Sapporo is the fifth largest city in Japan, the largest city on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is the capital city of Ishikari Subprefecture, it is an ordinance-designated city. Located in the southwestern part of Hokkaido, Sapporo lies within the alluvial fan of the Toyohira River, a tributary stream of the Ishikari River; as with most of Hokkaido, the area of Sapporo was home to settlements of the indigenous Ainu people. Sapporo was settled from Japanese migrants in the late 19th century. Sapporo hosted the 1972 Winter Olympics, the first Winter Olympics held in Asia, the Sapporo Dome hosted three games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup and two games during the 2019 Rugby World Cup; the annual Sapporo Snow Festival draws more than 2 million tourists from abroad. The city is served by the New Chitose Airport in nearby Chitose, is home to Hokkaido University. Sapporo's name was taken from the Ainu language sat poro pet, which can be translated as "dry, great river", a reference to the Toyohira River.
Before its establishment, the area occupied by Sapporo was home to a number of indigenous Ainu settlements. In 1866, at the end of the Edo period, construction began on a canal through the area, encouraging a number of early settlers to establish Sapporo village. In 1868, the recognized year celebrated as the "birth" of Sapporo, the new Meiji government concluded that the existing administrative center of Hokkaido, which at the time was the port of Hakodate, was in an unsuitable location for defense and further development of the island; as a result, it was determined. The plain itself provided an unusually large expanse of flat, well drained land, uncommon in the otherwise mountainous geography of Hokkaido. During 1870–1871, Kuroda Kiyotaka, vice-chairman of the Hokkaido Development Commission, approached the American government for assistance in developing the land; as a result, Horace Capron, Secretary of Agriculture under President Ulysses S. Grant, became an oyatoi gaikokujin and was appointed as a special advisor to the commission.
Construction began around Odori Park, which still remains as a green ribbon of recreational land bisecting the central area of the city. The city followed a grid plan with streets at right-angles to form city blocks; the continuing expansion of the Japanese into Hokkaido continued due to migration from the main island of Honshu to the south, the prosperity of Hokkaido and its capital grew to the point that the Development Commission was deemed unnecessary and was abolished in 1882. Edwin Dun came to Sapporo to establish sheep and cattle ranches in 1876, he demonstrated pig raising and the making of butter, cheese and sausage. He was married twice, to Japanese women, he once returned to Japan as a secretary of government. William S. Clark, the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, came to be the founding vice-president of the Sapporo Agricultural College for only eight months from 1876 to 1877, he taught academic subjects in science and lectured on the Bible as an "ethics" course, introducing Christian principles to the first entering class of the College.
In 1880, the entire area of Sapporo was renamed as "Sapporo-ku", a railroad between Sapporo and Temiya, Otaru was laid. That year the Hōheikan, a hotel and reception facility for visiting officials and dignitaries, was erected adjacent to the Odori Park, it was moved to Nakajima Park where it remains today. Two years with the abolition of the Kaitaku-shi, Hokkaidō was divided into three prefectures: Hakodate and Nemuro; the name of the urban district in Sapporo remained Sapporo-ku, while the rest of the area in Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo-gun. The office building of Sapporo-ku was located in the urban district. Sapporo and Nemuro Prefectures were abolished in 1886, Hokkaidō government office building, an American-neo-baroque-style structure with red bricks, constructed in 1888; the last squad of the Tondenhei, the soldiers pioneering Hokkaido, settled in the place where the area of Tonden in Kita-ku, Sapporo is located. Sapporo-ku administered surrounding Sapporo-gun until 1899, when the new district system was announced.
After that year, Sapporo-ku was away from the control of Sapporo-gun. The "ku" enforced from 1899 was an autonomy, a little bigger than towns, smaller than cities. In Hokkaido at that time, Hakodate-ku and Otaru-ku existed. Gallery In 1907, the Tohoku Imperial University was established in Sendai Miyagi Prefecture, Sapporo Agricultural College was controlled by the University. Parts of neighbouring villages including Sapporo Village, Naebo Village, Kami Shiroishi Village, districts where the Tonden-hei had settled, were integrated into Sapporo-ku in 1910; the Sapporo Streetcar was opened in 1918, Hokkaido Imperial University was established in Sapporo-ku, as the fifth Imperial University in Japan. Another railroad operated in Sapporo, the Jōzankei Railroad, abolished in 1969. In 1922, the new city system was announced by the Tokyo government, Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo City; the Sapporo Municipal Bus System was started in 1930. In 1937, Sapporo was chosen as the site of the 1940 Winter Olympics, but due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, this was cancelled the next year.
Patricia Alcivar aka "Patty Boom Boom Alcivar" is a professional boxer, competitive road and adventure racer and commercial/fitness actress. Alcivar lives in trains in Manhattan at Trinity Boxing Club in lower Manhattan. Alcivar was born in Barranquilla, but grew up in Jackson Heights, where her family moved when she was a toddler, she was raised in an abusive household and moved out on her own at the young age of 15. She survived against all odds by working a part-time job to support herself while finishing high school with honors. Alcivar competed in the martial art of Kyokushin, she started at the age of 13 and won a world championship at age 18 at the Manhattan Center in 1995. Alcivar started her amateur Boxing career shortly after winning the world title in Kyokushin, she enrolled in a Boxing Aerobics class where she challenged the coach of the class, Martin Snow. Alcivar went on to have a fantastic amateur career noted as a pioneer in women's boxing, she had around 35 amateur fights and won two New York City Daily News Golden Gloves Championships, a national championship and won an international competition.
She was the first female boxer to be voted the athlete of the year by the United States Olympic Committee. Patricia started her professional Boxing Career on October 9, 2009 with a first-round knockout over Jennifer Batchelder; this fight took place in Tennessee. Alcivar faced Laura Gomez May 16, 2010 in Kissimmee and won that fight by a fourth-round TKO. For her third fight on August 13, 2010 she won by TKO in the third round over Shari Denise Jacobs in Tampa, Florida. Alcivar had a rematch with Laura Gomez on March 4, 2011, in Alcivars home town of Queens, New York and was taken the distance for the first time with unanimous decision with all three judges scoring all four rounds for Alcivar. Alcivar defeated Savanna "The Lioness" Hill on April 2, 2011 at Roger Dean Stadium in Jupiter, Florida, she won by a decisive 6 round unanimous decision. The cards read 60-54 twice and 60-53. Hill was looking to go several times during the fight and appeared to be crying during the fight as she was taking a fierce beating from Alcivar.
Theotonius was a Canon Regular and royal advisor. He is noted in Portugal, for being the first prior of the Monastery of the Holy Cross in Coimbra, Portugal, he is celebrated as the reformer of religious life in Portugal, is the first Portuguese saint. Theotonius was born in the village of Ganfei, in northern Portugal around 1082, his parents and Eugenia were both wealthy and pious. He was called "Theotonius", a Greek name meaning'godly', his uncle Dom Crescónio, abbot of the Benedictine monastery near Tuy, was his first teacher. When Dom Crescónio became bishop of Coimbra in 1092, he brought the ten-year-old Theotonius with him and entrusted his further education to the care of a young seminarian, Tello. After the death of Bishop Crescónio in 1098, Theotonius went to Viseu, where his uncle named Teodorico was prior of the Cathedral Chapter of Santa Maria. During his time of preparation for the priesthood, Theotonius progressed through the minor ecclesiastic orders with great diligence and piety.
The first of these was that of porter, with the responsibility to open the church and sacristy and ring the bell. After serving a period of time as a lector, he became an exorcist. One of the chief duties of exorcists was to take part in the baptismal exorcism of catechumens. Completing his term as an Acolyte, Theotonius was ordained a subdeacon. Holy Orders were conferred upon him sometime by the bishop of Coimbra; the young priest was appointed a canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Viseu, a college of clerics who served as advisors to the bishop. After being ordained a priest, he remained at Viseu, where his service was so well-received that he soon was given the charge of the entire township as archpriest, he resigned so he could make a journey to the Holy Land, upon his return, resumed ministering in Viseu. He was both an advocate for the poor. Devoted to the holy souls in Purgatory, he would say Mass for them every Friday followed by a procession to the cemetery. Alms were distributed to the poor.
Theotonius was asked many times by Queen Teresa, to assume the office of bishop. Theotonius set out once more to Jerusalem. After travelling for ten weeks, the group arrived at the port of Saint Nicholas, where they waited six weeks for favourable winds; as they were sailing by the Cape of Malea, they found themselves in a storm. Three weeks after leaving Bari, they arrived at the port of Joppa; the pilgrims started in Lydda. From there they went to Nazareth, Mount Tabor, Samaria, saw the tomb of St. John the Baptist. Upon entering Jerusalem, Theotonius set, he visited the Mount of Olives and Bethany. Travelling to Bethlehem, the group continued on to Capharnaum, the Sea of Galilee. There the pilgrimage ended, Theotonius and the other pilgrims from his parish returned to Portugal. Theotonius' experience in Holy Land resulted in both an increased devotion to the Passion and an intention to found a religious order following the Augustinian Rule. Theotonius helped to found the Canons Regular of the Holy Cross in Coimbra.
Archdeacon Tello purchased the site of the monastery. The construction gained the backing of the Bernardo, Bishop of Coimbra. Work began on the Monastery of the Holy Cross and of the Blessed Mary Mother of God, on 28 June 1131. On 22 February 1132, the monastery was completed and the community took the habit and rule of Saint Augustine, it opened with Theotonius as prior. Theotonius was a trusted advisor of Afonso Henriques; the king attributed his success at the Battle of Ourique to the prayers of Theotonius, thus able to persuade the king to release Mozarabic Christians captured during forays into land held by the Moors. Although his counsel was sought by Afonso Henriques, Theotonius did not hesitate to reprove the king or queen if he thought them in the wrong. One day, in the church of Viseu, he preached a sermon against co-habitation in the presence of the widowed queen and her lover, Count Fernando. On another occasion when the queen told him to shorten the Mass, he replied that the Mass was offered for a sovereign greater than she.
Therefore, she could stay or go. He was offered the bishopric of Viseu and Coimbra, but declined because he suspected the queen was attempting to bribe him. Theotonius retired after 30 years of service, he became a hermit in solitude. He kept with him through his old age a shepherd's staff which St. Bernard, the first abbot of Clairvaux, had sent to him as a present when he heard of his sanctity. On Saturday, 18 February 1162, Theotonius died; the entire city of Coimbra showed their admiration for him. King Afonso I of Portugal was taken by such grief that he said of him, "His soul will be in Heaven before his body is in the tomb". During his life, St. Theotonius was known for his piety, his cultus was approved by Benedict XIV. His feast day is 18 February. Portugal issued postal stamps with the image of St. Theotonius that circulated July 1958 to October 1961; the Royal Confraternity of Saint Theotonius, founded on 2 November 2000, under the royal protection of Dom Miguel de Bragança, Duke of Viseu, Infante of Portugal, is a secular organization of the faithful with common ends, a group of men willingly desiring to defend the origins and Christian values and honor the spirit of and remember and promote devotion to Saint Theotonius.
A. Butler Butler's Lives of the Saints, Burns & Oates, 2000
Count Pirro Capacelli Albergati was an Italian aristocrat, amateur composer. Albergati was born in Bologna; the Albergatis were one of the most eminent families of the Bolognese nobility, Count Pirro Albergati himself was ambassador, confident of Leopold I, Emperor of Austria, member of the city Council of Elders, gonfaloniere of the city of Bologna. "Although posterity has recognized Pirro Albergati for his musical accomplishments, he was better known to the general public for his charitable works". From 1685 he became a member of the confraternity Santa Maria della Morte for whom he composed most of his 17 oratorios. From 1728 Albergati held the honorary post of maestro di cappella in Puiano near Urbino in the last years of his life, his sacred works include 4 masses. Fellow Bolognese composer Giuseppe Maria Jacchini dedicated his opus 4 to Count Albergati in recognition of his strong support for giving Jacchini a permanent position in the orchestra of the cathedral of Bologna. Published works: Op. 1 Balletti, sarabande e gighe per Violino, con il secondo violino beneplacito.
1682, reprinted 1685 Op. 2 Suonate a due violini col suo basso continuo. Bologna 1683 Op. 3 Cantate morali 1685 Op. 4 Messa e salmi concertati. 1687 Op. 5 "Plectro armonico" Dieci Sonate da Camera à due Violini, e Basso con Violoncello obligato Op. 6 Cantate da camera a voce sola 1687 Op. 7 Motetti e antifoni della B. M. V. 1691 Op. 8 Concerti varii da Camera a quattro o cinque. Modena 1702 Op. 9 Cantate spirituale a 1 2 3 vv. F. Rosati Modena 1702 Op. 10 Cantate ed Oratorio San Eustachio 1714 Inno e antifone della B. M. V. A voce sola. Silvani, Bologna 1715 Cantate in pregio di Santa Maria. "Op6." Bologna 1717 Op. 13 Corona dei pregi di Maria a 1 voce 1717 Op. 14 Caprici varii da camera a tre. Venice 1721 Op. 15 Motetti con il responsorio di S. Antonio di Padova a 4, 1715 Op. 16 Messe e Litanie della B. M. V. E Tantum ergo a 4, Venice 1721Oratorios: L’innocenza di Sant’Eufemia 1694 Il Convito di Baldassarro, 1691 La Beata Caterina da Bologna tentata di solitudine, 1710 Bologna San Eustachio in Op.10 1714Lost works: Serenata a 2 vv 1692 Opera Gli amici 16 August 1699, Bologna Opera Il principe selvaggio 1712, BolognaOratorios: Nabucodonosor 1686 Giobbe 1688 Santa Orsola 1689 L'Iride di pace, o sia il B.
Niccolò Albergati 1690 Il martirio di S Sinibaldo 1696 Il ritorno dalla capanna 1696 Maria Annunciata dall'Angelo 1701 Santa Ottilia 1705 Il Morte di Cristo 1719 Il trionfo della Grazia, ovvero la conversione di Maddalena 1729 S Petronio principale protettore di Bologna 1732 Oratorio La Beata Caterina da Bologna tentata di solitudine. Magnificat. Cantate spirituali. Fortuna Ensemble, dir. Roberto Cascio TC.660101 Oratorio Il Convito di Baldassarro 1691. Fortuna Ensemble dir. Roberto Cascio TC.660102 Sacred cantatas: Corona dei pregi di Maria from Op.13 1717. Ensemble La Flora TC.660103
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over East Francia, the Kingdom of Germany, from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The title used by the early rulers was Rex Francorum orientalium, "King of the East Franks", or Rex Francorum "King of the Franks". During the medieval period, the title was "King of the Romans", sometimes, interchangeably, "King of the Germans". From 1508 until 1806, "King of the Romans" continued to be used by the emperor, while Rex Germaniae "King of Germany" or Rex in Germania "King in Germany" was used by the emperor's heir-apparent. Listed are the heads of the various German confederations between the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918; the Kingdom of Germany started out as the eastern section of the Frankish kingdom, split by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. The rulers of the eastern area thus called themselves rex Francorum, king of the Franks, just rex.
A reference to the "Germans", indicating the emergence of a German nation of some sort, did not appear until the eleventh century, when the pope referred to his enemy Henry IV as rex teutonicorum, king of the Germans, in order to brand him as a foreigner. The kings reacted by using the title rex Romanorum, King of the Romans, to emphasize their universal rule before becoming emperor; this title remained until the end of the Empire in 1806, though after 1508 Emperors-elect added "king in Germany" to their titles. The Kingdom of Germany was never hereditary. During the 10th to 13th centuries, the king was formally elected by the leading nobility in the realm, continuing the Frankish tradition; the election became the privilege of a group of princes called electors, the Golden Bull of 1356 formally defined election proceedings. In the Middle Ages, the king did not assume the title "Emperor". Moving to Italy, he was first crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, after which he assumed the title of rex Italiae, King of Italy.
After this he would be crowned emperor by the pope. See Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor for more details; the title of "King of the Germans" was in use from the 11th until the 18th centuries, in origin a derogatory replacement of King of the Romans imposed on Henry IV by Pope Gregory VII, in the period a nominal title given to the heir apparent of the ruling emperor. Maximilian I was the first king to bear the title of Elected Emperor. After the failure in 1508 of his attempt to march to Rome and be crowned by the pope, he had himself proclaimed Elected Emperor with papal consent, his successor Charles V assumed that title after his coronation in 1520 until he was crowned emperor by the pope in 1530. From Ferdinand I onwards, all emperors were Elected Emperor, although they were referred to as emperors. At the same time, chosen successors of the emperors held the title of king of the Romans, if elected by the college of electors during their predecessor's lifetime. See King of the Romans for more details.
Emperors are listed in bold. Rival kings, anti-kings, junior co-regents are italicized; the title "King of the Romans", used under the Holy Roman Empire, is considered equivalent to King of Germany. A king was chosen by the German electors and would proceed to Rome to be crowned emperor by the pope. Kings of Germany family tree List of German monarchs in 1918 List of German queens List of rulers of Austria List of rulers of Bavaria List of monarchs of Prussia List of rulers of Saxony List of rulers of Württemberg
Yitzchak Mirilashvili is an Israeli investor and philanthropist. He is a co-founder of Russia's largest social network. Mirilashvili lives in Israel, where he oversees his businesses as well as various charitable foundations and causes. Mirilashvili was born in Saint Petersburg, Russia in 1984, he attended high school there. Mirilashvili attended Tufts University in the United States, graduating with a degree in economics in 2006. Mirilashvili co-founded VK in 2006 with friends Lev Leviev and Pavel Durov, where he served as chairman and majority shareholder. VK became Russia's largest social network. With over 500 million active users.> As of May 2019, VK ranked 16th among Alexa's global Top 500 sites. Mirilashvili and Durov raised capital from Digital Sky Technologies, headed by Yuri Milner. In 2013, at the age of 29, Mirilashvili sold his remaining shares in VKontakte for a valuation in excess of $1 billion, making him one of Israel's wealthiest citizens. Mirilashvili was a 35% shareholder in Plarium, an F2P mobile and online gaming company founded in 2009.
Mirilashvili held a material stake in Plarium, which in 2017 was sold to Aristocrat, a publicly held Australian company, for an estimated $500 million. Mirilashvili is the sole shareholder and chairman of The Kuf Dalet Group, a holding company that manages his group's investment portfolio and is headquartered in Herziliya. Kuf Dalet invests in real estate and infrastructure within the United States, Israel and Europe. Kuf Dalet is the controlling shareholder in Rothstein Real Estate Co, Ltd. an Israeli residential real-estate development company traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange and a member of the TA Real-Estate Index. The group's holdings in Israel include commercial and retail portfolios of properties in Tel Aviv and adjacent suburbs. In the United States, Mirilashvili's real estate portfolio is concentrated in New York City as well in the Midwest and Southeast regions, with commercial and retail assets. Yesodot Private Equity was launched by the group in 2014, creating a fund for investing in energy storage and infrastructure projects in Israel and abroad.
Yesodot acquired an 18% stake in Israel's IPM Be’er Tuvia power plant development project in 2018, meant to produce 451 MW and supply 3.5% of Israel's electricity needs. Prior to this transaction, Yesodot completed a private equity investment in an existing solar panel business owned by the publicly- listed Israeli conglomerate Shikun & Binui, which produces 24 MW. In addition, Mirilashvili is the controlling shareholder in Israel's Channel 20, a broadcast news channel which began as a Jewish heritage programming outlet that targets the conservative-leaning political spectrum. In 2019, Mirilshvili was included in The Marker's magazine list of top 100 influential people in Israel in the field of business. Yitzhak and his wife Vika donate millions of dollars each year, through their charitable foundation, to hundreds of educational and welfare institutions in Israel and around the world. Mirilashvili's foundation donated funds to an educational institution for disadvantaged girls run by the wife of Israel's Interior Minister, Aryeh Deri.
In 2017, Mirilashvili was questioned as part of an investigation into the Interior Minister's financial and real estate dealings. No wrongdoing was found on Mirilashvili's part. Mirilashvili is the son of Dr. Michael Mirilashvili, a Georgian-Israeli businessman and philanthropist