In fiction and less in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to question. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre wh
Harriet Bloch was a pioneering Danish screenwriter who worked in the industry during the silent era. During her career, she wrote over 100 screenplays, her scripts were made into films in Denmark, Germany and beyond. 1923 Tatjana 1923 Republikaneren 1921 Die Erbin von Tordis 1920 Kærlighed og Overtro 1920 En hustru till låns 1920 Frøken Larsens Karriere 1918 Frøken Theodor 1918 Hendes Hjertes Ridder 1918 Præstens Datter 1918 Hjerterkonge 1918 Prøvens Dag 1918 Pigespejderen 1918 Den lille Virtuos 1917 De tossede Kvindfolk 1917 Et barnehjerte 1917 The Suburban Vicar 1917 Miljonarvet 1917 Tropernes Datter 1917 Askepot 1917 Kærligheds-Væddemaalet 1916 For sin faders skyld 1916 Danserindens hævn 1916 Manden uden fremtid 1916 Kärlek och journalistik 1916 Prinsessens Hjerte 1916 Letsindighedens Løn 1916 En kærlighedsprøve 1916 Hendes fortid 1916 Viljeløs Kærlighed 1916 Ålderdom och dårskap 1915 A Woman's Honor 1915 Den lille Chauffør 1915 Et huskors 1915 En søvnig Brudgom 1915 Lige for lige 1915 Den sidste Nat 1915 De Ægtemænd!
1915 Badehotellet 1914 Man skal ikke skue Hunden paa Haarene 1914 Et Læreaar 1914 Hægt mig i Ryggen 1914 En stærkere magt 1914 Den store Middag 1914 Under falsk Flag 1913 Livets blændværk 1913 Nelly's Forlovelse 1913 The Girl Graduate 1913 Et skud i mørket 1913 Outwitted 1912 Pro forma 1912 When Love Dies 1911 Hendes Ære 1911 Thru Trials to Victory
Larry G. Epstein is a Canadian economist, Professor of Economics at Boston University, he is a Fellow of the Canadian Economics Econometric Society. He was Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada before moving to the United States. Larry G. Epstein obtained his BSc in Mathematics with honours from the University of Manitoba in 1968, MA in Mathematics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1970 and PhD in Economics from the University of British Columbia in 1977, he worked as a research economist at the Department of Manpower and Immigration of Canada from 1971 to 1974 before joining the University of Toronto, where he was Assistant Professor from 1977 to 1980 and Professor from 1983 to 1998. Epstein moved to University of Rochester in 1998 and held the position of Elmer B. Milliman Professor of Economics until 2007, he started his current position as Professor of Economics at Boston University in 2007. Epstein has served on the Executive Council of the Canadian Economic Association from 1987 to 1990 and has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2013.
Epstein's main research areas cover topics in mathematical economics, decision theory and asset pricing. In addition to his research work, he has held editorial positions with numerous journals such as Econometrica, Journal of Economic Theory and Macroeconomic Dynamics, he received the Canadian Economic Association's John Rae Award for outstanding research in 1994 and was awarded the Econometric Society's Frisch Medal the same year. Epstein, L. G. & S. E. Zin. "Substitution, risk aversion, the temporal behavior of consumption and asset returns: A theoretical framework". Econometrica, 7, pp. 937-969. Epstein, L. G. & S. E. Zin. "Substitution, risk aversion, the temporal behavior of consumption and asset returns: An empirical analysis". Journal of Political Economy. 99, pp. 263-286. Duffie, D. & L. G. Epstein "Stochastic differential utility". Econometrica, 3, pp. 353-394. Chen, Z. & L. Epstein "Ambiguity and asset returns in continuous time". Econometrica, 70, pp. 1403-1443. Epstein, L. G. & M. Schneider "Recursive multiple-priors".
Journal of Economic Theory, 113, pp. 1-31. Epstein, L. G. & M. Schneider "Ambiguity, information quality, asset pricing"; the Journal of Finance, 63, pp. 197-228. Larry G. Epstein, publications indexed by Google Scholar Larry Epstein, biography at NBER