The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece is formed between the peninsulas of Attica and Argolis and forms part of the Aegean Sea. It defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth, being the eastern terminus of the Corinth Canal, which cuts across the isthmus; the Saronic Islands in the gulf have played a pivotal role in the history of Greece, with the largest, naming a significant naval battle in the Greco-Persian wars. The Megara Gulf makes up the northern end of the Saronic Gulf; the capital of Greece, lies on the north coast of the Saronic Gulf. The origin of the gulf's name comes from the mythological king Saron who drowned at the Psifaei lake; the Saronic Gulf was a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy in the shape of a thief or bandit. The Battle of Salamis, just to the west of modern-day Piraeus, took place in the Saronic Gulf; this naval battle off Salamis Island saw the Athenians defeat Xerxes, assuring Athens its place as the cradle of modern European culture.
The ancient port of Cenchreae used to be situated here. The gulf includes the islands of Aegina and Poros along with smaller islands of Patroklos and Fleves; the port of Piraeus, Athens' port, lies on the northeastern edge of the gulf. The site of the former Ellinikon International Airport is in the northeast. Beaches line much of the gulf coast from Poros to Epidaurus, Galataki to Kineta and from Megara to Eleusis and from Piraeus down to Anavyssos. Athens' urban area surrounds the eastern coasts of this gulf. Bays in the gulf include Phaleron Bay, Elefsina Bay to the north, Kechries Bay in the northwest and Sofiko Bay in the east; the volcano of Methana is located to the southwest along with Kromyonia at the Isthmus of Corinth and Poros. Methana is the youngest most active volcano center and forms the northwestern end of the cycladic arch of active volcanoes that includes Milos island, Santorini island and Nisyros island. A hydropathic institute at Methana makes use of the hot sulphurous water that still surfaces in the area.
The most recent eruption was of a submarine volcano north of Methana in the 17th century. The gulf has refineries around the northern part of the gulf including east of Corinth and west of Agioi Theodoroi, Aspropyrgos and Keratsini; these refineries produce most of Greece's refined petroleum products, a large proportion of which are exported. Commercial shipping to the refineries, to and from the canal make the gulf quite a busy area with commercial shipping. Fault lines dominate in the northwestern part. Kechries Bay Saronic Bay Coast Lower Galataki Basin Upper Galataki Basin Examilia Basin Athikia Basin Loutro Basin Megara Bay/Megara Gulf Cephissus River Cephissus between Piraeus and Phaliron. Cape Lomvardi - SW of Vouliagmeni Sailing is popular in the Saronic Gulf which, like the neighbouring Argolic Gulf, benefits from the Attic mainland's partial shelter from the summer Meltemi wind that can reach Force 7 and above further to the east in the Aegean islands; the Gulf boasts two notable archaeological sites: the ancient theatre at Epidaurus and nearby asclepieion and the Temple of Aphaia on Aegina.
The Saronic Gulf is one of congregating areas for short-beaked common dolphins in Aegean Sea. On recent occasions, more of large whales such as fin whales have been sighted in the gulf due to improving environmental conditions. Megara Gulf
David Grieve FRSE PRPSE FSA FGS FEGS was a Scottish lawyer and amateur geologist. He served as President of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh from 1874 to 1877, he was born in Leith on 9 February 1808 the son of Agnes Symington and Robert Grieve, a ship-chandler on The Shore. He studied law at the University of Edinburgh, he spent much of his working life in his role as a Collector for HM Customs. This was first based at Banff in Scotland before being relocated to the south coast of England, being based at both Grimsby and Dover, he was a member of a local geological society in Banff and presented it with a rare sample of graptolite in 1853. Here he was both a friend of Charles William Peach, father to Ben Peach. In 1872 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being James McBain, he is known to have made several studies in the quarry within Arthur’s Seat south-east of the city. At the time of his Presidency of the RPSE he was living at 2 Keir Street, off Lauriston Place.
William Henry Hance was an American soldier and serial killer, believed to have murdered four women in and around military bases before his arrest in 1978. He was convicted of murdering three of them, not brought to trial on the fourth, he was executed by the state of Georgia in the electric chair. In 1978, Georgia was undergoing a wave of murders of women. Several elderly white women had been killed by a perpetrator nicknamed the Stocking Strangler. In addition, the bodies of two young black sex workers had been found outside of Fort Benning nearby; the disparate groups of victims were linked by a letter to the local police chief written on United States Army stationery. The handwritten note purported to be from a gang of seven white men who were holding a black woman hostage and would kill her if the Stocking Strangler were not apprehended; the Stocking Strangler was believed to be a black man, this had been reported at the time. The seven white vigilantes wished to be known as the "Forces of Evil", wanted the police chief to communicate with them via messages on radio or television.
The first letter was followed by others. The letters were followed by phone calls; the letters and calls were a hoax intended to divert attention from the real killer. Gail Jackson, the supposed hostage, had been murdered five weeks before she was found, before the first letter was sent, her body was discovered in early April 1978. She was 21 years old. Soon afterward, following instructions in yet another call from the "Forces of Evil", a second black woman's body was found at a rifle range at Fort Benning, her name was Irene Thirkield. She was 32. FBI profiler Robert K. Ressler created a profile which asserted that the killer was one man, not seven. Using the profile and aware that both Jackson and Thirkield were prostitutes, Georgia Bureau of Investigation officers searched near the fort for bars which had black patrons, they were able to identify William Hance and arrest him. He was a Specialist attached to an artillery unit at the fort as a truck driver. Hance had begun his military career as a Marine before joining the Army.
When confronted with evidence including his handwriting, voice recordings, shoe prints from the crime scenes, Hance confessed to killing both women and to the killing of a third woman at Fort Benning in September 1977. Karen Hickman, 24, was a white Army private known to date black soldiers and socialize in black pubs. Hance was not charged with Hickman's murder in the civilian system, but was charged and convicted by a court martial for her death. Hance was identified as the killer of a young black woman at Fort Benjamin Harrison in Indiana. Hance was not charged with this murder. However, despite his four known femicides, he was innocent of the Stocking Strangler murders attributed to another black man, Carlton Gary. Hance was convicted in a military court, but not tried in civilian courts, for the murder of Irene Thirkield. Hance was tried and convicted in a court martial, but not a civilian court, for the murder of Karen Hickman. During his court martial for the murder of Irene Thirkield, Hance received a life sentence, reversed when jurors decided he lacked the mental capacity for premeditation.
For the deaths of both Hickman and Thirkield, Hance's final court martial sentence was life at hard labor. The convictions were set aside in 1980 and he was not retried by the military court system. Hance v. State, 245 Ga. 856, 268 S. E.2d 339, cert. denied, 449 U. S. 1067, 101 S. Ct. 796, 66 L. Ed.2d 611. In this case, Hance's conviction and sentence of death in the Jackson murder were affirmed by the Georgia Supreme Court; the Thirkield murder is included in the Court's summation of the facts. Hance v. Zant, 456 U. S. 965, 102 S. Ct. 2046, 72 L. Ed.2d 491. The United States Supreme Court denied certiorari in Hance's habeas corpus appeal in the Jackson murder. William Henry Hance, Petitioner, v. Walter D. Zant, Georgia Diagnostic And Classification Center, Respondent United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit. 696 F.2d 940, cert. denied, 463 U. S. 1210, 103 S. Ct. 3544, 77 L. Ed.2d 1393. After the U. S. Supreme Court declined to hear his first habeas petition in the Jackson case in 1982, the federal appellate court for the 11th Circuit, which includes Georgia, affirmed Hance's conviction but ordered a retrial of the sentencing stage because the prosecutor's closing argument rendered the sentencing proceeding fundamentally unfair, because two jurors were improperly excluded in violation of Witherspoon v. Illinois, a case about unjust challenges to jury members regarding their death penalty beliefs.
The federal appellate court therefore ordered the state court system to provide a new, more fair, sentencing phase trial for the murder of Jackson. Hance v. State, 254 Ga. 575, 332 S. E.2d 287, cert. denied, 474 U. S. 1038, 106 S. Ct. 606, 88 L. Ed.2d 584. After a second sentencing trial resulted in another death sentence for the murder of Jackson, the Georgia Supreme Court affirmed the death sentence. Hance filed another petition for habeas corpus in the Superior Court of Butts County, a Georgia state trial court; that court denied his petition after holding an evidentiary hearing. Hance v. Kemp, 258 Ga. 649, 373 S. E.2d 184, cert. denied, 490 U. S. 1012, 109 S. Ct. 1658, 104 L. Ed.2d 172 The Georgia Supreme Court affirmed the denial of habeas corpus by the Superior Court of Butts County, in 198