In Greek mythology, a satyr known as a silenos, is a male nature spirit with ears and a tail resembling those of a horse, as well as a permanent, exaggerated erection. Early artistic representations sometimes include horse-like legs, but, by the sixth century BC, they were more represented with human legs. Comically hideous, they have mane-like hair, bestial faces, snub noses and are always shown naked. Satyrs were characterized by their ribaldry and were known as lovers of wine, music and women, they were companions of the god Dionysus and were believed to inhabit remote locales, such as woodlands and pastures. They attempted to seduce or rape nymphs and mortal women alike with little success, they are sometimes shown engaging in bestiality. In classical Athens, satyrs made up the chorus in a genre of play known as a "satyr play", a parody of tragedy and was known for its bawdy and obscene humor; the only complete surviving play of this genre is Cyclops by Euripides, although a significant portion of Sophocles's Ichneutae has survived.
In mythology, the satyr Marsyas is said to have challenged the god Apollo to a musical contest and been flayed alive for his hubris. Though superficially ridiculous, satyrs were thought to possess useful knowledge, if they could be coaxed into revealing it; the satyr Silenus was the tutor of the young Dionysus and a story from Ionia told of a silenos who gave sound advice when captured. Over the course of Greek history, satyrs became portrayed as more human and less bestial, they began to acquire goat-like characteristics in some depictions as a result of conflation with the Pans, plural forms of the god Pan with the legs and horns of goats. The Romans identified satyrs with fauns; the distinction between the two was lost entirely. Since the Renaissance, satyrs have been most represented with the legs and horns of goats. Representations of satyrs cavorting with nymphs have been common in western art, with many famous artists creating works on the theme. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, satyrs have lost much of their characteristic obscenity, becoming more tame and domestic figures.
They appear in works of fantasy and children's literature, in which they are most referred to as "fauns". The etymology of the name satyr is unclear, several different etymologies have been proposed for it, including a possible Pre-Greek origin; some scholars have linked the second part of name to the root of the Greek word θηρίον, meaning "wild animal". This proposal may be supported by the fact. Another proposed etymology derives the name from an ancient Peloponnesian word meaning "the full ones", alluding to their permanent state of sexual arousal. Eric Partridge suggested that the name may be related to the root sat-, meaning "to sow", proposed as the root of the name of the Roman god Saturn. Satyrs are indistinguishable from silenoi, whose iconography is identical. According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, the name "satyr" is sometimes derogatorily applied to a "brutish or lustful man"; the term satyriasis refers to a medical condition in males characterized by excessive sexual desire.
It is the male equivalent of nymphomania. According to classicist Martin Litchfield West and silenoi in Greek mythology are similar to a number of other entities appearing in other Indo-European mythologies, indicating that they go back, in some vague form, to Proto-Indo-European mythology. Like satyrs, these other Indo-European nature spirits are human-animal hybrids bearing equine or asinine features. Human-animal hybrids known as Kiṃpuruṣas or Kiṃnaras are mentioned in the Rāmāyaṇa, an Indian epic poem written in Sanskrit. According to Augustine of Hippo and others, the ancient Celts believed in dusii, which were hairy demons believed to take human form and seduce mortal women. Figures in Celtic folklore, including the Irish bocánach, the Scottish ùruisg and glaistig, the Manx goayr heddagh, are part human and part goat; the lexicographer Hesychius of Alexandria records that the Illyrians believed in satyr-like creatures called Deuadai. The Slavic lešiy bears similarities to satyrs, since he is described as being covered in hair and having "goat's horns, ears and long clawlike fingernails."Like satyrs, these similar creatures in other Indo-European mythologies are also tricksters, mischief-makers, dancers.
The lešiy was believed to trick travelers into losing their way. The Armenian Pay were a group of male spirits said to dance in the woods. In Germanic mythology, elves were said to dance in woodland clearings and leave behind fairy rings, they were thought to play pranks, steal horses, tie knots in people's hair, steal children and replace them with changelings. West notes that satyrs and other nature spirits of this variety are a "motley crew" and that it is difficult to reconstruct a prototype behind them. Nonetheless, he concludes that "we can recognize recurrent traits" and that they can be traced back to the Proto-Indo-Europeans in some form. On the other hand, a number of commentators have noted that satyrs are similar to beings in the beliefs of ancient Near Eastern cultures. Various demons of the desert are mentioned in ancient Near Eastern texts, although the iconography of these beings is poorly-attested. Beings similar to satyrs called śě’îrîm are mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible.
The Don Army was the military of the short lived Don Republic and a part of the White movement in the Russian Civil War. It centered in the town of Novocherkassk. After the October Revolution in 1917, a conflict in the Don broke out between the "Red" Bolsheviks and "White" Don Cossacks. In Novocherkassk, an assembly of Cossacks, the Krug, elected Alexei Kaledin as the first independent ataman since the days of Peter the Great, they declared themselves protectors of Russia. On December 2, Kaledin's Cossacks seized Rostov-on-Don, driving out the Bolshevik authorities and setting up a government headed by Mitrofan Petrovich Bogayevsky; the Bolshevik resistance, centered in the Kamenskaya stanitsa, was joined by an army sent by Moscow. Kaledin, feeling powerless to oppose the Bolsheviks, shot himself on January 29, 1918, he was replaced by major-general Anatoly Mikhailovich Nazarov. Nazarov was refused it, his resignation was turned down by the krug, who insisted that he fulfill his duty as a'true son of the Quiet Don'.
He decided to end the civil war by capitulating to the Bolsheviks and met with the Red representative, Sablin. Sablin refused to recognise the authority of the Ataman and declared that the Cossacks should be destroyed. In the evening of February 1918, a detachment of the Red Army, under Lt. N. M. Golubov, broke up a meeting of the krug, arresting Nazarov and the chairman, Voloshinov, they were shot without trial on March 3. A policy of Red Terror was carried out along the Don. Several stanitsas revolted and on April 3, 1918 formed a new Don Army, during the Steppe March. Many Don Cossacks participated in Kornilov's infamous Ice March from February to May 1918. On May 12, 1918, a special krug declared the old rights and uniforms restored and declared war upon the Bolsheviks. Pyotr Krasnov, a talented soldier and writer, was elected as the new Ataman. In the Summer and Fall of 1918, the White Don Army controlled the Don territory, severed Red Army communications between Moscow and the Caucasus and threatened Red Army positions at Tsaritsyn and Voronezh, as well as Rostov-na-Donu.
Much of the Upper Don region, in 1918, had defected to the Bolsheviks, but as a result of the Red Terror, in 1919, rose up in arms against them, in what was known as the Veshenskaya Uprising. The main leaders were Kharlampii Yermakov, they joined forces with the Don Army centered in Novocherkassk, commanded by Ataman Afrikan Bogayevsky. These events form an important part of Mikhail Sholokhov's epic. Indeed, for a long time and Yermakov, who appear in the novel, were considered as fictional by the general public. In the Winter of 1918-1919, the Red Southern Front, including their Group Kozhevnikov, 8th Army, 9th Army, 10th Army, counterattacked the Don Army and regained control of the area northeast of the Donets and Manych rivers; the Don army was divided and plagued with indecisiveness, many of the Cossacks not wishing to fight beyond their own territory. On January 8, 1919, the Armed Forces of South Russia or VSYuR were created, the Don Army made an agreement to be subordinates of commander Anton Denikin.
During the heavy fighting in the autumn and winter of 1919, the Don Army suffered significant losses. By January and February 1920, it was defeated in the North Caucasus, its remnants surrendered in March and April to the Red Army and went into their ranks. On March 24, 1920, Don Army units were transported from Novorossiysk to the Crimea. From there, a Separate Don Corps was formed, on May 1 all the Don units were consolidated into the Don Corps. General-major K. S. Poliakov, General-major Pyotr Popov, Lieutenant-general Svyatoslav Denisov, Lieutenant-general Vladimir Sidorin. Colonel Svyatoslav Denisov, Colonel Vladimir Sidorin, Colonel Ivan Poliakov, Lieutenant-general Anatoliy Keltchevski, General-major Nikolai Alekseyev. After Dobrynin, The Participation of the Don Cossacks in the Fight against Bolshevism; the events of those years those centered in the Upper Don, as well as events leading up to them, are the focus of Mikhail Sholokhov's epic, And Quiet Flows the Don. List of Don Army Units in the Civil War Don Republic Don Cossacks Alexei Kaledin Lavr Kornilov Pyotr Krasnov Volunteer Army White movement Steppe March "Istoriya Donskogo Kazachestva.
Rocky Brands, Inc. known as Rocky Shoes & Boots, Inc. designs, develops and markets outdoor, work and military footwear, other outdoor and work apparel and accessories. The company was founded in 1932 in Nelsonville and still maintains its corporate headquarters there. In 1932, William Brooks, joined by his brother F. M. "Mike" Brooks, founded The William Brooks Shoe Company in Nelsonville, Ohio. Both men had lost their jobs during the Great Depression when Godman Shoe Co. of Columbus went bankrupt. In search of opportunity, the brothers set up shop in a rent-free factory with lent equipment and what would become Rocky Brands was born; the company employed 50 to 100 workers with a production rate of 300 pairs of shoes per day. With a newly constructed addition and the installation of more equipment, by the mid-1930s the factory employed 225 people and production output increased to more than 2,000 pairs per day. During the 1940s and 1950s business continued to grow. While supplying more than one million pairs of shoes and boots for military conflicts such as World War II and the Korean War, the company built key relationships with leading footwear retailers.
But in 1958, William Brooks decided to sell the business to the Irving Drew Shoe Company of Lancaster, Ohio. His nephew, John Brooks, who had worked in the plant full-time since age 17, attempted to make a play for the family-run business, but his efforts were rebuffed. William Brooks refused telling his nephew the shoe industry had no future. In 1975, the new owners were getting ready to shut down the business. John Brooks, who stayed through the Irving Drew years as plant manager, bought the business back for $640,000, re-establishing The William Brooks Shoe Company in Nelsonville. John Brooks brought his son, Mike Brooks, into the business as a product designer and manager. In 1977, Mike Brooks won an award for what now is called the original "Rocky boot," and the company paid $1,000 for a trademark and launched the Rocky brand; as the company struggled in the early 1980s, the shoe market bounced back, in 1983, the company began marketing occupational shoes, such as those worn by police officers and mail carriers, under the Rocky brand.
It opened up new distribution methods. Sales rose and in 1988, the company reached $20 million in annual revenue. Two years after the retirement of John Brooks in 1991, his son, Mike Brooks took the company public, spending nearly three-quarters of a million dollars in the process, changing the name to Rocky Shoes & Boots and initiating the company's initial public offering. Rocky Shoes & Boots acquired EJ Footwear on December 6, 2004, for $87.7 million in cash and $10 million in stock. The move brought Georgia Boot and Lehigh Safety Shoes brands into Rocky's fold and added a licensed footwear brand in Dickies. In 2006, Rocky Shoes & Boots changed its name to Inc.. Following the name change Rocky Brands acquired comfort footwear Zumfoot shoes and Michelin footwear. In February 2014 the company acquired Los Angeles based Creative Recreation for $11 million. In 2015, Creative Recreation's original owner Rich Cofinco was made creative director. In 2009, Rocky Brands formed the not-for-profit philanthropic organization Rocky Community Improvement Fund, which maintains an endowment and awards grants.
Rocky was awarded Footwear Plus magazine's Plus Award in the work footwear category for 2010. Official website