SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Satellite television

Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter. A satellite receiver decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of services, it is the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service. Modern systems signals are relayed from a communications satellite on the Ku band frequencies requiring only a small dish less than a meter in diameter; the first satellite TV systems were an obsolete type now known as television receive-only. These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes.

These systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, were more expensive and less popular. Early systems used analog signals, but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television, due to the improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting; as of 2018, Star One C2 from Brazil is the only remaining satellite broadcasting in analog signals, as well as one channel on AMC-11 from the United States. Different receivers are required for the two types; some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption, requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming. Satellite TV is being affected by the cord-cutting trend where people are shifting towards internet based streaming television; the satellites used for broadcasting television are in a geostationary orbit 37,000 km above the earth's equator. The advantage of this orbit is that the satellite's orbital period equals the rotation rate of the Earth, so the satellite appears at a fixed position in the sky.

Thus the satellite dish antenna which receives the signal can be aimed permanently at the location of the satellite, does not have to track a moving satellite. A few systems instead use a elliptical orbit with inclination of +/−63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours, known as a Molniya orbit. Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are large, as much as 9 to 12 meters in diameter; the increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite; the transponder re-transmits the signals back to Earth at a different frequency in the 10.7-12.7 GHz band, but some still transmit in the C-band, Ku-band, or both.

The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink. A typical satellite has up to 32 Ku-band or 24 C-band transponders, or more for Ku/C hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 50 MHz; each geostationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2° longitude from the next satellite to avoid interference. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites or 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain; the latter is more adversely affected by ice crystals in thunder clouds. On occasion, sun outage will occur when the sun lines up directly behind the geostationary satellite to which the receiving antenna is pointed; the downlink satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance, is collected with a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point.

Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn or collector. The feedhorn is a section of waveguide with a flared front-end that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter; the LNB amplifies the signals and downconverts them to a lower block of intermediate frequencies in the L-band. The original C-band satellite television systems used a low-noise amplifier connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish; the amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend, but this design evolved. Designs for microstrip-based converters for amateur radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-band.

Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, more easily

Kaan Akalın

Kaan Akalın is a Turkish singer, songwriter. He first appeared in the 2014 season of the X Factor, the Turkish version of The X Factor, at the age of 16. Akalın had a duet released with Asena in NR1 Dance Hits, he signed a record deal with the label DGL&DMC in 2016 and released his debut Single, Arar Mı? in June 2016. Akalın was invited to X Factor, he met with Ömer Karacan who channelized him to get one track out in Number One Dance Hits 2015. The track'Fool Around' a duet from him with Asena was released in the compilation album in 2015. Akalın signed with DGL&DMC in 2016 to release his debut single'Arar Mı?'. The photographs for the single were all shot by Jerry Stolwijk in New York City. Arrangements were completed by Onur Betin. Masterings of the tracks were made in Sterling Sound Studios by Chris Gehgringer who worked with stars like Rihanna, Justin Bieber and Jason Derulo; the official music video of this single was released on 6 June 2016. The video sees Akalın dancing in New York City; as stated by him in Habertürk newspaper, his latest interview, he has been influenced by Michael Jackson's singing and dancing in this project.

NR1 Dance Hits - DGL&DMC Arar Mı? - DGL&DMC

Lew Wallace (politician)

Lew Wallace was an American Democratic politician from the state of Oregon. He served in both houses of the Oregon Legislative Assembly and was a five-time gubernatorial candidate. Wallace was born in 1889 in Nebraska, he moved to Portland, where he worked as an insurance agent and was elected to the Oregon House in 1934, to the Senate in 1938. In 1942, Wallace defeated former Oregon House speaker Howard LaTourette, as well as Grover Fretwell, to win the Democratic nomination for governor, he lost in the general election to Earl Snell. Snell's 56-point margin of victory was the largest in an Oregon gubernatorial election. Wallace was an alternate delegate to the 1944 Democratic National Convention and was a member of the Democratic National Committee in 1944. In 1946, Wallace ran for the U. S. House of Representatives, he lost to incumbent Republican Homer D. Angell. Wallace again ran for governor in 1948, winning the Democratic primary but losing the general election to Douglas McKay, with 45% of the vote.

Wallace made three more runs for governor. In 1950, he lost the Democratic primary to Austin F. Flegel. In 1956, he lost the primary to Robert D. Holmes by less than 3,500 votes. In 1958, Wallace lost the primary again to the now-incumbent Holmes by a more substantial margin, he unsuccessfully ran for Mayor of Portland in 1952, finishing third place in the nonpartisan primary