Bureau of Meteorology
The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then; the states transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908. The Bureau of Meteorology is the main provider of weather forecasts and observations to the Australian public; the Bureau distributes weather images via radiofax and is responsible for issuing flood alerts in Australia. The Bureau's head office is in Melbourne Docklands, which includes the Bureau's Research Centre, the Bureau National Operations Centre, the National Climate Centre, the Victorian Regional Forecasting Centre as well as the Hydrology and Satellite sections. Regional offices are located in each territory capital; each regional office includes a Regional Forecasting Centre and a Flood Warning Centre, the Perth and Brisbane offices house Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres.
The Adelaide office incorporates the National Tidal Centre, while the Darwin office the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre and Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology issues Tropical Cyclone Advices and developed the Standard Emergency Warning Signal used for warnings; the Bureau is responsible for tropical cyclone naming for storms in waters surrounding Australia. Three lists of names used to be maintained, one for each of the western and eastern Australian regions. However, as of the start of the 2008–09 Tropical Cyclone Year these lists have been rolled into one main national list of tropical cyclone names; the regional offices are supported by the Bureau National Operations Centre, located at the head office in Melbourne Docklands. The Bureau maintains a network of field offices across the continent, on neighbouring islands and in Antarctica. There is a network of some 500 paid co-operative observers and 6,000 voluntary rainfall observers; the following people have been directors of the Bureau of Meteorology: In the head office a Cray XC40 supercomputer called "Australis" provides the operational computing capability for weather, climate and wave numerical prediction and simulation, while other Unix servers support the computer message switching system and real-time data base.
The Australian Integrated Forecast System affords the main computing infrastructure in the regional offices. Numerical weather prediction is performed using the Unified Model software; the Bureau of Meteorology announced the Cray contract in July 2015, commissioned the Cray XC40 supercomputer on 30 June 2016 and decommissioned their Oracle HPC system in October 2016. World Meteorological Organization, co-ordination body for weather and environment services Weatherzone, another Australian weather service provider International Cloud Experiment, which collected data on tropical cyclones in January and February 2006 2018–19 Australian region cyclone season Water Data Transfer Format Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Bureau of Meteorology main page Federation and Meteorology: the history of meteorology in Australia
Fingal is a small Australian town in Fingal Valley in the north-east of Tasmania, on the Esk Highway. The Fingal area was surveyed in 1824 by Roderic O'Connor and John Helder Wedge, is believed to have been named after Fingal's Cave in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland rather than Fingal in Ireland; the town of Fingal came into existence in 1827 as a convict station, experienced a boom when Van Diemen's Land's first payable gold was discovered in nearby Mangana. Fingal Post Office opened on 1 June 1832. Electoral district of Fingal former Tasmanian House of Assembly district. Fingal Online Access Centre, Tasmanian Communities Online
St Marys, Tasmania
St Marys is a small township nestled at the junction of the Tasman Highway and the Esk Highway on the East Coast of Tasmania, Australia 10 kilometres from the coast. It had a population of 682 as of the 2016 census, although in the early 2000s it was one of the fastest growing areas of Tasmania; the town is part of the Break O'Day Council. Its amenities include a craft gallery, accommodation and supermarkets, the St Marys Hotel, built in 1916, which dominates the town centre. Located beneath a rocky outcrop, St Patricks Head, St Marys is a 240 kilometre/149 mile drive north east of Hobart, via Swansea and Bicheno or 130 kilometres/80 miles east of Launceston, it is possible to reach the town from the coast by crossing the mountains via St Marys Pass or Elephant Pass. The first European contact with the district occurred when Captain Tobias Furneaux sighted and named the 694 metre St Patrick's Head in 1773; the early settlement of Van Diemen's Land, which occurred between Hobart and George Town, took little interest in the St Marys area.
It wasn't until the 1840s that a probation station, housing 300 convicts, was built at Grassy Bottom between the town and St Marys Pass. They were assigned to build the road across the mountains to the east coast; this was done between 1843 and 1846. The arrival of the railway in 1886 led to the town's increasing importance as a service centre; the Elephant Pass route was completed in 1888, which resulted in goods moving across the mountains to the east coast settlements of Bicheno and Chain of Lagoons. In turn this resulted in a small increase in population as the town became a service centre for the surrounding dairy farms. St. Patrick's Head Post Office opened on 1 June 1835, it was renamed Cullenswood in 1849 and St Marys in 1869. The railway line, once so vital to the health of the town is now closed although the railway station still stands. St Marys is close to several local attractions, including a trail to the top of St Patricks Head, or the more accessible South Sister Peak, which have forest and coastal views.
There are views from Elephant Pass. The Coalminers' Heritage Wall and Heritage Walk at the tiny settlement of Cornwall is a monument to the miners who hand-tunnelled a coal mine beneath the Mount Nicholas Range. Tourists visit the nearby waterfalls, fish at Lake Leake or go bushwalking in Douglas Apsley National Park. Christ Church is an unusual little church standing in the middle of fields a few kilometres to the west of St Marys; the church was built in 1847 and was connected with the large property,'Cullenswood', established in the late 1820s by Robert Vincent Legge who arrived in Van Diemen's Land in 1827. The main residence,'Cullenswood', was built in 1845 and is located on Cornwall Road off the Esk Main Road, it is a two-storey rubblestone Georgian building with iron-hipped roof. It is not open for inspection. In December 2006, bushfires ravaged the nearby area
Launceston is a city in the north of Tasmania, Australia at the junction of the North Esk and South Esk rivers where they become the Tamar River. Launceston is the second largest city in Tasmania after Hobart and the Thirteenth-largest non-capital city in Australia. Settled by Europeans in March 1806, Launceston is one of Australia's oldest cities and is home to many historic buildings. Like many Australian places, it was named after a town in the United Kingdom – in this case, Cornwall. Launceston has been home to several firsts such as the first use of anaesthetic in the Southern Hemisphere, the first Australian city to have underground sewers and the first Australian city to be lit by hydroelectricity; the city has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. Local government is split between the City of Launceston and the Meander Valley and West Tamar Councils; the first inhabitants of the area of Launceston were nomadic Aboriginal Tasmanians believed to have been part of the North Midlands Tribe.
The first white visitors did not arrive until 1798, when George Bass and Matthew Flinders were sent to explore the possibility that there was a strait between Australia and Van Diemen's Land. They landed in Port Dalrymple, 40 kilometres to the north-west of Launceston; the first significant colonial settlement in the region dates from 1804, when the commandant of the British garrison Lt. Col. William Paterson, his men set up a camp on the current site of George Town. A few weeks the settlement was moved across the river to York Town, a year was moved to its definitive position where Launceston stands; the settlement was called Patersonia. The name still survives in the tiny hamlet of Patersonia 18 kilometres north-west of Launceston. Paterson himself served as Lieutenant-Governor of northern Van Diemen's Land from 1804 to 1808. By 1827, Launceston's population had climbed to 2,000 and the town had become an export centre for the colony's northern pastoral industry. Small hotels and breweries began to emerge in the 1820s, before larger, more "substantial" hotels were built in the 1830s.
Sporting groups, political groups and schools were established in these hotels. Ships from Launceston carried parties of sealers to the islands of Bass Strait early in the 19th century, they took whalers to the coast of Victoria in the 1820s and 1830s where they established temporary bay whaling stations. Some of these temporary communities, such as the ones at Portland Bay and Port Fairy, were the forerunner of permanent settlement of those places. Walter George Arthur, who petitioned Queen Victoria in 1847 while interned with other Aboriginal Tasmanians on Flinders Island, lived for several years in Launceston as one of numerous homeless children, before being taken into custody by George Augustus Robinson who sent him to the Boy's Orphan School in Hobart in 1832. Newer popular team sports such as cricket and football failed to be sustained in Launceston before the population grew substantially; the sports were middle class recreations, as the working class found it difficult to participate after a six-day working week.
A "demand for facilities" lead to the upgrade of the Northern Tasmanian Cricket Association Ground amongst other sporting facilities in the 1860s. Not long beforehand, Tasmania played Victoria in Australia's first first-class cricket match at the NTCA Ground in 1851. Tin was discovered at Mount Bischoff in 1871 in north-western Tasmania. Gold mining commenced 50 kilometres away in Beaconsfield in 1877. During the following two decades Launceston grew from a small town into an urban centre. In 1889, Launceston was the second town in Tasmania to be declared a city, after state capital Hobart. Launceston is at 43 ° 27 ′ 32 ″ S 141 ° 8 ′ 41 ″ E in Northern Tasmania; the valley was formed by glacial forces over 10 million years ago. The city is 45 kilometres south of the Bass Strait, with its closest neighbour-city being Devonport 99 kilometres to the north west. Launceston combines low-lying areas; as a result, areas of Launceston are subject to landslip problems, while others are liable to poor drainage and periodic flooding.
The topography of the area is not conducive to easy dispersion of airborne pollution, due to the phenomenon of thermal inversion. During recent years the city's air quality has improved. Studies indicate that 73% percent of air pollution in Launceston and surrounding areas during the winter period is caused by wood smoke, while about 8% is from motor vehicle pollution. During the early 1990s about 60% of households used wood heaters, but since the mid 2000s only 25–30% of households use wood heating. According to the 2011 Tasmanian Air Monitoring report, particulate matter met the Air NEPM goals starting in 2006, did not exceed the PM10 standard in the years 2009–2011. Launceston is situated at the confluence of the South Esk River and the North Esk River, forming the Tamar River estuary, it is boating. In earlier years, oceangoing shipping used the river to obtain access to the Port of Launceston wharves located in the city centre and Invermay; the Port for Launceston is now located at the
The Tasman Peninsula is a peninsula located in south-east Tasmania, Australia 75 km by the Arthur Highway, south-east of Hobart. The Tasman Peninsula lies south and west of Forestier Peninsula, to which it connects via an isthmus called Eaglehawk Neck; this in turn is joined to the rest of Tasmania by an isthmus called East Bay Neck, near the town of Dunalley 60 kilometres by road from Hobart. The peninsula is surrounded by water. Many smaller towns are located on the Tasman Peninsula, the largest of which are Nubeena and Koonya. Smaller centres include Premaydena and Stormlea; the Conservation Park, located on the main highway at Taranna, is a popular local visitor attraction along with the World Heritage Port Arthur Historic Site and a number of beaches. The local government area is the Tasman Council; the area of the peninsula and of the local government area is 660 square kilometres. The area is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman; the aboriginal inhabitants of this area preceding European arrival were the Pydairrerme people.
Their territory was what is now known as the Forestier peninsulas. The Pydairrerme people were a part of the larger Paredarerme language group, whose territory covered a large area of the east coast of Tasmania; the first European settlement of the peninsula was Port Arthur in the early 1830s. It was selected as a penal settlement because it was geographically isolated from the rest of the colony but more reachable by sea than the other place of secondary banishment, Macquarie Harbour on the west coast, which could be closed down, it had excellent supplies of timber for shipbuilding and general construction work, a deep sheltered harbour where visiting British warships could be repaired. Its inaccessibility was enhanced by having Eaglehawk Neck lined with guards and guard dogs, to prevent the escape of any convicts. A small number did escape, including the bushranger Martin Cash; the Saltwater River historic site, located near the north tip west of the peninsula, was the site of a convict-operated coal mine.
The penal settlement of Port Arthur is now a tourist attraction. As in most of the rest of the state, tourism is a major industry. Bushwalking is popular in the rugged terrain picturesque spots being Cape Raoul and Cape Pillar at the extreme south-west and south-east ends of the peninsula, separated by the entrance to Port Arthur. In the era between convict settlement and the rise of the modern tourist industry the area was engaged in the timber industry and fishing; the terrain and soil types impeded large-scale agriculture although orcharding and general farming was and is conducted in suitable locations. The region remained isolated until the introduction of regular river steamer services between it and Hobart in the 1880s - these were further encouraged by the tourist industry to Port Arthur that began when overseas steamships began to call into Hobart during the 1880s. During the period 1900-1930s the main operator servicing the area was the Huon, Channel & Peninsula Steamship Company, owners of several vessels including the extant M.
V. Cartela; the rare Cape Pillar sheoak is a shrub or small tree found only in the Tasman National Park where it is restricted to the Cape Pillar area of the Tasman Peninsula and to Tasman Island. The peninsula forms part of the South-east Tasmania Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance in the conservation of a range of woodland birds the endangered swift parrot and forty-spotted pardalote. While the region is best known for its convict history it is now the key area in the battle to save the Tasmanian devil from extinction from a new type of contagious cancer called devil facial tumour disease; the isolation from the Tasmanian mainland, where DFTD is running unchecked and has killed more than half of all devils, is ideal for maintaining a healthy wild Tasmanian devil population in a project that involves the local Tasmanian Devil Conservation Park at Taranna and government and university scientists. The rugged coastline has been the scene of a number of shipwrecks.
Two large seagoing steamers have sunk after hitting the Hyppolyte Rock off its east coast - the Tasman in 1883 and the Nord in 1915. Munroe Bight to the north of Cape Pillar is named after the former American barque James Munroe wrecked there in 1850; the Tasman Peninsula is well known for its rugged eastern coastline, much of it is now the Tasman National Park. At Eaglehawk Neck are many strange rock formations, including The Devils Kitchen, Tasman's Arch, Blow Hole and the Tessellated Pavement. Further south are the highest sea cliffs in the Southern Hemisphere, rising 300 metres above the Tasman Sea at Cape Pillar; the peninsula has notable surf spots at Roaring Beach and Shipstern Bluff. A historical survey map is available which outlines the geology and vegetation of Tasman Peninsula, Forestier Peninsula and south east from Coal River Geography of Tasmania Storey, Shirley. Tasman tracks: 25 walks on the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas. Koonya Press. ISBN 0-6460-1870-1
2006–07 Australian bushfire season
The 2006–07 Australian bushfire season was one of the most extensive bushfire seasons in Australia's history. Victoria experienced the longest continuously burning bushfire complex in Australia's history, with fires in the Victorian Alps and Gippsland burning over 1 million hectares of land over the course of 69 days. See Bushfires in Australia for an explanation of regional seasons; the 2006–07 season included the Victorian Alpine Fire Complex, the longest running collection of bushfires in Victoria's history. On 1 December 2006, more than 70 fires were caused by lightning strikes in the Victorian Alps, many of which merged to become the Great Divide Complex, which burned for 69 days across about a million hectares. Despite the length of the season and amount of land burnt, the fires were contained to unoccupied regions such as the Victorian Alps, national parks and remnant bushland. Evacuation plans were implemented in many small towns in these areas, a combination of these factors resulted in only one fatality as a result of the fires.
Three deaths and multimillion-dollar livestock and property losses in ten days of bushfires in Victoria. Fires occurred in the Stawell area in early January, in the Yea, Grampians and Anakie regions in mid-late January. On 24 September 2006, bushfires began burning in various places in the Southern Highlands, Hawkesbury River and Hunter regions of New South Wales, Australia. Declarations under Section 44 of the Rural Fires Act, 1997 were issued by the New South Wales Rural Fire Service for the Newcastle, Hawkesbury/Baulkham, Redhead and Wollondilly bushfires, enabling the "Commissioner is to take charge of bush fire fighting operations and bush fire prevention measures and to take such measures as the Commissioner considers necessary to control or suppress any bush fire in any part of the State...." Seven houses were burned out, four at Picton, Thirlmere, Oakdale. The wind was from the west and north-west and fed the fire conditions, hampering firefighting by the New South Wales Rural Fire Service.
On 12 October 2006, bushfires burned through parts of Hobart's eastern shore, encouraged by strong winds and unusually high temperatures. No lives or homes were lost. In late November Sydney was covered in smoke after raging fires in the Blue Mountains. One of the major fires was lit by a lightning strike near Burra Korain Head inside the Blue Mountains National Park on 13 November; some people have suggested that the Blue Gum Forest in the Grose River valley was damaged by backburning, though this remains to be ascertained scientifically. On 28 November 2006, lightning strikes started 15 fires in the Riverina with the major fires west of Narrandera at Morundah and Tubbo Station were about 10 km² of private property was burnt and Northeast of Narrandera at Colinroobie Ranges over 12 km² of private property and bush land was burnt. Large bushfires burnt across the Pilbara for over a week forcing the closure of Karijini National Park. Over 150,000 hectares were burned out close to the National Park, the Auski Roadhouse and around Mulga Downs Station.
On 1 December 2006, over 70 fires were caused by lightning strikes in the Victorian Alps, many of which merged to become the Great Divide Fire Complex, which burned from December 2006 to February 2007 across 1 million hectares. Fifty-one houses were lost in the fires. One man died in a vehicle accident. By 7 February, more than 1,400 firefighters had been injured. More than 400 St John Ambulance volunteers, including doctors and first aid officers provided first aid. On 16 December, eleven New Zealand firefighters were injured while fighting the fire in the Howqua Valley in north-east Victoria. On the week end of 9 and 10 December, 3,000 firefighters fought the blazes. Settlements at Gaffneys Creek, A1 Mine Settlement, Burns Bridge, Mount Beauty, Bright and Tawonga were threatened with the fires. On 11 December 4,000 firefighters fought 13 blazes; the fire has destroyed Craig's Hut, an alpine hut that featured in the film The Man from Snowy River. In Gippsland on 14 December, eighteen homes were destroyed in the Heyfield–Walhalla area in blazes believed to have been deliberately lit.
A 48-year-old man was killed falling off the back of a trailer while fighting the Gippsland fires. In South Australia, nearly 1,200 km² was burnt at Bookmark, near Waikerie in South Australia's Riverland region. In Tasmania, fires burnt at St Marys on the east coast, Zeehan in the west and in the state's south at Bream Creek and Deep Bay. Fires destroyed at least 18 houses near Scamander. A further four homes were lost at Four Mile Creek on 14 December. In New South Wales, a fire near Tumut has burned over 130 km² of pine plantation in the Bondo and Buccleuch State Forests. On 3 December, up to 4,000 people were evacuated from Whiteman Park near Perth after a bushfire burnt through about 1 km² of the park. On 12 December, a man in Western Australia was charged with lighting a fire in the Perth Hills. A home in Kalamunda was gutted and several were damaged by flying embers. In January 2007, several new bushfires were burning in the Gippsland region of Victoria. By 18 January, the fires had been burning across Victoria for 48 days and over 10,000 km² had been burnt.
Homes and other property and stock was lost. There was a significant fire in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia, near the towns of Kangarilla and Echunga, the Mount Bold Reservoir, in parts of Kuitpo Forest. See: Mount Bold Fire. An arsonist lit at least thirt
Nicolas Thomas Baudin was a French explorer, cartographer and hydrographer. Born a commoner in Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré on 17 February 1754, Baudin joined the merchant navy as an apprentice at the age of 15, he joined the French East India Company at the age of 20 on the Flamand. He arrived at Lorient. At the beginning of 1778, he was to set sail from Nantes on the Lion as Second Lieutenant, it was a ship equipped by his uncle Jean Peltier Dudoyer, at the request of the Americans, which would become a privateer and be renamed the Deane. At first the Minister for the Navy was against it, but he changed his mind and authorised the departure, as France had signed a treaty with America on 6 February. Since the atmosphere between the French and American crews on the Lion became unbearable, Nicolas Baudin was assigned by Lamotte-Picquet to the Duc de Choiseul, a ship equipped by Jean Peltier Dudoyer, it was heading for Saint-Domingue, but in fact the destination was Nova Scotia. However the vessel was shipwrecked at Nova Scotia.
Nicolas was taken prisoner by the English on 24 April 1778 and interned in Halifax, Canada. After one month he escaped with hid among the friendly communities of Acadia. Appointed Captain of the transport vessel Amphitrite, he was sunk by the English 60 leagues out to sea, rescued in a rowing boat and made his way to Cape Cod and Boston; as captain of the Revanche, 400 tons, equipped by Jeange and sons of Bordeaux, with 30 men and 12 cannon, he was retaken by the English outside Cap-Français, heading for Boston. He was taken to Jamaica as a prisoner exchanged at the request of the Comte d'Argout, the Governor of Saint-Domingue, he returned to France on board the frigate Minerve, under the command of Captain de Grimouard, guillotined at Rochefort under the Convention. Back in France, he was appointed Captain at the admiralty of La Rochelle on 2 March 1780 and was to sail in merchant ships. At the age of 27 he was named Captain of the Apollon, a civilian frigate of 1,100 tons and 42 cannon, fitted out by Jean Peltier Dudoyer.
He was to form part of the convoy which took the Legion of Luxembourg to strengthen the defence of the Dutch Cape Colony at the Cape of Good Hope. However, during a stopover in Brest, the Comte d'Hector decided he would appoint a man with more experience, Felix de Saint-Hilaire. Having returned to Nantes and to the annoyance of Beaumarchais, the owner of the vessel, Baudin's uncle entrusted him with the command of the Aimable Eugenie, a ship of 600 tons, to go to Saint-Domingue and to the United States, he went back to Bordeaux and left the Gironde on 12 December 1782. He was part of a convoy of five merchant vessels attacked by the Mediator. After a hard battle Nicolas Baudin escaped, but the two other ships owned by Beaumarchais were captured. Reaching Saint-Domingue, the boat sank on 23 March 1783 at Puerto Plata, he negotiated for it and set off once again for Nantes on 23 April on the Prince Royal, which he had bought on the spot. On 30 August he resold the boat, which in the meantime had become the Union des 6 Frères, to Robert Pitot, a shipbuilder from the Isle de France who had just been freed from an English prison, established himself as a trader in Bordeaux.
The insurance company reimbursed Beaumarchais through his ship-builder Peltier Dudoyer. On 16 April 1784 Baudin left once more for Saint-Domingue on the Comte d'Angevillier of 1,000 tons with 8 cannon, built by Jean Peltier, he was still accompanied by his brother Alexandre as first mate. They were now 27 years old. Nicolas had a 25% stake in the voyage, they returned to Nantes on 8 December 1784. On 21 April 1785, he wrote to Benjamin Franklin requesting a recommendation to be accepted as a member of the Society of the Cincinnati, he signed his letter'Commander of the private frigate Comte d'Angevilliers, Maison Peltier du Doyer quai de l'hôpital'. On 22 July 1785 the Baudin brothers bought the Caroline, a ship of 200 tons, built by the Thébaudière brothers, he was to take the last Acadians to Louisiana. He was a few months behind his brother Alexandre, captain of the Saint Remy, built by Jean Peltier Dudoyer. In La Nouvelle Orléans local merchants contracted him to take a cargo of wood, salted meat and flour to Isle de France, which he did in Josephine, departing New Orleans on 14 July 1786 and arriving at Isle de France on 27 March 1787.
In the course of the voyage, Josephine had called at Cap‑Français in Haiti to make a contract to transport slaves there from Madagascar. Josephine took Boos on board. At Mauritius, Boos chartered Baudin to transport him and the collection of plant specimens he had gathered there and at the Cape back to Europe, which Baudin did, Josephine arriving at Trieste on 18 June 1788; the Imperial government in Vienna was contemplating organizing another natural-history expedition, to which Boos would be appointed, in which two ships would be sent to the Malabar and Coromandel coasts of India, the Persian Gulf, Ceylon, Java, Cochin China, Tongking and China. Baudin had been given reason to hope. In 1788 Baudin sailed on a commercial voyage from Trieste to Canton in Jardinière, he arrived at Canton from Mauritius under the flag o