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Santa Sabina

The Basilica of Saint Sabina is a historic church on the Aventine Hill in Rome, Italy. It is a titular minor basilica and mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers, better known as the Dominicans. Santa Sabina is perched high above the Tiber river to the Circus Maximus to the east, it is next to the small public park of Giardino degli Aranci, which has a scenic terrace overlooking Rome. It is a short distance from the headquarters of the Knights of Malta. Santa Sabina is the oldest extant Roman basilica in Rome that preserves its original colonnaded rectangular plan and architectural style, its decorations have been restored to their original restrained design. Other basilicas, such as Santa Maria Maggiore, are heavily and gaudily decorated; because of its simplicity, the Santa Sabina represents the crossover from a roofed Roman forum to the churches of Christendom. It is famous for its 5th-century carved wood doors, with a cycle of Christian scenes, one of the earliest to survive.

Its Cardinal Priest is Jozef Tomko. It is the stational church for Ash Wednesday. Santa Sabina was built by Peter of Illyria, a Dalmatian priest, between 422 and 432 near a temple of Juno on the Aventine Hill in Rome; the church was built on the site of early Imperial houses, one of, said to be of Sabina, a Roman matron from Avezzano in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Sabina was beheaded under the Emperor Vespasian, or Hadrian, because she had been converted to Christianity by her servant Seraphia, stoned to death, she was declared a Christian saint. In the 9th century, it was enclosed in a fortification area; the interior was renovated by Domenico Fontana in 1587 and by Francesco Borromini in 1643. Italian architect and art historian Antonio Muñoz restored the original medieval appearance of the church; the bell tower was remade in the Baroque period. The church was the seat of a conclave in 1287, although the prelates left the church after a plague had killed six of them, they returned in the church only on 1288 February.

The exterior of the church, with its large windows made of selenite, not glass, looks much as it did when it was built in the 5th century. The wooden door of the basilica is agreed to be the original door from 430–432, although it was not constructed for this doorway. Eighteen of its wooden panels survive — all but one depicting scenes from the Bible. Most famous among these is one of the earliest certain depictions of Christ's crucifixion, although other panels have been the subjects of extensive analysis because of their importance for the study of Christian iconography. Above the doorway, the interior preserves an original dedication in Latin hexameters; the campanile dates from the 10th century. The doors on the exterior of Santa Sabina are made of cypress wood, had a layout of twenty-eight panels. Out of these panels, ten of the original have been lost, are left without ornamentation. Seventeen out of the original remaining eighteen panels depict a scene from the Old Testament or the New Testament, leaving one panel that does not directly correlate to a Biblical story This panel, found near the bottom of the door, depicts an homage to a man wearing a chlamys, is thought to depict a historical event relating to a powerful ruler, though the exact story depicted is unknown.

One of the smaller top panels depicts the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and two other figures in front of a building that alludes to the architecture of a Roman mausoleum. The panels are carved in two distinct styles, one including more detail and adherence to the style of classical art, one adopting a simpler style, indicating that several artists may have worked on the doors; the abstract vegetal designs on the panels' frames are consistent with a Mesopotamian style, suggesting the origin of at least one of the artists was from this region. Due to the cramped composition of the panels and the thin outer frame, it is that the door was bigger cut down to fit into the frame of Santa Sabina; this makes it unclear as to whether the door was intended to be used for this specific structure. However, the door was most constructed near the same time as the erection of the Church of Santa Sabina in 432, as the powerful figure in the chlamys scene carving shares stylistic similarities with depictions of Theodosius II, the emperor at the time of the consecration of Santa Sabina.

Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon dating confirmed that the wood used for the door panels is from the beginning of the 5th century, therefore the carvings could date from the reigns of Celestine I or Sixtus III. The original fifth-century apse mosaic was replaced in 1559 by a similar fresco by Taddeo Zuccari; the composition remained unchanged: Christ is flanked by a good thief and a bad thief, seated on a hill while lambs drink from a stream at its base. The iconography of the mosaic was similar to another 5th-century mosaic, destroyed in the 17th century, in Sant'Andrea in Catabarbara. An interesting feature of the interior is a framed hole in the floor, exposing a Roman era temple column that pre-dates Santa Sabina; this appears to be the remnant of the Temple of Juno erected on the hilltop site during Roman times, razed to allow co

Cooperstown, Wisconsin

Cooperstown is a town in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 1,403; the unincorporated communities of Cooperstown, Hickory Grove, Rosecrans are located in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.1 square miles, of which, 35.1 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,403 people, 474 households, 401 families residing in the town; the population density was 40.0 people per square mile. There were 489 housing units at an average density of 13.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.29% White, 0.50% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 0.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population. There were 474 households out of which 42.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 77.0% were married couples living together, 4.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.4% were non-families.

12.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.21. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $58,177, the median income for a family was $60,385. Males had a median income of $40,048 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,941. About 2.4% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 2.0% of those age 65 or over. Devil's River State Trail Cherney Maribel Caves County Park Town of Cooperstown

Inger Louise Valle

Inger Louise Valle was a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party noted for her efforts to reform the Norwegian penal system. She is the mother of professor Jan Grund, she represented Akershus in the Norwegian Parliament in the period between 1977-1981. She served as Minister of Administration and Consumer Affairs 1971-1972 and Minister of Family and Consumer Affairs in 1972, Minister of Justice and the Police 1973-1976 and 1976–1979, Minister of Local Government Affairs 1979-1980. Valle served in the local government of Bærum, was Norway's first Consumer Ombudsman. Born into a privileged family and educated as an attorney, Valle was one of the first ministers of justice whose main career had been in politics, her views on the Norwegian penal system were grounded in humanistic principles founded in criminology, several of her proposals for reform met with controversy. In particular the so-called "Criminal report" in 1978 caused considerable controversy; the report asserted that the deterrent effect of stiff penalties was a myth, that policy toward criminals should be based in broader considerations than penology.

It didn't help matters much that she enlisted Arne Haugestad, who had gained notoriety in the campaign against Norwegian membership in the European Community, as the director of Norway's penal system. Among other things, he recommended eliminating prison sentences as punishment for crimes for financial gain; the controversy gained steam in the fall of 1978, when professor of law Johs Andenæs critiqued the report in a meeting arranged by the Conservative Party, claiming that the principles were coddling criminals and threatening law and order. The year after in April 1979, Valle pressured Prime minister Nordli to push through Stortinget, against all advice and recommendations the total abolition of the death penalty in Norway. Valle found herself isolated now within her own party. Much of the blame for the Labor Party's poor showing in the 1979 elections were put at her feet. Among her detractors, she is noted for her moral courage and commitment to humanistic values. Although many of her proposed reforms never were implemented, some were, notably raising the age of criminal accountability and including community service in the penal system.

Valle headed the Norwegian executive committee for UN's International Women's Year in 1975. "Inger Louise Valle". Storting