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Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Santiago Ramón y Cajal was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy the histology of the central nervous system. He and Camillo Golgi received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906, with Ramón y Cajal thereby becoming the first person of Spanish origin to win a scientific Nobel Prize, his original investigations of the microscopic structure of the brain made him a pioneer of modern neuroscience. Hundreds of his drawings illustrating the delicate arborizations of brain cells are still in use for educational and training purposes. Santiago Ramón y Cajal was born 1 May 1852 in the town of Petilla de Aragón, Spain, his father was an anatomy teacher. As a child he was transferred many times from one school to another because of behavior, declared poor and showing an anti-authoritarian attitude. An extreme example of his precociousness and rebelliousness at the age of eleven is his 1863 imprisonment for destroying his neighbor's yard gate with a homemade cannon.

He was an avid painter and gymnast, but his father neither appreciated nor encouraged these abilities though these artistic talents would contribute to his success in life. His father apprenticed him to a shoemaker and barber, to "try and give his son much-needed discipline and stability." He was well known for his pugnacious attitude. Over the summer of 1868, his father hoped to interest his son in a medical career, took him to graveyards to find human remains for anatomical study. Sketching bones was a turning point for him and subsequently, he did pursue studies in medicine. Ramón y Cajal attended the medical school of the University of Zaragoza, where his father was an anatomy teacher, he graduated in 1873, aged 21. After a competitive examination, he served as a medical officer in the Spanish Army, he took part in an expedition to Cuba in 1874 -- 75, where he contracted tuberculosis. In order to heal, he visited the Panticosa spa-town in the Pyrenees. After returning to Spain, he received his doctorate in medicine in Madrid in 1877.

In 1879, he became the director of the Zaragoza Museum, he married Silveria Fañanás García, with whom he had seven daughters and five sons. Ramón y Cajal worked at the University of Zaragoza until 1883, when he was awarded the position of anatomy professor of the University of Valencia, his early work at these two universities focused on the pathology of inflammation, the microbiology of cholera, the structure of epithelial cells and tissues. In 1887 Ramón y Cajal moved to Barcelona for a professorship. There he first learned about Golgi's method, a cell staining method which uses potassium dichromate and silver nitrate to stain a few neurons a dark black color, while leaving the surrounding cells transparent; this method, which he improved, was central to his work, allowing him to turn his attention to the central nervous system, in which neurons are so densely intertwined that standard microscopic inspection would be nearly impossible. During this period he made extensive detailed drawings of neural material, covering many species and most major regions of the brain.

In 1892, he became professor at Madrid. In 1899 he became director of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene – translated as National Institute of Hygiene, in 1922 founder of the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas – translated as the Laboratory of Biological Investigations renamed to the Instituto Cajal, or Cajal Institute, he died in Madrid on October 17, 1934, at the age of 82, continuing to work on his deathbed. In 1877, the 25-year-old Ramón y Cajal joined a Masonic lodge. John Brande Trend wrote in 1965 that Ramón y Cajal "was a liberal in politics, an evolutionist in philosophy, an agnostic in religion". Nonetheless, Ramón y Cajal used the term soul "without any shame", he was said to have regretted having left organized religion, Ultimately, he became convinced of a belief in God as a creator, as stated during his first lecture before the Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences. Ramón y Cajal made several major contributions to neuroanatomy, he discovered the axonal growth cone, demonstrated experimentally that the relationship between nerve cells was not continuous, but contiguous.

This provided definitive evidence for what Heinrich Waldeyer coined the term neuron theory as opposed to the reticular theory. This is now considered the foundation of modern neuroscience, he was an advocate of the existence of dendritic spines, although he did not recognize them as the site of contact from presynaptic cells. He was a proponent of polarization of nerve cell function and his student, Rafael Lorente de Nó, would continue this study of input-output systems into cable theory and some of the earliest circuit analysis of neural structures. By producing excellent depictions of neural structures and their connectivity and providing detailed descriptions of cell types he discovered a new type of cell, subsequently named after him, the interstitial cell of Cajal; this cell is found interleaved among neurons embedded within the smooth muscles lining the gut, serving as the generator and pacemaker of the slow waves of contraction which move material along the gastrointestinal tract, mediating neurotransmission from motor neurons to smooth muscle cells.

In his 1894 Croonian Lecture, Ramón y Cajal suggested that cortical pyramidal cells may become more elaborate with time, as a tree grows and extends its branches. He devoted a considerable amount of time studying French which he used to help his wife during labor and parapsychological phenomena. A book he had written on these topics was lost during the Spanish Civil War. Ramó

Norwood, Bronx

Norwood known as Bainbridge, is a working-class residential neighborhood in the northwest Bronx, New York City. It is bounded by Van Cortlandt Park and Woodlawn Cemetery to the north, the Bronx River to the east, Mosholu Parkway to the southwest; the area is dominated topographically by what was once known as Valentine's Hill, the highest point being near the intersection of 210th Street and Bainbridge Avenue, where Gun Hill Road intersects, around the Montefiore Medical Center, the largest landowner and employer of the neighborhood. Norwood's main commercial arteries are Gun Hill Road, Jerome Avenue, Webster Avenue, Bainbridge Avenue; the neighborhood is patrolled by the NYPD's 52nd Precinct. As of the 2000 United States Census, the seven census tracts that make up the neighborhood have a population of 40,748. Due to its use in city publications, subway maps, local media, "Norwood" is the neighborhood's more common name, but the area is known as "Bainbridge," most within the neighborhood's Irish American community, centered on the commercial zone of Bainbridge Avenue and East 204th Street.

However, as this Irish community left the country during the 1990s, the name "Bainbridge" has accordingly lost a great deal of currency. The name "Norwood" does not carry a great deal of currency as do nearby neighborhoods such as Riverdale and Woodlawn. At the time of the Civil War, the area was Westchester County farmland on the border of West Farms and Yonkers. Chief property owners included the Valentine and Bussing families. Woodlawn Cemetery was founded in 1863 to the north. Annexed to New York City in 1873 along with the rest of the West Bronx, the area's character shifted from rural to suburban by the turn of the 20th century; the neighborhood's streets in their present form were laid out in 1889 by Josiah Briggs between Middlebrook Parkway and Woodlawn Cemetery. Contemporary maps show that it was considered part of Williamsbridge, with which it continues to share a post office. Williamsbridge Reservoir was opened in 1890, transforming the natural lake into an artery that served the New York City water supply system until no longer needed in 1934.

A 19-acre tract of land, known as "Columbia Oval" was owned by Columbia University at GunHill Road and Bainbridge Avenue. Columbia Oval was used for sporting events including the first United States marathon, from Stamford, Connecticut in 1896. Columbia Oval became the site of Columbia University's War Hospital, taken over by the United States Army as "General Hospital No. 1" during the World War I. The area went through a series of names around the turn of the 20th century, including North Bedford Park, after the neighborhood to the south, Brendan Hill, after St. Brendan the Navigator and the parish church, established in 1908, that bears his name; the name Brendan Hill was made official by the Board of Aldermen in 1910. Norwood, the name with greatest common currency, is first attributed in the form Norwood Heights—either in honor of Carlisle Norwood, a friend of Leonard Jerome, or a contraction of "North Woods", common to a number of places in the English-speaking world. In the first half of the 20th century Norwood shared with the rest of the Bronx a population made up of European-origin Catholic and Jewish families affluent enough to leave Manhattan.

These populations were joined by Puerto Ricans during the Great Depression and post World War II eras, post-1965, by other Latinos, Albanians, West Indians, West Africans, a new group of Irish immigrants. In the 1970s through the 1990s the neighborhood was well known for its Irish population, having attracted a number of immigrants from Catholic areas of Northern Ireland who fled the Troubles. During this time that the neighborhood became known by two more names: Bainbridge, after the Bainbridge Avenue – East 204th Street commercial strip – included Irish restaurants and pubs, Little Belfast, after the city from which many immigrants came; the area contributed much in politics during this time. The musical group Black 47, made up of Irish expatriates, first made their name touring the bar scene here, their lyrics would go on to reflect the experiences of the Irish in the area, in such songs as "Funky Ceílí," "Her Dear Donegal," and "Rockin' the Bronx." Irish pubs in the area attracted press attention as centers of strong support for Irish republicanism, which supports ending the remaining British rule in Ireland.

A few pubs hosted benefits for Noraid, the Northern Irish Aid Committee, accused by Unionists of gun running for the Irish Republican Army. At least one area bar, The Phoenix, was raided by law enforcement in 1994, with Irish authorities raiding its owner's holiday home in Donegal. Thomas Maguire, the owner, five others, were charged with smuggling thousands of bomb detonators to Ireland from Tucson via New York. A jury found the defendants not guilty on all counts. A number of factors have contributed to the decline of the Irish population in Bainbridge; the most critical was the downturn in the US economy which forced many Irish immigrants to return to Ireland or to seek work in Germany. A substantial portion of the Irish population were illegally in the country, thus subject to INS investigation and deportation; the end of the Troubles period, with the signing of the Good Friday Agreement, encouraged some residents to return voluntarily to Ireland, particularl

Adolph VI, Count of Holstein-Schauenburg

Adolph VI, Count of Holstein-Schauenburg was the ruling Count of Holstein-Pinneberg and Schaumburg from 1290 until his death. He was the third son of Gerhard I and Elisabeth of Mecklenburg and was married to Helen of Saxe-Lauenburg, daughter of John I, Duke of Saxony; when Gerhard I died in 1290, his sons divided the inheritance. Adolph VI received the ancestral County of Schaumburg. Adolph is considered the founder of the younger Schauenburg line. In 1298, he granted a charter to the city of Gehrden. In 1302, he began construction of the water castle at Bückeburg to defend the main trade route; the castle was named after a castle in the Obernkirchen area. His seal reads: S*ADOLPHI*COMITIS*SCHOWEBORCH "Seal of Adolph, Count of Schauenburg"