Plate in 1963. South African Singles champion, 1965. Dürr defeated Judy Tegart in the final to win the 1966 British Grass Court Championship at Queens Club London. German Open Singles champion, 1967. Swiss Open Singles champion, 1969. Italian Open Doubles champion with Ann Jones, 1969. Losing finalist with Ann Jones in the 1969 Pacific Southwest Doubles Championship to King and Casals 6–8, 8–6, 11–9. Italian Open Doubles losing finalist with Virginia Wade 1970. Winners King and Casals 6–2, 3–6, 9–7. Losing finalist in the Swiss Open in Gstaad in 1970 6–2, 5–7, 6–2 to Rosemary Casals. Doubles Champion with Rosemary Casals Gstaad 1970 defeated Helga Niessen and Betty Stöve 6–2, 6–2. British Indoor singles champion at the Albert Hall, London, 1970. Winner in singles against Wimbledon and French Open champion Evonne Goolagong Cawley 6–4, 6–2) at the Canadian Open, 1971.
Dürr and Casals defeated Goolagong and Bowrey 6–3, 6–3 to win the Canadian Open Doubles Championship of 1971. Winner against Billie Jean King 6–3, 3–6, 6–3 in the 1971 US Clay Courts International Tennis Championship at Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Winner against Lesley Hunt 6–3, 6–3 in the 1971 Swiss Open in Gstaad. Winner against Billie Jean King 6–3, 6–0 in the 1971 Benson and Hedges New Zealand International Grass Court Championships in Christchurch. Winner against Billie Jean King 6–4, 6–2 in the 1971 Clay Court International Championship at Lake Bluff, Illinois. Losing finalist 6–1, 5–7, 7–5 to Billie Jean King in the 1971 Embassy British Indoor Championship at Wembley, London. Losing finalist 6–2, 3–6, 6–2 to Rosemary Casals in the 1971 Philadelphia Indoor Championship Singles. Losing finalist 6–3, 7–5 to Virginia Wade in the 1972 USA Indoor Championship in Boston, Massachusetts. Losing finalist 6–2, 6–7, 6–3 to Rosemary Casals in the 1972 Longbeach CA Singles Championship. Losing finalist 6–7
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Filderstadt is a town in the district of Esslingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is located 13 km south of Stuttgart. Filderstadt is located next to the new Trade Fair. Line S2 of the Stuttgart S-Bahn terminates at Filderstadt station. Filderstadt was created as a town in 1975 from five smaller villages called Bernhausen, Plattenhardt and Harthausen. From 1978-2005, it played host to a WTA Tier II event. Princess Claire of Luxembourg was born here on March 21, 1985. German writer Michael Ende, author of the Neverending Story, died in Filderstadt in 1995. Contact Air once had its headquarters in Filderstadt. Laura Siegemund, tennis player Helen Grobert, cyclist Marvin Plattenhardt, soccer player at Hertha BSC Leonie Adam, trampoline gymnast Eduard Mörike, Swabian poet, held in Bernhäuser Jakobuskirche his first sermon and lived during his time as a vicar in 1829 a few months in the Plattenhardt rectory Michael Ende, writer of books for children, died in Bonlanden Roman Herzog, former German President, lived during his tenure as interior minister of Baden-Württemberg from 1978 five years in the Ludwigstraße in Bernhausen Paul Maar and illustrator, taught in the 1970s for several years as an art teacher at the Eduard-Spranger-Gymnasium in Bernhausen Oschatz, Germany Selby, England La Souterraine, France Poltava, Ukraine Dombasle-sur-Meurthe, France Dornach, Switzerland Arlesheim, Switzerland