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Sarawak

Sarawak is a state of Malaysia. The largest among the 13 states, with an area equal to that of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan to the south, Brunei in the north; the capital city, Kuching, is the largest city in Sarawak, the economic centre of the state, the seat of the Sarawak state government. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri and Bintulu; as of the 2015 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,636,000. Sarawak has an equatorial climate with abundant animal and plant species, it has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak; the earliest known human settlement in Sarawak at the Niah Caves dates back 40,000 years. A series of Chinese ceramics dated from the 8th to 13th century AD was uncovered at the archaeological site of Santubong; the coastal regions of Sarawak came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 16th century.

In 1839, James Brooke, a British explorer, arrived in Sarawak. He, his descendants, governed the state from 1841 to 1946. During World War II, it was occupied by the Japanese for three years. After the war, the last White Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, ceded Sarawak to Britain, in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. On 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of Malaysia, established on 16 September 1963. However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia leading to a three-year confrontation; the creation of Malaysia resulted in a communist insurgency that lasted until 1990. The head of state is the Governor known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. Sarawak is divided into administrative divisions and districts, governed by a system, modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and was the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia; because of its natural resources, Sarawak specialises in the export of oil and gas and oil palms, but possesses strong manufacturing and tourism sectors.

It is ethnically and linguistically diverse. English and Malay are the two official languages of the state; the generally-accepted explanation of the state's name is that it is derived from the Sarawak Malay word serawak, which means antimony. A popular alternative explanation is that it is a contraction of the four Malay words purportedly uttered by Pangeran Muda Hashim, "Saya serah pada awak", when he gave Sarawak to James Brooke, an English explorer in 1841. However, the latter explanation is incorrect: the territory had been named Sarawak before the arrival of James Brooke, the word awak was not in the vocabulary of Sarawak Malay before the formation of Malaysia. Sarawak is nicknamed "Land of the Hornbills"; these birds are important cultural symbols for the Dayak people, representing the spirit of God. It is believed that if a hornbill is seen flying over residences, it will bring good luck to the local community. Sarawak has eight of the world's fifty-four species of hornbills, the Rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak.

Foragers are known to have lived around the west mouth of the Niah Caves 40,000 years ago. A modern human skull found near the Niah Caves is the oldest human remain found in Malaysia and the oldest modern human skull from Southeast Asia. Chinese ceramics dating to the Tang and Song dynasties found at Santubong hint at its significance as a seaport; the Bruneian Empire was established in the coastal regions of Sarawak by the mid-15th century, the Kuching area was known to Portuguese cartographers during the 16th century as Cerava, one of the five great seaports of Borneo. It was during this time that witnessed the birth of the Sultanate of Sarawak, a local kingdom that lasted for half a century before being reunited with Brunei in 1641. By the early 19th century, the Bruneian Empire was in decline, retaining only a tenuous hold along the coastal regions of Sarawak which were otherwise controlled by semi-independent Malay leaders. Away from the coast, territorial wars were fought between a Kenyah-Kayan alliance.

The discovery of antimony ore in the Kuching region led Pangeran Indera Mahkota, a representative of the Sultan of Brunei, to increase development in the territory between 1824 and 1830. Increasing antimony production in the region led the Brunei Sultanate to demand higher taxes, which led to civil unrest. In 1839, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II assigned his uncle Pangeran Muda Hashim the task of restoring order but his inability to do so caused him to request the aid of British sailor James Brooke. Brooke's success in quelling the revolt was rewarded with antimony and the governorship of Sarawak, which at that time consisted only of a small area centred on Kuching; the Brooke family called the White Rajahs, set about expanding the territory they had been ceded. With expansion came the need for efficient governance and thus, beginning in 1841, Sarawak was separated into the first of its administrative divisions with currency, the Sarawak dollar, beginning circulation in 1858. By 1912, a total of five divisions had been established in Sarawak

─░nsuyu Cave

İnsuyu Cave is a show cave situated near Burdur in southwestern Turkey. Being over 500 m in length, it was discovered in 1952 and opened to public in 1965. A second cave beyond the show cave was discovered; the lakes inside the both caves are in danger of drying due to excessive drilling of wells in the valley above. However, efforts are underway to reverse the process. İnsuyu Cave is situated near the Çatalağıl village in Burdur Province, 900 m away to the east of the state road D.650 at 13 km southeast of Burdur. It is located at northeast of the Western Taurus Mountains at 1,230 m AMSL in Mediterranean Region, Turkey. Extending horizontally, it is a semi-active cave with underground water source showing important features of its formation. Although well-known to local inhabitants for many generations, it wasn't discovered scientifically until 1952 by Temuçin Aygen during hydrogeological surveys for the State Hydraulic Works. First comprehensive exploration took place in 1953, it was opened to the public in 1966 as the country's first show cave.

In 1976, it was registered by the Ministry of Tourism as a Natural Protected Area. Famous French caver Norbert Casteret praised the cave after his visit in 1966: "I had the chance to explore and visit more than thousand caves in Europe, Africa and Asia. I can say that the Burdur Insuyu Cave is a first class and interesting one, it offers to the visitors a rich decor, nice underground views and all the beauties of a boat ride on the cave lake. The large and deep lake at the end of the cave is most interesting and makes it the cave's focus point. Returning to the daylight after a short visit and a boat ride in the dark world, tourists will leave the cave with useful and unforgettable impressions."In the 1970s, the cave became subject to extensive international scientific research. Italian arachnologist Paolo Marcello Brignoli conducted research works on the cave's biospeleology, Austrian zoologist Friederike Spitzenberger researched bat suborders in 1973, Turkish geographist Korkut Ata Sungur its geology in 1974 and French geologist Jacques Choppy the karstology of the cave in 1978.

In 1993, scientists from Süleyman Demirel University explored further galleries with branches and lakes beyond the "Great Lake". Explorations conducted between 2005 and 2007 yielded a new mapping of the cave. According to this map, the cave has a total length of 3,000 m; the length of the cave measured over 12,000 m after four expeditions undertaken by 21 different spelaeologist groups in 2011 and 2012. The latest detailed map of the cave shows its length at 8,100 m, it became certain that İnsuyu Cave is, with its latest explored gallery branches, much longer than its known and measured length. In 2006, scientists from the Middle East Technical University conducted underwater and surface surveys in the lakes and prepared maps accurate to BCRA standards. İnsuyu Cave consists of two main interconnected galleries. The show cave is rich in formations such as stalactites, columns, curtain dripstones and calcite crystals and has nine lakes inside. Major lakes are the 512 m2 large "Büyük Göl" as well as "Dilek Gölü" and "Gazlı Göl".

It has a total length of 597 m -according to one source 700 m. However, access is up to 525 m only; the first gallery, extending parallel to the main fault line, has a rugged cage structure. In 2011, the show cave was visited by 65,378 foreign tourists; the second cave, discovered as a result of groundwater lowering, is poor in terms of stalactite formations compared with the first section, although it is longer. To proceed through the second gallery is difficult; the second cave begins around 40 m east of the "Great Lake", consists of three galleries extending to north and east. The north gallery is dry and ends in several branches beyond the "Kristal Göl" having a depth of around 40 m. Crystal formations on the walls and the ceiling of the dry gallery are beautiful; the chamber between the north and northeast galleries is characterized by great number of blocks fallen from the ceiling. There are four ponds and six lakes on the northeast gallery, namely "Umut Gölü" depth: ~25 m, "Muz Gölü" depth: ~15 m, "Sonsuzluk Gölü" depth: ~30 m, "Gizemli Göl" depth: ~8 m, "Cumhur Gölü" depth: ~15 m, "Dinginlik Gölü" depth: ~6 m and "Ya Sabır Gölü" depth: ~15 m.

In this gallery and rats were observed in addition to bats. The east gallery begins at a balcony over the "Lake of Hope", continues as a crack, so narrow that only one person can pass through, reaches a lake, it ends with two branches filled with water. Visiting the second cave is permitted only for exploring and sports purposes in groups appropriately equipped with special caving gear. In 1985, a man-made entrance close to the natural mouth was opened for access to the second gallery. Lithologic units surrounding the cave are of autochthonous allochthonous blocks. Limestone is the common rock formation in the region of Burdur. Sinkholes were formed in the dissoluble limestone rock during the early karst in Late Pleistocene and later. Intense chemical reaction results from the dissolution power of water near its freezing point determined by the climatic conditions in the region although the water has insufficient dissolved carbon dioxi

Alexandra Panova

Alexandra Alexandrovna Panova is a Russian professional tennis player. On 30 July 2012, she achieved her career-high singles ranking of world No. 71. On 18 January 2016, she peaked at No. 38 in the doubles rankings. She has won seven doubles titles on the WTA Tour. On the ITF Women's Circuit, she won two of her 16 doubles titles with her older sister Olga Panova. In January, Panova obtained an invitation from the Hong Kong Tennis Patrons' Association to play JB Group Classic with her compatriot Anna Chakvetadze and Vera Zvonareva, she entered the Australian Open women's qualifying singles unseeded and made it to the qualifying third round before losing to unseeded Julia Schruff of Germany 6–7, 4–6. In August, Panova made her grand slam debut at the US Open by coming through qualifying. In the first round she faced the 8th seed Marion Bartoli, a match that she ended up losing 5–7, 3–6. In February Panova made it to her first WTA final at the Copa Sony Ericsson Colsanitas, upsetting the 5th seed Gisela Dulko along the way.

She won the doubles championship. She won her second doubles title of the year at the Grand Prix SAR La Princesse Lalla Meryem. At the US Open, Panova faced then-world No. 1 and eventual runner-up, Victoria Azarenka, in the first round and was defeated, losing in straight sets and winning just one game. Panova participated in the Fed Cup final against Italy, she lost a marathon match against Roberta Vinci in the first rubber 7–5, 5–7, 6–8. Panova squandered a 5 -- 2, 40 -- 15 lead. Italy went on to win the Fed Cup tie 3–0. Panova made a positive start to 2014 by qualifying for the main draw of the Brisbane International by defeating Katarzyna Piter, Alizé Lim and No. 3 seed, Hsieh Su-wei. In the first round of the main draw she lost in three sets. Panova won her fourth WTA doubles title at the Baku Cup. In the final they crushed Shahar Pe'er. Now with Margarita Gasparyan as her doubles partner, Panova reached the finals of the Tashkent Open, losing to Krunić/Siniaková; this was Gasparyan's first WTA final in her career.

Panova entered the main draw at the Australian Open through qualifying. She won her first match at a Grand Slam by beating Sorana Cîrstea in the first round, she came up against fellow countrywoman Maria Sharapova in the second round and lost in three sets after having two match points on her serve. Panova started the new season losing in qualifying tournaments of Brisbane, Australian Open and St. Petersburg, she received her first main draw entry at the Malaysian Open. She renewed herself in Bogota. There Panova defeated the first-seeded Elina Svitolina, saving five match points in the third set after being 3–6 behind Svitolina. Alexandra Panova at the Women's Tennis Association Alexandra Panova at the International Tennis Federation Alexandra Panova at the Fed Cup Alexandra Panova statistics