Ivrea is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy. Situated on the leading to the Aosta Valley, it straddles the Dora Baltea and is regarded as the centre of the Canavese area. Ivrea lies in a basin that in prehistoric times formed a large lake, today five smaller lakes — Sirio, San Michele, Pistono and Campagna — are found in the area around the town. Ivrea and its surroundings have been inhabited since the Neolithic era, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ivrea became the seat of a duchy under the Lombards. Under the Franks, Ivrea was a county capital, in the year 1001, after a period of disputes with bishop Warmund, ruler of the city, Arduin conquered the March of Ivrea. Later he became King of Italy and began a dynasty that lasted until the 11th century, in the 12th century Ivrea became a free commune, but succumbed in the first decades of the following century to the rule of Emperor Frederick II. Later Ivrea was disputed between the bishops, the marquisate of Monferrato and the House of Savoy, in 1356 Ivrea was acquired by Amadeus VI of Savoy.
With the exception of the brief French conquest at the end of the 16th century and it was a subsidiary title of the king of Sardinia, although the only Marquis of Ivrea was Benedetto of Savoy. On May 26,1800 Napoleon Bonaparte entered the city along with his victorious troops, during the 20th century its primary claim to fame was as the base of operations for Olivetti, a manufacturer of typewriters, mechanical calculators and, computers. The Olivetti company no longer has an independent existence, though its name appears as a registered trademark on office equipment manufactured by others. In 1970 about 90,000 people lived and worked in the Ivrea Area, the Arduino electronic platform was created in Ivrea, and takes its name from the historical figure of Arduin of Italy. Castle of Ivrea, built during the reign of Amadeus VI of Savoy and it has a quadrangular plan in brick with four round towers at the corners. In 1676, a tower, used as an ammunition store, once a prison, the castle today houses exhibitions.
Cathedral of Ivrea, which originated from a church built in 4th century at the site of a pagan temple. Around 1000 AD, it was reconstructed by bishop Warmondus in Romanesque-style, the latter houses an ancient Roman sarcophagus which according to tradition, preserves the relics of St. Bessus. In 1785, it was again in a Baroque style. The current neo-classical façade was built in the 19th century, one of the old frescoes of the interior is the A Miracle of the Blessed Pierre de Luxembourg. The sacristy has two altarpieces by Defendente Ferrari, the cathedral houses the tomb of Blessed Thaddeus McCarthy
Tufa is a variety of limestone formed when carbonate minerals precipitate out of ambient temperature water. Geothermally heated hot springs sometimes produce similar carbonate deposits known as travertine, Tufa is sometimes referred to as travertine. It should not be confused with hot spring travertine, Mono Lakes tufa is thermogene, according to Pentecost. Tufa, which is calcareous, should not be confused with tuff and fossil tufa deposits abound with wetland plants, as such many tufa deposits are characterised by their large macrobiological component and are highly porous. Tufa forms either in fluvial channels or in lacustrine settings and Pedley provide a review of tufa systems worldwide. Deposits can be classified by their depositional environment, Pedley provides an extensive classification system, which includes the following classes of fluvial tufa, Spring – Deposits form on emergence from a spring/seep. Barrages often contain a significant detrital component, composed of organic material, lacustrine tufas are generally formed at the periphery of lakes and build up phytoherms and stromatolites.
Oncoids are common in these environments, while fluvial and lacustrine systems make up the bulk of tufa systems worldwide, there are several other important tufa environments. Although sometimes regarded as a distinct carbonate deposit, calcareous sinter formed from ambient temperature water can be considered a sub-type of tufa, calcareous speleothems may be regarded as a form of calcareous sinter. They lack any significant macrophyte component due to the absence of light, Tufa columns are an unusual form of tufa typically associated with saline lakes. They are distinct from most tufa deposits in that lack any significant macrophyte component. Some tufa columns may form from hot-springs and therefore actually be a form of travertine. It is generally thought that such features form from CaCO3 precipitated when carbonate rich source waters emerge into alkaline soda lakes and they have been found in marine settings. Tufa deposits form an important habitat for a diverse flora and diatoms are well represented.
The porosity of the deposits creates a wet habitat ideal for these plants, modern tufa is formed from alkaline waters, supersaturated with calcite. On emergence, waters degas CO2 due to the lower atmospheric pCO2, since carbonate solubility decreases with increased pH, precipitation is induced. Supersaturation may be enhanced by leading to a reduction in pCO2, for example increased air-water interactions at waterfalls may be important. Recently it has demonstrated that microbially induced precipitation may be more important than physico-chemical precipitation
Wonder Woman (2017 film)
Wonder Woman is an upcoming American superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name, distributed by Warner Bros. It is intended to be the fourth installment in the DC Extended Universe. In Wonder Woman, after American pilot Steve Trevor crashes on the island of Themyscira and tells Diana Prince about World War I, Diana leaves her home to try to stop the war, principal photography began in late November 2015 and wrapped in May 2016. Wonder Woman is scheduled to be released on June 2,2017, in 2D, 3D, in the early 20th century, the Amazon princess Diana, who is living on the island of Themyscira, meets American military pilot Steve Trevor when he is washed ashore. After learning from him about the events of World War I. Gal Gadot as Diana Prince / Wonder Woman, The Amazon princess, daughter of Zeus, Gadot described her character as having many strengths and powers, but at the end of the day shes a woman with a lot of emotional intelligence. Very different to the experienced, super-confident, grown-up woman youve seen, Gadot underwent a diet and training regimen, practiced different martial arts and gained 17 pounds of muscle for the role.
Élodie Yung and Olga Kurylenko had auditioned for the role, Gadot was previously offered the role as Faora Hu-Ul in Man of Steel but declined because she was pregnant at that time, this allowed her to be cast as Wonder Woman in the films sequel. Gadot signed a deal and debuted in Batman v Superman. Emily Carey portrays the young Diana, chris Pine as Steve Trevor, A captain from the United States Army Air Service and love interest of Diana Prince. Pine described his character as a rogue-ish, cynical realist whos seen the awful nature of modern civilization and added he is a worldly guy. Connie Nielsen as Queen Hippolyta, The Amazon queen of Themyscira, Nicole Kidman was in negotiations for the role but was forced to drop due to scheduling conflicts with Big Little Lies. Nielsen had previously considered for the role of Supermans mother, Lara Lor-Van. Robin Wright as General Antiope, The sister of Hippolyta and Dianas aunt, david Thewlis as Ares, The treacherous Greek god of war, and son of Zeus who poses as Sir Patrick Morgan, an advocate for peace on the war council.
Danny Huston as General Erich Ludendorff, An ambitious general of the German Army during World War I, elena Anaya as Maru / Doctor Poison, A mad scientist who specializes in chemistry such as poisons. Lucy Davis as Etta Candy, Steve Trevors comical but loyal, Saïd Taghmaoui as Sameer, A secret agent who is a master of disguise, an ally of Steve Trevor. Ewen Bremner as Charlie, A heavy-drinking sharpshooter, who’s already had a tour of duty and has post-traumatic stress disorder, mayling Ng, Florence Kasumba, Madeleine Vall, and boxer Ann Wolfe play the Amazons Orana, Senator Acantha and Artemis, respectively. Dutch model Doutzen Kroes will portray an Amazon, samantha Jo, who played Car-Vex in Man of Steel, was cast as Euboea
The Nativity Story
The Nativity Story is a 2006 biblical drama film based on the nativity of Jesus, directed by Catherine Hardwicke and starring Keisha Castle-Hughes and Oscar Isaac. The film was released on December 1,2006 after it premiered in Vatican City November 27,2006, the Nativity Story was the first film to hold its world premiere in Vatican City. The plot begins with the portrayal of the Massacre of the Innocents in the Nativity, the remainder of the movie portrays the annunciation and birth of Jesus Christ to explain why King Herod the Great ordered the murder. He states that he is too old, and is told by Gabriel that he will be unable to speak until the boy is born. Mary is then, betrothed to marry Joseph of Judaea, is visited by the Angel Gabriel and told that she become pregnant with Gods son. He tells that her God has blessed her cousin Elizabeth with a child despite her old age. Mary returns from the pregnant, to the shock of Joseph and her parents, who fear that Joseph will accuse her of fornication.
At first Joseph does not believe Marys explanation that she was visited by the angel Gabriel, although he is still shocked and angry, Joseph is visited in a dream by the Angel Gabriel, who tells him of Gods plan for Marys son. Joseph believes Mary, and is ashamed for his earlier doubts, Caesar Augustus, the Roman emperor, has demanded that every man and his family across the Roman Empire must return to his place of birth for the census. As a direct descendant of King David, Joseph is forced to travel 110 kilometers across Palestines rocky terrain from Nazareth to Bethlehem, with Mary on a donkey laden with supplies, the couple took nearly four weeks to reach Bethlehem. Upon arriving in town, Mary goes into labour, and Joseph frantically seeks a place for her to deliver, there is, however, no room in any inn or home partly because of the census, but at the last minute an innkeeper offers his stable for shelter. Meanwhile, three Magi named Gaspar and Balthasar, travel towards Judaea after having discovered that three planets will align to form a great star.
This Star of Bethlehem appears before the Magi, after a visit by the Angel Gabriel, the Magi visit King Herod the Great and reveal to him that the Messiah is still a child and he will be a Messiah for the lowest of men to the highest of kings. Shocked by this, Herod asks that they visit the newborn Messiah and report the location back to him, under the pretence that he, too. Later, the Magi arrive at the stable in which Mary is giving birth to Jesus, and they present the Infant with gifts of gold and myrrh. After having been warned by the Angel in a dream, the Magi avoid Herod, King Herod realises that the Magi have tricked him, and carries out his plan of killing every boy in Bethlehem under the age of two. At the end of the movie, Joseph and Jesus return, other scenes were shot in Craco, a ghost town in the Italian region of Basilicata, and Cinecittà, Rome. The Nativity Story opened to a modest first weekend at the box office by grossing $7.8 million
Apulia is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. Its southernmost portion, known as the Salento peninsula, forms a stiletto on the boot of Italy, the region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, and its population is about 4 million. It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, The Apulia region extends as far north as Monte Gargano. Puglias coastline is longer than any other mainland Italian region, in the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic, while in the south, the flat and dry Salento peninsula forms the heel of Italys boot. It is home to the Alta Murgia and Gargano National Parks, see also, History of Apulia Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks, a number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the Crown of Apulia.
After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, as a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves, in 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin, the regions contribution to Italys gross value added was around 4. 6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average, in comparison with the country as a whole, the economy of Apulia is characterised by a greater emphasis on agriculture and services and a smaller part played by industry. In the last 20 years the base of the regions economy has changed radically. The majority of firms are financed by local capital.
In certain of these sectors – especially textiles, footwear, the region has a good network of roads but the railway network is somewhat inadequate, particularly in the south. Apulias 800 kilometers of coastline is studded with ports, which make this region an important terminal for transport and tourism to Greece, between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy. Such growth, over decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Emigration from the depressed areas to northern Italy and the rest of Europe was very intense in the years between 1956 and 1971. Subsequently, the trend declined as economic conditions improved, to the point where there was net immigration in the years between 1982 and 1985, since 1986 the stagnation in employment has led to a new inversion of the trend, caused by a decrease in immigration. Since 1 June 2015, former judge and mayor of Bari Michele Emiliano of the Democratic Party has served as President, Apulia is divided into five administrative provinces and one metropolitan city, Cuisine plays an important role throughout Apulia
It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Homo habilis initially,2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000 BP. The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic, the date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers, due to their nature, surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as paleoliths. About 50,000 years ago, there was a increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record, the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Humankind gradually evolved from members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures, by c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe, by c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia, the term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek, παλαιός, old, and λίθος, stone, human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of anatomically modern humans as a distinct species. The Paleolithic Period coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time and this epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africas collision with Asia created the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean, climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation probably began before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas
Jerusalem is a city located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is considered a city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, the part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent, today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger, Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old Citys boundaries. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, the sobriquet of holy city was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesuss crucifixion there, in Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.
As a result, despite having an area of only 0, outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, one of Israels Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the countrys undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israels capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is home to some non-governmental Israeli institutions of importance, such as the Hebrew University. In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, a city called Rušalim in the Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba, the name Jerusalem is variously etymologized to mean foundation of the god Shalem, the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city. The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua, according to a Midrash, the name is a combination of Yhwh Yireh and the town Shalem. The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states, I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem, or as other scholars suggest, the mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of Jerusalem
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly.
The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015,594,733 people lived within the administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious past, part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. The citys rich history in notably its art, music. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, is one of the countrys major economic centres. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the citys prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, the Genoa area has been inhabited since the fifth or fourth millennium BC.
In ancient times this area was frequented and inhabited by Ligures, Phocaeans and Etruscans. The city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, testifies to the occupation of the site by the Greeks, but the fine harbour probably saw use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. In the 5th century BC was founded the first oppidum at the foot of the today called the Castle Hill which now is inside the medieval old town. The ancient Ligurian city was known as Stalia, so referred to by Artemidorus Ephesius and Pomponius Mela, Ligurian Stalia was overshadowed by the powerful Marseille and Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Stalia had an alliance with Rome through a foedus aequum in the course of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the Carthaginian Wars ended in 146 BC. it received municipal rights, the original castrum thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory.
Trades included skins and honey, goods were shipped to the mainland, up to major cities like Tortona and Piacenza. Among the archeological remains from the Roman period, an amphitheatre was found, another theory traces the name to the Etruscan word Kainua which means New City and still another from the Latin word ianua, related to the name of the God Janus, meaning door or passage. The latter is in reference to its position at the centre of the Ligurian coastal arch. The Latin name, oppidum Genua, is recorded by Pliny the Elder as part of the Augustean Regio IX Liguria, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Ostrogoths occupied Genoa
The Passion of the Christ
The Passion of the Christ is a 2004 American biblical epic drama film directed by Mel Gibson, written by Gibson and Benedict Fitzgerald, and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ. It depicts the Passion of Jesus largely according to the Gospels of Matthew, Luke and it draws on pious accounts such as the Friday of Sorrows along with other devotional writings, such as the reputed Marian apparitions attributed to Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich. The film was a commercial hit, grossing $612 million during its theatrical release. The Passion of the Christ was the highest-grossing R-rated film in the United States until Deadpool was released in 2016 and it received three Academy Award nominations in 2005. The film opens in Gethsemane at night as Jesus Christ, at the height of his cause, prays while his disciples Peter and John sleep. After he wakes them and tells them to pray, Satan appears in an androgynous, albino form. Ignoring it and praying on, Jesus sweat turns into blood, Jesus hears his disciples call out for him, and he rebukes Satan by stomping on the snakes head, and Satan vanishes.
After receiving a bribe of thirty pieces of silver, another of Jesus disciples, approaches with a group of temple guards and betrays Jesus with a simple kiss on the cheek. As the armed guards move in to arrest Jesus, Peter draws his dagger and slashes off the ear of Malchus, one of the guards, Jesus, in turn, heals the ear as he reprimands Peter for his actions. As the disciples flee, the guards secure Jesus, and beat him during the journey to the Sanhedrin, John informs Mary and Mary Magdalene of the arrest, while Peter follows Jesus and his captors at a distance. Caiaphas holds trial over the objection of some of the other priests, when questioned by Caiaphas if he is the Son of God, Jesus replies, I am. Caiaphas is horrified, tears his robes in outrage, and Jesus is condemned to death for blasphemy, secretly watching, is confronted by the surrounding mob for being a follower of Jesus, and he angrily denies this three times. But after cursing at the mob during the third denial, a sobbing Peter flees after remembering that Jesus had foretold this coping of a defense, meanwhile, a guilt-ridden Judas attempts to return the money he was paid to have Jesus freed, but is refused by the priests.
Tormented by demons, he flees the city, finds solitude, after Jesus is again found not guilty and returned, Pilate offers the crowd options for either him to chastise Jesus, or release him. He attempts to have Jesus freed by the peoples choice, to his dismay, the crowd demands to have Barabbas freed and Jesus killed. In an attempt to appease the moment, Pilate orders that he simply be punished, Jesus is brutally scourged and mocked by the Roman guards as king of the Jews with a crown of thorns. However, with the crowds verbal backing, continues to demand that Jesus be crucified as a heretic, Pilate washes his hands, takes no responsibility of the incident, and reluctantly orders Jesus crucifixion. During the course of events, Satan watches Jesus bloody sufferings with great interest, a dismayed Pilate watches the march, while his wife Claudia, who knows of Jesus status as a holy man, comforts him