Santa Cecília de Montserrat
Santa Cecília de Montserrat is a Benedictine monastery in Marganell, Spain. The monastery was founded by its first abbot, sponsored by Sunyer, Count of Barcelona and his wife Riquilda de Tolosa. In 945, Bishop of Vich, authorized the formation of a monastery to be governed by the Rule of St. Benedict, with the monastery falling under the bishop's control. After the death of Cesari, the Abbot Oliva tried to annex the monastery, but met with opposition from the monks of the community; the monastery served as a place of refuge for pilgrims traveling to Montserrat. In the 15th century, it began to decline and in 1539, it was attached to Santa Maria de Montserrat Abbey; the building was looted and burned by French troops in 1811 and 1812. The Abbot of Montserrat, Miquel Muntadas, ordered its reconstruction in 1862; until in 1940, it served a community of Benedictine nuns. In 1954 the nuns moved to a new monastery, Sant Benet, since the building has operated as a refuge for hikers and as a meeting center.
The old monastery was of Romanesque style. There are two semicircular arches. There have been several renovations, the last carried out between 1928–31 to a design by the architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch. Pladevall, Antoni: Els monestirs catalans, Ediciones Destino, Barcelona, 1970 ISBN 8423305112 Media related to Santa Cecília de Montserrat at Wikimedia Commons
Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, in life became the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew, he is the most important prophet in Judaism, he is an important prophet in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, a number of other Abrahamic religions. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter, the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family.
After killing an Egyptian slavemaster, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord, speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb. God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak eloquently, so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo. Jerome gives 1592 BCE, James Ussher 1571 BCE as Moses' birth year. In the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses was called "the man of God". Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root msy, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name, as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses and Ramesses, with the god's name omitted.
Abraham Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile". The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name, he is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses, saying,'I drew him out of the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake, prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins. The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Philo linked Mōēsēs to the Egyptian word for water, while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the second element, -esês, meant'those who are saved'.
The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus as Thermutis and in Jewish tradition as Bithiah, could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hezekiah suggested she either took a tip from Jochebed; the Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacob's household. Moses had one older sister and one older brother, Aaron; the Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, raised as an Egyptian. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian, beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty, fled to Midian.
There, on Mount Horeb, God appeared to Moses as a burning bush, revealed to Moses his name YHWH and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people out of bondage and into the Promised Land. During the journey, God tried to kill Moses because he had not circumcised his son, but Zipporah saved his life. Moses returned to carry out God's command, but God caused the Pharaoh to refuse, only after God had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh relent. Moses led the Israelites to the border of Egypt, but there God hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh and his army at the Red Sea Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations. After defeating the Amalekites in Rephidim, Moses led the Israelites to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets. However, since Moses remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it, thus disobeying and angering God and Moses.
Moses, out of anger, bro
Wilfred the Hairy
Wilfred or Wifred, called the Hairy, was Count of Urgell, Barcelona, Besalú and Ausona. On his death in 897, his son, Wilfred Borrell, inherited these Catalan counties, he was responsible for the repopulation of the long-depopulated no-man's land around Vic, the re-establishment of the bishopric of Vic and the foundation of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll, where he is buried. Wilfred was the Catalan Count of Barcelona who created the tradition of hereditary passage of titles, his son, Wilfred Borrell, inherited the county without any interruption and held it from 897–911. A number of primitive feudal entities developed in the Marca Hispanica during the 9th century, they were self-sufficient and agrarian, but ruled by a small military elite. The pattern seen in Catalonia is similar to that found in similar border lands or marches elsewhere in Europe. Traditionally the Count of Barcelona was appointed directly by the Carolingian emperor, for example the appointment of Bera in 801; the appointment of heirs could not be taken for granted.
However, with the rise of strong counts such as Sunifred and Wilfred, the weakening of Carolingian royal power, the appointment of heirs become a formality. This trend resulted in the counts becoming de facto independent of the Carolingian crown under Borrell II in 985. Wilfred remained obscure until drawn into the historians' net by Sir Richard Southern, in The Making of the Middle Ages, 1953. Wilfred was of Gothic lineage from the region of Carcassonne. Tradition claims he was born near Prades in the County of Conflent, now Rià, in France. According to legend, he was the son of Wilfred of a county near Prades, his father was murdered by Salomón and Wilfred became his avenger, killing the assassin. After the research done by French monks Dom De Vic and Dom Vaissete, authors of Histoire Générale de Languedoc, he is identified as the son of Sunifred I of Barcelona, count of many counties under Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald. Wilfred's mother may have been named Ermesende. Sunifred may have been the son of Belló, Count of Carcassonne during the reign of Charlemagne, or more his son-in-law.
Thus, as a descendant of Sunifred and his brother, Sunyer I, count of Empúries and Roussillon, Wilfred is considered to be a member of a Bellonid dynasty by Ramon d'Abadal and other historians. The Bellonid lineage lost its power when Sunifred and Sunyer died in 848, but was revived by the appointment of Dela and Sunyer II, sons of Sunyer I, to the countship of Empúries in 862. At an assembly at Attigny in June 870, Charles the Bald made their cousins, Wilfred the Hairy and his brother Miró, counts of Urgell and Cerdanya, Conflent, respectively. For in that year, the poorly-chronicled Solomon, count of Urgell and Conflent, had died. After becoming Count of Urgell and Cerdanya in 870, Wilfred received the counties of Barcelona and Besalú in 878 from the Carolingian king of France, Louis the Stammerer, his reign coincided with the crumbling of Carolingian unity. Wilfred was thus the last count of the Hispanic March appointed by the French king and the first to pass his vast holdings as an inheritance to his sons.
Wilfred came into possession of Barcelona through his service to Charles the Bald against the rebel Bernard of Gothia, Count of Barcelona and numerous other Septimanian counties. Wilfred, Miró, their brother Sunifred, Lindoí, the Viscount of Narbonne, marched against Bernard on behalf of King Charles and his son, Louis the Stammerer. In March and April 878, they defeated the nobles loyal to Bernard, including Sigebuto, Bishop of Narbonne, expelled all partisan priests from the church. At the Council of Troyes in August 878, presided over by Pope John VIII and King Louis II the Stammerer, Wilfred was formally invested as Count of Urgell and Cerdanya, Miró as Count of Conflent, Sunyer as Count of Empúries, Oliba II as Count of Carcassonne. On 11 September 878, Bernard was dispossessed of all his titles. Bernard's former possessions were given to Wilfred and Miró; the counties of Narbonne, Béziers, Agde were separated from that of Barcelona. Sunifred was made Abbot of Arles, Riculf Bishop of Elna, the Bishops of Urgell and Barcelona were confirmed in their sees.
Wilfred ceded Besalú to his brother Radulph. After the investiture of 878, Wilfred's lands stretched from Urgell and Cerdanya in the Pyrenees to Barcelona and Girona on the Mediterranean coast; this was the first time since the reign of his father that these different areas had been united politically and the only other time within the 9th century. The land between these regions—Ripollès, Vall de Lord, Berguedà, Lluçanès, the Plana de Vic, Moianès, Bages—had long been depopulated due to the rebellion of Aissó in 827, but was considered territory belonging to the Count of Barcelona since 820, when it was given to Rampon upon the death of Borrell, the first Count of Urgell and Ausona. Wilfred embarked on the process of repopulating these territories with immigrants from the populated mountain regions—Pallars and Cerdanya—to which people had fled in the two centuries between the collapses of Visigothic and Carolingian authority. Wilfred's plan involved repopulating and subsequently annexing the counties to those he controlle
Sant Miquel del Fai
Sant Miquel del Fai is a cenobitic Benedictine monastery in Bigues i Riells, Spain. The 11th-century building was declared a Bien de Interés Cultural landmark in 1988; the monastery is located in a well-preserved natural environment framed by rocky cliffs called Cingles de Bertí in the Catalan pre-coastal mountain range which geographically separates the region of Vallès Oriental in the subregion of Moianès. The Natural Area Sant Miquel del Fai is located in the municipality of Bigues i Riells; the church has a Romanesque doorway formed by a semicircular arch. A pair of columns are topped with capitals decorated with plant motifs. Only a few traces remain of the high altar, it has a small crypt, accessed via a staircase located near the entrance. On the floor of the church, the headstones of the old abbots are visible. In side chapels, there are two graves. One, dating to the 13th century, is believed to correspond to Guillem, Earl Osona and brother of Ramon Berenguer I, after waiving his rights, was a monk of Sant Miquel.
The other tomb may be that of Andreu Arbizu, a monk from Navarre, who provided goods to the monastery. The old priory house style is dates to the 15th century. For many years, it retains its original layout. Pladevall, Antoni: Els monestirs catalans, Edicions Destino, Barcelona, 1970 ISBN 84-233-0511-2 Media related to Sant Miquel del Fai at Wikimedia Commons
In Christian tradition, the Four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark and John, the authors attributed with the creation of the four Gospel accounts in the New Testament that bear the following titles: Gospel according to Matthew. The gospels of Matthew and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, because they include many of the same stories in the same sequence. While the periods to which the gospels are dated suggest otherwise, convention traditionally holds that the authors were two of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus and Matthew, as well as two "apostolic men," Mark and Luke: Matthew – a former tax collector, called by Jesus to be one of the Twelve Apostles, Mark – a follower of Peter and so an "apostolic man," Luke – a doctor who wrote what is now the book of Luke to Theophilus. Known to have written the book of Acts and to have been a close friend of Paul of Tarsus, John – a disciple of Jesus and the youngest of his Twelve Apostles, they are called evangelists, a word meaning "people who proclaim good news," because their books aim to tell the "good news" of Jesus.
In iconography, the evangelists appear in Evangelist portraits derived from classical tradition, are frequently represented by the symbols which originate from the four "living creatures" that draw the throne-chariot of God, the Merkabah, in the vision in the Book of Ezekiel reflected in the Book of Revelation, though neither source links the creatures to the Evangelists. Images but not invariably, appear with wings like angels; when the symbols of the Four Evangelists appear together, it is called a Tetramorph, is common in the Romanesque art of Europe, in church frescoes or mural paintings, for instance. English trans. of 3rd edn, The meanings accruing to the symbols grew over centuries, with an early formulation by Jerome, were expressed by Rabanus Maurus, who set out three layers of meaning for the beasts, as representing firstly the Evangelists, secondly the nature of Christ, thirdly the virtues required of a Christian for salvation: These animals may have been seen as representing the highest forms of the various types of animals, i.e. man, the king of creation as the image of the creator.
Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account, is symbolized by a winged man, or angel. Matthew's gospel starts with Joseph's genealogy from Abraham; this signifies. Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account, is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy; the lion represents Jesus' resurrection, Christ as king. This signifies. Luke the Evangelist, the author of the third gospel account, is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice and strength. Luke's account begins with the duties of Zechariah in the temple; the ox signifies. John the Evangelist, the author of the fourth gospel account, is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky, believed by Christian scholars to be able to look straight into the sun. John starts with an eternal overview of Jesus the Logos and goes on to describe many things with a "higher" christology than the other three gospels; this symbolizes that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God.
Each of the symbols is depicted with wings, following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1–2, in Revelation. The symbols are shown with, or in place of, the Evangelists in early medieval Gospel Books, are the usual accompaniment to Christ in Majesty when portrayed during the same period, reflecting the vision in Revelation, they were presented as one of the most common motifs found on church portals and apses, as well as many other locations. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man appears at top left – above Christ's right hand, with the lion above Christ's left arm. Underneath the man is the underneath the lion is the eagle; this both reflects the medieval idea of the order of "nobility" of nature of the beasts and the text of Ezekiel 1:10. From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, came into use. Sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. Matthew is cited as the "first Gospel account," not only owing to its place in the canon, but in view of the patristic witness to this effect.
Most biblical scholars however, see the gospel account of Mark as having been written first and John's gospel account as having been written last. It has become customary to speak of "the Gospel of Matthew"... "the Gospel of John", not least because it is shorter and rolls much more smoothly off the tongue.
In architecture, an apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome known as an exedra. In Byzantine and Gothic Christian church architecture, the term is applied to a semi-circular or polygonal termination of the main building at the liturgical east end, regardless of the shape of the roof, which may be flat, domed, or hemispherical. Smaller apses may be in other locations shrines. An apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault; the apse of a church, cathedral or basilica is the semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or sanctuary, or sometimes at the end of an aisle. In relation to church architecture it is the name given to where the altar is placed or where the clergy are seated. An apse is found in a synagogue, e.g. Maoz Haim Synagogue; the apse is separated from the main part of the church by the transept. Smaller apses are sometimes built in locations other than the east end for reliquaries or shrines of saints; the domed apse became a standard part of the church plan in the early Christian era.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church tradition, the south apse is known as diaconicon and the north apse as prothesis. Various ecclesiastical features of which the apse may form part are drawn together here: The chancel, directly to the east beyond the choir contains the High Altar, where there is one; this area is reserved for the clergy, was therefore called the "presbytery," from the Greek presbuteros meaning "elder", or in older and Catholic usage, "priest". Hemi-cyclic choirs, first developed in the East, came to use in France in 470. By the onset of the 13th century, they had been augmented with radiating apse chapels outside the choir aisle, the entire structure of Apse and radiating chapels coming to be known as the chevet. Famous northern French examples of chevets are in the Gothic cathedrals of Amiens and Reims; such radiating chapels are found in England in Norwich and Canterbury cathedrals, but the developed feature is French, though the Francophile connoisseur Henry III introduced it into Westminster Abbey.
The word "ambulatory" refers to a curving aisle in the apse that passes behind the altar and choir, giving access to chapels in the chevet. An "ambulatory" may refer to the arcade passages that enclose a cloister in a monastery, or to other types of aisles round the edge of a church building, for example in circular churches. Architectural development of the eastern end of cathedrals in England and France Byzantine architecture Cathedral architecture Church architecture Narthex Joseph Nechvatal, "Immersive Excess in the Apse of Lascaux", Technonoetic Arts 3, no. 3, 2005. Spiers, Richard Phené. "Apse". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 231–232. This has a detailed description of examples in the early church
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia