Incest is human sexual activity between family members or close relatives. This includes sexual activity between people in consanguinity, sometimes those related by affinity, clan, or lineage; the incest taboo is one of the most widespread of all cultural taboos, both in present and in past societies. Most modern societies have laws regarding incest or social restrictions on consanguineous marriages. In societies where it is illegal, consensual adult incest is seen by some as a victimless crime; some cultures extend the incest taboo to relatives with no consanguinity such as milk-siblings, step-siblings, adoptive siblings, albeit sometimes with less intensity. Third-degree relatives on average share 12.5% genes, sexual relations between them are viewed differently in various cultures, from being discouraged to being acceptable. Children of incestuous relationships have been regarded as illegitimate, are still so regarded in some societies today. In most cases, the parents did not have the option to marry to remove that status, as incestuous marriages were, are also prohibited.
A common justification for prohibiting incest is avoiding inbreeding: a collection of genetic disorders suffered by the children of parents with a close genetic relationship. Such children are at greater risk for congenital disorders and developmental and physical disability, that risk is proportional to their parents' coefficient of relationship—a measure of how the parents are related genetically, but cultural anthropologists have noted that inbreeding avoidance cannot form the sole basis for the incest taboo because the boundaries of the incest prohibition vary between cultures, not in ways that maximize the avoidance of inbreeding. In some societies, such as those of Ancient Egypt, brother–sister, father–daughter, mother–son, cousin–cousin, aunt–nephew, uncle–niece, other combinations of relations within a royal family were married as a means of perpetuating the royal lineage; some societies, such as the Balinese and some Inuit tribes, have different views about what constitutes illegal and immoral incest.
However, sexual relations with a first-degree relative are universally forbidden. The English word incest is derived from the Latin incestus, which has a general meaning of "impure, unchaste", it was introduced into Middle English, both in the generic Latin sense and in the narrow modern sense. The derived adjective incestuous appears in the 16th century. Before the Latin term came in, incest was known in Old English as sib-leger or mǣġhǣmed but in time, both words fell out of use. Terms like incester and incestual have been used to describe those interested or involved in sexual relations with relatives among humans, while inbreeder has been used in relation to similar behavior among non-human animals or organisms. Other words that describe sexual attraction to relatives include consanguinophilia, synegenesophilia and incestophilia. In ancient China, first cousins with the same surnames were not permitted to marry, while those with different surnames were. Several of the Egyptian Pharaohs had several children with them.
For example, Tutankhamun married his half-sister Ankhesenamun, was himself the child of an incestuous union between Akhenaten and an unidentified sister-wife. It is now accepted that sibling marriages were widespread among all classes in Egypt during the Graeco-Roman period. Numerous papyri and the Roman census declarations attest to many husbands and wives being brother and sister, of the same father and mother; the most famous of these relationships were in the Ptolemaic royal family. The fable of Oedipus, with a theme of inadvertent incest between a mother and son, ends in disaster and shows ancient taboos against incest as Oedipus is punished for incestuous actions by blinding himself. In the "sequel" to Oedipus, his four children are punished for their parents' incestuousness. Incest appears in the accepted version of the birth of Adonis, when his mother, Myrrha has sex with her father Cinyras during a festival, disguised as a prostitute. In Ancient Greece, Spartan King Leonidas I, hero of the legendary Battle of Thermopylae, was married to his niece Gorgo, daughter of his half-brother Cleomenes I.
Greek law allowed marriage between a sister if they had different mothers. For example, some accounts say. Incest is mentioned and condemned in Virgil's Aeneid Book VI: hic thalamum invasit natae vetitosque hymenaeos. Roman civil law prohibited marriages within four degrees of consanguinity but had no degrees of affinity with regards to marriage. Roman civil laws prohibited any marriage between parents and children, either in the ascending or descending line ad infinitum. Adoption was considered the same as affinity in that an adoptive father could not marry an unemancipated daughter or granddaughter if the adoption had been dissolved. Incestuous unions were considered nefas in ancient Rome. In AD 295 incest was explicitly forbidden by an imperial edict, which divided
Old Tolbooth, Edinburgh
The Old Tolbooth was an important municipal building in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland for more than 400 years. The medieval structure, located at the northwest corner of St Giles' Cathedral and was attached to the west end of the Luckenbooths on the High Street in the Old Town, was first established in the 14th century by royal charter. Over the years it served a variety of purposes such as housing the Burgh Council, early meetings of the Parliament of Scotland and the Court of Session; the Tolbooth was the burgh's main jail where, in addition to incarceration, physical punishment and torture were conducted. From 1785 public executions were carried out. In 1817 the buildings, rebuilt and renovated several times, were demolished. A deed in the chartulary of St Giles' Cathedral indicates there was a pretorium in Edinburgh as early as 1368. Following the burnings of Edinburgh by Edward II of England in 1323 and his son, Edward III, in 1335 during the Wars of Scottish Independence and again in 1385 when Richard II of England burned the town, major rebuilding and improvements were required.
In 1386, Robert II granted Edinburgh a charter which gave the burgh an area of land 60 feet by 30 feet in the market place with licence to develop the site for the ornament and use of the city. The charter, written in Latin, was endorsed "Carta fundi de la Belhous", signifying the purpose of the site for a new Belhouse, successor to the earlier pretorium, may be translated: Know ye, that we have given, by this our present charter have confirmed, to our beloved and faithful, the Burgesses and Community of Edinburgh, their successors in time to come, 60 feet in length and 30 feet in breadth of land lying in the market place of the said burgh, on the north side of the street thereof. There is no record of construction on the site but, on 3 October 1403, the earliest burgh record mentions the "Pretorio burgi" - the Pretorium of Edinburgh - for the first time. On 27 November 1438, during the reign of James II, the Estates of Parliament made its first use of the pretorio burgi of Edinburgh. Parliamentary records of 28 June 1451, by which time records were made in Scots, see the first official use of the term tolbooth The belhouse had a steeple or tower that contained a civic bell, the ringing of, used to regulate the business and civil matters of the burgh.
In Edinburgh, the pretorium and belhous appear to have much the same meaning, being the burghal offices. The land granted by the Royal charter was located just a few feet from the north-west corner of St Giles' Cathedral; the construction of the Tolbooth reduced the width of the street at this point. A pattern of setts known as the Heart of Midlothian mark the entrance to the original building. By the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots the Tolbooth was in a chronic state of disrepair. On 2 February 1561, the queen ordered that it should be rebuilt. In response, the town council partitioned off the west end of St Giles', used for meetings of Parliament and the Court of Session. At the same time, a building was constructed at the south-west corner of St Giles' Cathedral for sittings of the Burgh Council. Confusingly, both were called the New Tolbooth. In 1571, a chronicle reports. In 1632 the new building to the south was demolished. In 1639, the Parliament of Scotland moved into the new Parliament Hall, built by the Town Council of Edinburgh at its own expense.
The Old Tolbooth remained in use by the Burgh council as a prison. In 1811 the council moved across the street to the north range of the Royal Exchange building, termed the City Chambers rather than the Tolbooth; this building had been built 1754-61 to a design by John Adam of 1753. The Old Tolbooth continued be used as a prison and place of execution until it was demolished in 1817. Sir Walter Scott featured the Old Tolbooth prominently in his work The Heart of Midlothian. Published in 1818, the year after the demolition of the building, the book is set against the backdrop of the Porteous Riots in 1736. Scott obtained the entrance doorway to the Old Tolbooth's jail and incorporated it into his new mansion of Abbotsford House near Melrose in the Scottish Borders; the Old Tolbooth was used as a jail where judicial torture was carried out. From 1785 executions, which had taken place at the Mercat Cross or the Grassmarket, were carried out on the roof of a two-storey extension on the west side of the Old Tolbooth which provided a platform equipped with a gallows so that the public could view hangings.
Prisoners taken to the Old Tolbooth were tortured using implements such as pilliwinks. Jougs were attached to the exterior of the building; these were iron collars like a pillory. Spikes were employed to exhibit body parts taken from executed prisoners; the heads of the most notorious were placed on "the prick of the highest stone": a spike on the Old Tolbooth's northern gable facing the High Street. For instance the Regent Morton's head was stuck there from 1581 for 18 months; the head of Montrose was on view from 1650 to 1660 until replaced by the Marquis of Argyll's head in 1661. Edinburgh's foremost 18th century historian, Hugo Arnot, wrote the following detailed description of the prison to expose the shocking conditions wit
Cannibalism involves consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food. To consume the same species, or show cannibalistic behavior, is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom, has been recorded in more than 1,500 species. Human cannibalism is well-documented, both in recent times; the rate of cannibalism increases in nutritionally-poor environments as individuals turn to other conspecific individuals as an additional food-source. Cannibalism regulates population numbers, whereby resources such as food and territory become more available with the decrease of potential competition. Although it may benefit the individual, it has been shown that the presence of cannibalism decreases the expected survival rate of the whole population and increases the risk of consuming a relative. Other negative effects may include the increased risk of pathogen transmission as the encounter rate of hosts increases. Cannibalism, does not—as once believed—occur only as a result of extreme food shortage or of artificial/unnatural conditions, but may occur under natural conditions in a variety of species.
Cannibalism seems prevalent in aquatic ecosystems, in which up to 90% of the organisms engage in cannibalistic activity at some point in their life-cycle. Cannibalism is not restricted to carnivorous species: it occurs in herbivores and in detritivores. Sexual cannibalism involves the consumption of the male by the female individual before, during or after copulation. Other forms of cannibalism include intrauterine cannibalism. Behavioural and morphological adaptations have evolved to decrease the rate of cannibalism in individual species. In environments where food availability is constrained, individuals can receive extra nutrition and energy if they use other conspecific individuals as an additional food source; this would, in turn, increase the survival rate of the cannibal and thus provide an evolutionary advantage in environments where food is scarce. A study conducted on wood frog tadpoles showed that those that exhibited cannibalistic tendencies had faster growth rates and higher fitness levels than non-cannibals.
An increase of size and growth would give them the added benefit of protection from potential predators such as other cannibals and give them an advantage when competing for resources The nutritional benefits of cannibalism may allow for the more efficient conversion of a conspecific diet into reusable resources than herbaceous diet. This facilitates for faster development. Studies have shown that there is a noticeable size difference between animals fed on a high conspecific diet which were smaller compared to those fed on a low conspecific diet. Hence, individual fitness could only be increased if the balance between developmental rate and size is balanced out, with studies showing that this is achieved in low conspecific diets. Cannibalism regulates population numbers and benefits the cannibalistic individual and its kin as resources such as extra shelter and food are freed. However, this is only the case if the cannibal recognizes its own kin as this won't hinder any future chances of perpetuating its genes in future generations.
The elimination of competition can increase mating opportunities, allowing further spread of an individual's genes. Animals which have diets consisting of predominantly conspecific prey expose themselves to a greater risk of injury and expend more energy foraging for suitable prey as compared to non-cannibalistic species. In order to combat the risk of personal injury, a predator targets younger or more vulnerable prey. However, the time necessitated by such selective predation could result in a failure to meet the predator's self-set nutritional requirements. In addition, the consumption of conspecific prey may involve the ingestion of defense compounds and hormones, which have the capacity to impact the developmental growth of the cannibal's offspring Hence, predators partake in a cannibalistic diet in conditions where alternative food sources are absent or not as available. Failure to recognize kin prey is a disadvantage, provided cannibals target and consume younger individuals. For example, a male stickleback fish may mistake their own "eggs" for their competitor's eggs, hence would inadvertently eliminate some of its own genes from the available gene pool.
Kin recognition has been observed in tadpoles of the spadefoot toad, whereby cannibalistic tadpoles of the same clutch tended to avoid consuming and harming siblings, while eating other non-siblings. The act of cannibalism may facilitate trophic disease transmission within a population, though cannibalistically spread pathogens and parasites employ alternative modes of infection. Cannibalism can reduce the prevalence of parasites in the population by decreasing the number of susceptible hosts and indirectly killing the parasite in the host, it has been shown in some studies that the risk of encountering an infected victim increases when there is a higher cannibalism rate, though this risk drops as the number of available hosts decreases. However, this is only the case. Cannibalism is an ineffective method of disease spread as cannibalism in the animal kingdom is a one-on-one interaction, the spread of disease requires group cannibalism.
Dorothy L. Sayers
Dorothy Leigh Sayers was a renowned English crime writer and poet. She was a student of classical and modern languages, she is best known for her mysteries, a series of novels and short stories set between the First and Second World Wars that feature English aristocrat and amateur sleuth Lord Peter Wimsey, which remain popular to this day. However, Sayers herself considered her translation of Dante's Divine Comedy to be her best work, she is known for her plays, literary criticism, essays. Sayers, an only child, was born on 13 June 1893 to Helen Mary at the Headmaster's House, Christ Church Cathedral School, Oxford, her mother was born at "The Chestnuts", Hampshire, to Frederick Leigh, a solicitor whose family roots were in the Isle of Wight. Her father, the Rev. Henry Sayers, M. A. from Littlehampton, West Sussex, was a chaplain of Christ Church and headmaster of the Choir School. When Sayers was six, her father started teaching her Latin, she grew up in the tiny village of Bluntisham-cum-Earith in Huntingdonshire after her father was given the living there as rector.
The church graveyard next to the elegant Regency-style rectory features the surnames of several characters from her mystery The Nine Tailors. From 1909, she was educated at a boarding school in Salisbury, her father moved to the simpler living of Christchurch, in Cambridgeshire. In 1912, Sayers won a scholarship to Somerville College, Oxford where she studied modern languages and medieval literature and was taught by Mildred Pope, she finished with first-class honours in 1915. Women were not awarded degrees at that time, but Sayers was among the first to receive a degree when the position changed a few years later, her experience of Oxford academic life inspired her penultimate Peter Wimsey novel, Gaudy Night. Sayers's first book of poetry was published in 1916 as OP. I by Blackwell Publishing in Oxford, her second book of poems, "Catholic Tales and Christian Songs", was published in 1918 by Blackwell. Sayers worked for Blackwell's and as a teacher in several locations, including Normandy, France.
She published a number of poems in the Oxford Magazine. Sayers's longest employment was from 1922 to 1931 as a copywriter at S. H. Benson's advertising agency, located at International Buildings, London. A colleague of hers at the agency was Albert Henry Ross, better known by his literary pseudonym Frank Morison, he wrote the best-selling Christian apologetics book Who Moved the Stone? which explored the historicity of the trial and resurrection of Jesus. Sayers relied on his book when she composed the trial scene of Jesus in her play The Man Born to Be King. Sayers was quite successful as an advertiser, her collaboration with artist John Gilroy resulted in "The Mustard Club" for Colman's Mustard and the Guinness "Zoo" advertisements, variations of which still appear today. One famous example was the Toucan, his bill arching under a glass of Guinness, with Sayers's jingle: Sayers is credited with coining the slogan "It pays to advertise!" She used the advertising industry as the setting of Murder Must Advertise, where she describes the role of truth in advertising:... the firm of Pym's Publicity, Ltd.
Advertising Agents... "Now, Mr. Pym is a man of rigid morality—except, of course, as regards his profession, whose essence is to tell plausible lies for money—" "How about truth in advertising?" "Of course, there is some truth in advertising. There's yeast in bread. Truth in advertising... is like leaven. It provides a suitable quantity of gas, with which to blow out a mass of crude misrepresentation into a form that the public can swallow." Sayers began working out the plot of her first novel some time in 1920–21. The seeds of the plot for Whose Body? can be seen in a letter that Sayers wrote on 22 January 1921: My detective story begins brightly, with a fat lady found dead in her bath with nothing on but her pince-nez. Now why did she wear pince-nez in her bath? If you can guess, you will be in a position to lay hands upon the murderer, but he's a cool and cunning fellow... Lord Peter Wimsey burst upon the world of detective fiction with an explosive "Oh, damn!" and continued to engage readers in eleven novels and two sets of short stories, the final novel ending with a different "Oh, damn!".
Sayers once commented that Lord Peter was a mixture of Fred Astaire and Bertie Wooster, most evident in the first five novels. However, it is evident through Lord Peter's development as a rounded character that he existed in Sayers's mind as a living, breathing human being. Sayers introduced the character of detective novelist Harriet Vane in Strong Poison, she remarked more than once that she had developed the "husky voiced, dark-eyed" Harriet to put an end to Lord Peter via matrimony. But in the course of writing Gaudy Night, Sayers imbued Lord Peter and Harriet with so much life that she was never able, as she put it, to "see Lord Peter exit the stage". Sayers did not content herself with writing pure detective stories. In Gaudy Night, Miss Barton writes a book attacking the Nazi doctrine of Kinder, Küche, which restricted women's roles to family activities, in many ways the no
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Girvan is a burgh in Carrick, South Ayrshire, Scotland. Girvan is situated on the east coast of the Firth of Clyde, with a population of about 6,700, it lies 21 miles south of Ayr, 29 miles north of Stranraer, the main ferry port from Scotland to Northern Ireland. Girvan was a fishing port. In 1668, it became a municipal burgh incorporated by charter; the opening of the railways with the Maybole and Girvan Railway at the end of the 1850s, encouraged the development of Girvan as a seaside resort with beaches and cliffs. Holidaying here from 1855 to 1941 were Robert and Elizabeth Gray and their children; the family, led principally by Elizabeth and Alice, created scientifically organised collections of fossils for several museums including the Natural History Museum. The town is now served by Girvan railway station. Just north of the town is a William Grant & Sons distillery which opened in 1964. There is a Nestlé factory that manufactures chocolate, shipped down to York and used in Kit Kat and Yorkie bars.
The McKechnie Institute was endowed by local businessmen Robert and Thomas McKechnie and opened in 1889. Girvan RNLI harbour gala takes place each summer in July, this year's takes place on 15 July 2018, with music, fun fair, rescue displays, emergency services, Girvan Lifeboat station received their new Shannon Class all-weather lifeboat, powered by water jets making it the most manoeuvrable and capable all-weather boat in the fleet, 13-23 Elizabeth and Gertrude Allan is the 2nd Shannon Class lifeboat in Scotland and the 1st on the west coast; the Girvan Folk Music Festival takes place on the first weekend of May each year. Girvan has a folk music club; the Lowland Gathering takes place on the first Sunday of June each year in the Victory Park in the centre of the town. The annual Festival of Light takes place in October with a six-week lantern project resulting in the river of light lantern procession and shorefront performance; the autumn lantern project is the people of Carrick. Culzean Castle is about 8 miles north of the town, the volcanic island of Ailsa Craig is visible about 10 miles offshore.
Turnberry golf course and hotel are located 5 miles north of Girvan. The coastline south of Girvan is famous for its geology, for Sawney Bean's Cave, where the legendary murderer and cannibal Sawney Bean lived until his arrest and execution in Edinburgh. Girvan has Girvan Academy, which the majority of local children attend. Roman Catholic families have the option of Queen Margaret Academy in Ayr; the town has a harbour. There are two primary schools, Girvan Primary School and Sacred Heart Primary School and there is one non-denominational specialist school, Invergarven School; the town's swimming pool was closed in 2009 by South Ayrshire Council, on the grounds that it had reached the end of its operational life. The building has since been demolished. A new leisure centre, named'The Quay Zone' started construction in January 2016 after 7 years of planning, opened on 26 April 2017. Building'The Quay Zone' was built in a way to help redevelop Girvan, it is sited on the old swimming pool's location at the harbour.
The Quay Zone is a accessible modern leisure centre which features: A swimming pool, accessible to people of all ages and abilities Soft play area, split into 2 sections- one for young children up to 3 years old, the other for children ages 3–12 years old A "state-of-the-art" fitness gym for ages 16+ A flexible multi-purpose studio/community space which can be split into 2 rooms if needed Changing facilities and a café. The Quay Zone has named Pool Zone, Gym Zone, Studio Zone and Play Zone; the Café opens a week after the official opening. A local Museum on Dalrymple Street called the McKechnie Institute which houses local history and a Victorian Parlor. With changing exhibits through out the year. Girvan has a Roman Catholic church, "Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary", built around 1863; the Church is in Harbour Lane, situated between Louisa Drive and Henrietta Street, close to the junction with Ailsa Street West. Girvan has two Church of Scotland congregations: Girvan North Parish Church in Montgomerie Street and Girvan South Parish Church.
Milestone Christian Fellowship, a local congregation which began meeting in Girvan's Community Centre in 2005, moved into a redeveloped nightclub on Bridge Street in 2016. Milestone is a member of the Baptist Union of Scotland; the town's Episcopalian congregation of St John was closed in 2014: they had been using the town's Methodist church building for services after their building became unusable in 2009. Torcy, Seine-et-Marne, France - in honour of a Scottish knight named Sir Thomas Huston from Girvan, who fought the English as part of the Auld Alliance during the Hundred Years War. Rewarding him for his bravery during the capture of Meaux in 1439, the King of France granted him the fiefdom of Torcy. Greig Young, footballer Lendalfoot - a nearby village. About Girvan Girvan Online South Ayrshire Council Girvan Folk Club National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE Video footage of Girvan Old railway station Railscot on the Maybole and Girvan Railway Video footage of the old Girvan Harbour Branch Video footage of the old Girvans Goods Station Video footage of Carleton Castle, Lendalfoot
A fair known as a funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks. Variations of fairs include: Street fair, a fair that celebrates the character of a neighborhood and merchant oriented; as its name suggests, it is held on the main street of a neighborhood. Fête, an elaborate festival, party, or celebration. Festival, an event ordinarily coordinated and/or celebrated by a community or group with a theme e.g. music, season and/or on some characteristic or aspect of a community, or the region i.e beach, local harvest, etc. or state the community is in. This can include history, an prevalent ethnicity, religion, or a national holiday, e.g.. The Fourth of July. County fair or agricultural show, a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry. State fair, an annual competitive and recreational gathering of a U.
S. state's population held in late summer or early fall. It is a larger version of a county fair including only exhibits or competitors that have won in their categories at the more local county fairs. Trade fair, an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, study activities of rivals, examine recent market trends and opportunities. Traveling carnival simply called a carnival, an amusement show made up of amusement rides, food vendors, merchandise vendors, games of chance and skill, thrill acts, animal acts. Traveling funfair, a small to medium-sized traveling show composed of stalls and other amusements; the Roman fairs were holidays. In the Roman provinces of Judea and Syria Palaestina, Jewish rabbis prohibited Jews from participating in fairs in certain towns because the religious nature of the fairs contravened the prescribed practice of Judaism. In the Middle Ages, many fairs developed as temporary markets and were important for long-distance and international trade, as wholesale traders travelled, sometimes for many days, to fairs where they could be sure to meet those they needed to buy from or sell to.
Fairs were tied to special Christian religious occasions, such as the Saint's day of the local church. Stagshaw in England, is documented to have held annual fairs as early as 1293 consisting of the sales of animals. Along with the main fair held on 4 July, the city hosted smaller fairs throughout the year where specific types of animals were sold, such as one for horses, one for lambs, one for ewes; the Kumbh Mela, held every twelve years, at Allahabad, Haridwar and Ujjain is one of the largest fairs in India, where more than 60 million people gathered in January 2001, making it the largest gathering anywhere in the world. Kumbha means Mela means fair in Sanskrit. In the United States, fairs draw in as many as 150 million people each summer. Children's competitions at an American fair range from breeding small animals to robotics, whilst the organization 4-H has become a traditional association; because of the great numbers of people attracted by fairs they were the scenes of riots and disturbances, so the privilege of holding a fair was granted by royal charter.
At first, they were allowed only in towns and places of strength, or where there was a bishop, sheriff or governor who could keep order. In time various benefits became attached to certain fairs, such as granting people the protection of a holiday and allowing them freedom from arrest in certain circumstances; the officials were authorized to mete out justice to those. The chaotic nature of the Stagshaw Bank Fair with masses of people and animals and stalls inspired the Newcastle colloquialism "like a Stagey Bank Fair" to describe a general mess; the American county fair is featured in E. B. White's Charlotte's Web. Art exhibition Lists of festivals "Fair". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. 1911