The Saratoga campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British high command for North America to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War. It ended in the surrender of the British army, which historian Edmund Morgan argues, "was a great turning point of the war, because it won for Americans the foreign assistance, the last element needed for victory."The primary thrust of the campaign was planned and initiated by General John Burgoyne. Commanding a main force of some 8,000 men, he moved south in June from Quebec, boated up Lake Champlain to middle New York marched over the divide and down the Hudson Valley to Saratoga, he skirmished there with the Patriot defenders with mixed results. After losses in the Battles of Saratoga in September and October, his deteriorating position and the ever-increasing size of the American army forced him to surrender his forces to the American general Horatio Gates on October 17. In this critical British loss on the field of battle, the coordinated movements, drawn up in far away London did not materialize.
Colonel Barry St. Leger had been assigned to move east through the Mohawk River valley on Albany, New York, but was forced to retreat during the Siege of Fort Stanwix after losing his Indian allies; the major expedition planned from the south was not launched due to miscommunication with London when General William Howe sent his army to take Philadelphia rather than sending it up the Hudson River to link up with Burgoyne. A last-minute effort to reinforce Burgoyne from New York City was made in early October, but it was too little, too late; the American victory was an enormous morale boost to the fledgling nation. More it convinced France to enter the war in alliance with the United States providing money and munitions, as well as fighting a naval war worldwide against Britain. Toward the end of 1776 it was apparent to many in England that pacification of New England was difficult due to the high concentration of Patriots. London decided to isolate New England and concentrate on the central and southern regions where Loyalists could be rallied.
In December 1776, General John Burgoyne met with Lord Germain, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies and the government official responsible for managing the war, to set strategy for 1777. There were two main armies in North America to work with: General Guy Carleton's army in Quebec and General William Howe's army, which had driven George Washington's army from New York City in the New York campaign. On November 30, 1776, Howe—the British commander-in-chief in North America—wrote to Germain, outlining an ambitious plan for the 1777 campaign. Howe said that if Germain sent him substantial reinforcements, he could launch multiple offensives, including sending 10,000 men up the Hudson River to take Albany, New York. In the autumn, Howe could move south and capture the U. S. capital of Philadelphia. Howe soon changed his mind after writing this letter: the reinforcements might not arrive, the retreat of the Continental Army over the winter of 1776–77 made Philadelphia an vulnerable target.
Therefore, Howe decided that he would make the capture of Philadelphia the primary object of the 1777 campaign. Howe sent Germain this revised plan, which Germain received on February 23, 1777. Burgoyne, seeking to command a major force, proposed to isolate New England by an invasion from Quebec into New York; this had been attempted by General Carleton in 1776, although he had stopped short of a full-scale invasion due to the lateness of the season. Carleton was criticized in London for not taking advantage of the American retreat from Quebec, he was intensely disliked by Germain. This, combined with rival Henry Clinton's failed attempt to capture Charleston, South Carolina, placed Burgoyne in a good position to get command of the 1777 northern campaign. Burgoyne presented a written plan to Lord Germain on February 28, 1777. Burgoyne's invasion plan from Quebec had two components: he would lead the main force of about 8,000 men south from Montreal along Lake Champlain and the Hudson River Valley while a second column of about 2,000 men, would move from Lake Ontario east down the Mohawk River valley in a strategic diversion.
Both expeditions would converge upon Albany, where they would link up with troops from Howe's army, proceeding up the Hudson. Control of the Lake Champlain–Lake George–Hudson River route from Canada to New York City would cut off New England from the rest of the American colonies; the last part of Burgoyne's proposal, the advance by Howe up the Hudson from New York City, proved to be the most controversial part of the campaign. Germain approved Burgoyne's plan after having received Howe's letter detailing his proposed offensive against Philadelphia. Whether Germain told Burgoyne, still in London at that time, about Howe's revised plans is unclear: while some sources claim he did, others state that Burgoyne was not notified of the changes until the campaign was well underway. Historian Robert Ketchum believes that Burgoyne would have been aware of the problems that lay ahead had he been notified of the Philadelphia plan. Whether Germain and Burgoyne had the same expectations about the degree to which Howe was supposed to support the invasion from Quebec is unclear.
What is clear is that Germain either left his generals with too much latitude, or without a defined overall strategy. In March 1777 Germain had approved of Howe's Philadelphia expedition and did not include any express orders for Howe to go to Albany, yet Germain sent Howe a copy
Hotel Cæsar is a Norwegian soap opera that aired on TV 2 from 24 October 1998 until 14 December 2017. From the start in 1998, the show was broadcast Monday to Friday, except during the autumn of 2006, where the show was broadcast Monday to Thursday only, from 2010 until 15 December 2016, the show was again broadcast Monday to Thursday on TV 2. From 2 January 2017, the show started being broadcast online only, through TV 2's web player TV 2 Sumo; the show was cancelled in 2017, the last episode was published on TV 2 Sumo 14 December 2017. It was created by Swedish duo Peter Emanuel Christian Wikander; the show consists of a total of 3,123 episodes, making it the longest running drama in television in Scandinavia. Hotel Cæsar is the second longest running drama in television in the Nordics after Finnish soap opera Salatut elämät; the story lines are centered around a fictional hotel in Oslo, its employees, the Anker-Hansen family. From the start, CEO and widower Georg Anker-Hansen was one of the most central figures in the series and his romance with the escort girl Ninni Krogstad was the main story.
After a year Georg died of incurable cancer in the pancreas, Ninni inherited the entire concern, which led to major conflicts with Georg's dominating mother and Georg's children, Jens August, Julie. So far, the series was inspired by the history of Janni Spies, where Janni Brodersen married the much older Danish tourism king Simon Spies, inherited millions when he died, it gave the idea to the escort girl Ninni Krogstad. The story of Georg's daughter Juni was pretty much in the center in the beginning, due to her alcoholism, it received great attention in Norwegian media. The show received more attention when the half siblings Jens-August and Charlotte Iversen began a relationship without knowing that they were siblings; the series focused on topics such as racism, rape, trafficking, pyromania, homosexuality and other controversial topics. In autumn 2004, episode No. 1000 of the series was sent, where Toralv Maurstad made a guest appearance as Georg in some of the characters dreams. In January 2006, the series changed its genre and appeared as a more innovative and modern soap with more action, sex and drama.
The show received massive media publicity because of early prime time. After the sudden change in the series, the viewing rates decreased, this resulted as of January 2007, that the show returned to its old style. Years it was discovered that Georg's deceased wife, Ingeborg Anker-Hansen, had an affair with Harald Hilldring, which resulted in the birth of Julie Anker-Hansen, the artist and the outsider of the family, she learned about this through her mother's diaries. Julie claimed Georg responsible for her mother's illness, among her siblings, she's the one who have the smallest issue about being against her family's opinions. Jens August came out of prison at the start of the series, because he killed a young man driving under influence of alcohol, he had a past with his father's new girlfriend and the relationship between Jens August and Ninni was always tense. In the summer-cliffhanger of 2007, Jens August returned to the series, after being deserted on an island for two years; the plane was sabotaged by one an assassin sent by brother of Rolv Espevoll.
Rolf, introduced to the Anker-Hansens in 1998. He had a brief affair with Juni during his 4 years working at the hotel. In 2002, he was set up for a murder, found guilty and sent to prison, he was released in 2006, where he in a short time with his brother Scott kicked out the Anker-Hansens of the hotel and their own concern. Throughout the few months they were in charge and Rolf developed a tense and hatred relationship. After some tense weeks, Scott wanted to get rid of Rolf, planted a bag of cocaine in his hotel-room. Since Rolf was released from jail, this was a crucial move from Scott. After an anonymous call by him to the police, Rolf was arrested and was most to be convicted for drug-dealing. Rolf figured out, and at the day of his trail, he ran off from the court. He visited Juni at Ankerseteren, gagged her, stole a rifle and ran down to the hotel, where he started shooting in the lobby, he killed 20 people including 2 people. Daphne wanted revenge from her ex for leaving her; when she pointed the gun at him, Rolf shot her.
The other one wielding a weapon was Julian, threatening his girlfriend, who've he had molested recently. Rolf ran into Benedicte when Julian was about to shot her. In a cheeky manner, Rolf pointed the rifle on Julian asking him to apologize to Benedicte for treating her bad. Rolf shot Julian, who died instantly. Rolf saved 2 people from getting killed, he went up to the office, where he pushed Scott out on the roof and talked straight out about everything he hated about him. Scott was shot in his arm, was not able to defend himself. Rolf ended up killing himself in the end. In November 2007, June Anker-Hansen and Jens August Anker-Hansen was about to sell Virtual Window, a project developed by businesswoman, Nadia Selam-Tefari, who worked at Cæsar. Junis boyfriend at the moment, Magnus Falsen presented the Virtual Window to his lodge, Vox Populi, which seemed positive to the project. Many new main characters arrived in 2008, including Gaute Ormåsen who came 2nd in the Norwegian Idol in 2003, he played the role of the mu
Ping on bun is a traditional Hong Kong food. During the mid-Qing Dynasty, a pandemic spread through villages in Cheung Chau and caused a lot of deaths; as a result, villagers decided to gather before Pak Tai and pray, on were instructed to set up altars and say mass to scare the evil spirits away. Afterwards, islanders built temples to show gratitude to Pak Tai's blessings, viewing him as the guardian of the village; as years went by, the annual Cheung Chau Bun Festival became a tradition. Villagers dressed up as gods to vanquish evil; the ping on bun was used to build the bun towers during the festival. Buns were to be distributed to the villagers after prayers and used to offer sacrifice to Gods and ghosts; the villagers believed that eating hot ping on bun helps ward off disease, that spreading powdered ping on buns in the sea can help to calm the ocean. Ping on bun originated in Hong Kong, its major ingredients include lotus seed paste as well as sugar. It is best served hot or at room temperature.
There are some special flavours such as red and green bean. More than 48,000 tourists go to Cheung Chau during the bun festival; the distribution of ping on buns outside the Pak Tai Temple attract a hundred people queuing from the morning. Guo Jin Kee, a shop selling Ping On Bun, sold more than 10,000 Ping On Buns a day while there were long queues outside the shop in the morning. Tourists have to wait for half an hour to buy fresh Ping On Buns. Kwong Koon Wan, who earned more than $10,000 by selling a variety of ping on bun-themed souvenirs, said the bun cushions and fans were popular among tourists and expected that he could earn more than $30,000. On 24 May 2015, Yee Ma Bakery on Sun Hing Street in Cheung Chau was found to sell ping on buns that contain the carcinogenic food dye ‘Red 2G’, a forbidden dye that cannot be used in the food producing process; the bakery was accused of violating the Food Safety Ordinance. Mr. Wan, owner of the shop, claimed that the same food dye was used for three years and the bun packages list out the name as well as information of the agency and that the food dye is a legal product.
Despite all the defences, they had no choice but to throw away hundreds of Ping On Buns, causing a large sum of material fees loss. As ping on bun is made by with fresh ingredients, it will spoil easily. During Cheung Chau Bun Festival 2015, nearly 10,000 buns spoiled; because of the heavy rain and the hot weather, the buns of the three bun mountain became moldy and caused some sour smell and odours. There are thousands of bun pieces left on the ground during the festival; the Cheung Chau council managed to distribute all the buns of the bun mountains to the public. As the buns were spoilt, the Cheung Chau council obtained help from two bakeries and bought buns from all the bakeries from Cheung Chau directly in a bid to solving the problem; the representative of Cheung Chau bakery Kam Kwok said that the rising cost of making the bun such as the rent, the cost of ingredients, the cost of packaging etc. has increased. Therefore, the price of the bun increased from $6 to $7