The Saxons were a group of early Germanic peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany. In the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic coastal raiders, as a word something like the "Viking", their origins appear to be somewhere in or near the above-mentioned German North Sea coast where they are found in Carolingian times. In Merovingian times, continental Saxons had been associated with the activity and settlements on the coast of what became Normandy, their precise origins are uncertain, they are sometimes described as fighting inland, coming into conflict with the Franks and Thuringians. There is a single classical reference to a smaller homeland of an early Saxon tribe, but its interpretation is disputed. According to this proposal, the Saxons' earliest area of settlement is believed to have been Northern Albingia; this general area is close to the probable homeland of the Angles. In contrast, the British "Saxons", today referred to in English as Anglo-Saxons, became a single nation bringing together Germanic peoples with the Romanized Britons, establishing long-lasting post-Roman kingdoms equivalent to those formed by the Franks on the continent.

Their earliest weapons and clothing south of the Thames were based on late Roman military fashions, but immigrants north of the Thames showed a stronger North German influence. The term "Anglo-Saxon", combining the names of the Angles and the Saxons, came into use by the 8th century to distinguish the Germanic inhabitants of Britain from continental Saxons, but both the Saxons of Britain and those of Old Saxony continued to be referred to as'Saxons' in an indiscriminate manner in the languages of Britain and Ireland. While the English Saxons were no longer raiders, the political history of the continental Saxons is unclear until the time of the conflict between their semi-legendary hero Widukind and the Frankish emperor Charlemagne. While the continental Saxons are no longer a distinctive ethnic group or country, their name lives on in the names of several regions and states of Germany, including Lower Saxony, Saxony in Upper Saxony, as well as Saxony-Anhalt; the current state of Saxony has its name from dynastic history, not ethnic history.

The Saxons may have derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known. The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". The Elizabethan era play Edmund Ironside suggests the Saxon name derives from the Latin saxa: Their names discover what their natures are, More hard than stones, yet not stones indeed. In the Celtic languages, the words designating English nationality derive from the Latin word Saxones; the most prominent example, a loanword in English, is the Scottish word Sassenach, used by Scots- or Scottish English-speakers in the 21st century as a jocular term for an English person. The Oxford English Dictionary gives 1771 as the date of the earliest written use of the word in English, it derives from the Scottish Gaelic Sasannach. The Gaelic name for England is Sasann, Sasannach means "English" in reference to people and things, though not to the English Language, Bearla.

Sasanach, the Irish word for an Englishman, has the same derivation, as do the words used in Welsh to describe the English people and the language and things English in general: Saesneg and Seisnig. Cornish terms the English Sawsnek, from the same derivation. In the 16th century Cornish-speakers used the phrase Meea navidna cowza sawzneck to feign ignorance of the English language; the Cornish words for the English people and England are Pow Sows. Breton, spoken in north-western France, has saoz and Bro-saoz for'England'; the label "Saxons" became attached to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to southeastern Transylvania. From Transylvania, some of these Saxons migrated to neighbouring Moldavia, as the name of the town Sas-cut shows. Sascut lies in the part of Moldavia, today part of Romania. During Georg Friederich Händel's visit to Italy, much was made of his origins in Saxony; the Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the root Saxon over the centuries to apply now to the whole country of Germany and the Germans.

The Finnish word sakset reflects the name of the old Saxon single-edged sword — seax — from which the name "Saxon" derives. In Estonian, saks means "a nobleman" or, colloquially, "a wealthy or powerful person"; the word survives as the surnames of Saß / Sass (in Lo


The Warrumbungles is a mountain range in the Orana region of New South Wales, Australia. The nearest town is Coonabarabran; the area is easiest accessed from the Newell Highway, the major road link directly between Melbourne and Brisbane, Queensland and cuts across inland New South Wales from the north to the south. As the range is between the moist eastern coastal zone and the dryer plains to the west, it has provided protection for flora and fauna suited to both habitats. There are over 120 bird species identified on the range, including lories and lorikeets and parrots; the centre of the range has served as an area of protection for a healthy and content colony of grey kangaroos. These animals have become tame due to constant visitor attention and are approached; the Siding Spring Observatory is located on an eastern peak. The area has little to no light pollution to disturb astronomical viewing. In 2016, the International Dark-Sky Association declared the Warrumbungle National Park as Australia's first International Dark Sky Park.

The Warrumbungles hosted the 2006 World Rogaining Championships. The base of the region was formed 180 million years ago. At that time a lake was formed that allowed sediment to compress into sandstone; the Warrumbungles are the remnants of a large heavily-eroded shield volcano, active from 13 to 17 million years ago. The volcano is estimated to have been 50 kilometres wide, it formed. The remaining complex rocky formations are; this area is known as the Warrumbungle-Liverpool Basalt Ranges, distinct physiographic section of the larger Hunter-Hawkesbury Sunkland province, which in turn is part of the larger East Australian Cordillera physiographic division. The main features of the Warrumbungle mountains are a series of huge jagged outcrops in a circular pattern, surrounded by hilly bush and woodland forest. Dykes and domes are common and made from trachyte; the Grand High Tops is a section of the range where volcanic remnants are clustered. These vents and rocky formations are all named - Belougery Spire, Belougery Split Rock, Crater Bluff, Bluff Mountain, The Breadknife and Mount Exmouth.

Pyroclastic rock is found in this area. The Breadknife, a straight wall of jagged rock nearly 100 metres high, is rare. There is an extensive network of nine walking tracks across the central peaks. Towards the southeast a broad belt of basalt outcrops extends towards the Liverpool Range. Near Chalk Mountain are outcrops of diatomite. Outer stretches of the volcano are made up of mugearite; the first European to sight and explore the area was John Oxley in 1818 on second expedition through New South Wales. Oxley named the range the Arbuthnot Range; the Gamilaroi name Warrumbungles which means'crooked mountains' became the most common name. Belougery Spire was first ascended by Eric Dark and Osmar White in 1932, Crater Bluff by Dark and Dorothy Butler in 1936; the Breadknife was not ascended by Russ Kippax and Bill Peascod. Climbing on the Breadknife has since been banned, to protect the walking track along its base from rockfall. Lieben, on Crater Bluff, was the most difficult rock climb in Australia for many years after its first ascent by Bryden Allen and Ted Batty in 1962.

It was graded 17 — the hardest grade in the Ewbank system at the time — but is agreed to be much harder. By 1953, 3,360 hectares of the range was recognised for its natural heritage and preserved as Warrumbungle National Park. In 2011, it was reported. List of mountains in Australia List of volcanoes in Australia Colyvan, Mark; the Warrumbungles. Wild Publications. Media related to Warrumbungle National Park at Wikimedia Commons

The English Hymnal

The English Hymnal is a hymn book, published in 1906 for the Church of England by Oxford University Press. It was edited by the clergyman and writer Percy Dearmer and the composer and music historian Ralph Vaughan Williams, was a significant publication in the history of Anglican church music; the preface to the hymnal began by describing itself as "a collection of the best hymns in the English language." Much of the contents was used for the first time at St Mary's, Primrose Hill, in north London, the book could be considered a musical companion to Dearmer's book on English ceremonial, The Parson's Handbook. The high quality of the music is due to the work of Vaughan Williams as musical editor; the standard of the arrangements and original compositions made it one of the most influential hymnals of the 20th century. The hymnal included the first printing of several arrangements and hymn settings by Vaughan Williams. Among the most famous are Sine Nomine, a new tune toFor All the Saints; the hymnal includes many original plainsong melodies.

After its publication, use of the hymnal had been banned for a time by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The English Hymnal, along with the Church Hymnal for the Christian Year, "undermined the uniformity of the Church of England and challenged hegemony" of Hymns Ancient and Modern, published two years previous; the book is a characteristic green colour and is traditionally associated with the high-church or Anglo-Catholic movement within Anglicanism. When the book was published and broad churches used Hymns Ancient and Modern and evangelical churches used the Hymnal Companion to the Book of Common Prayer; the hymnal has, been adopted not only in various movements of Anglicanism but in several other denominations in Britain, such as some Roman Catholic churches. A new edition of the musical content of The English Hymnal was issued in 1933, which principally had better accompaniments by J. H. Arnold to the plainsong melodies, over 100 new tunes; this was achieved without extending the book excessively.

Instead many duplicated tunes were changed to new tunes. Where unique tunes were changed, the old tunes were moved into the appendix. A supplement to the hymnal, English Praise, was published in 1975; the New English Hymnal appeared in 1986, its supplement, New English Praise in 2006, both under the imprint of the Canterbury Press, now SCM Canterbury Press. List of English-language hymnals by denomination Songs of Praise, a broader selection of hymns edited by Dearmer and Vaughan Williams in 1925 Wikimedia Commons has a file available for The English Hymnal 1906 music edition. Archive copy 1956 audio interview with Vaughan Williams on his editing of the English Hymnal Preface to the English Hymnal, 1906