The Albion CX22S was a heavy artillery tractor used by the British Army during World War II. The Albion CX22S was designed and built by Albion Motors in late 1943 to supplement the Scammell Pioneer heavy artillery tractor, not available in sufficient numbers. In service the CX22S was used by the British Army to tow the 155mm Long Tom and the BL 7.2-inch howitzer. The CX22S was based on Albion's CX23N 10-ton truck; the CX22S was a wheeled 6x4 truck, powered by a 100 bhp six-cylinder inline diesel engine, through a four-speed gearbox and two-speed auxiliary gearbox. The cab of the CX22S had bench seating for two or three whilst the rear body had bench seating for four and folding seats for two more along with stowage for tools and ammunition; the CX22S was fitted with an 8 long tons Scammell vertical-spindle winch under the rear body to assist with moving a gun. Albion built 532 CX22S artillery tractors between November 1943 and June 1945. M4 Tractor Mack NO
Scammell Lorries Limited was a British manufacturer of trucks specialist and military off-highway vehicles, between 1921 and 1988. Scammell started as a late-Victorian period wheelwright and coach-building business, G Scammell & Nephew Ltd in Spitalfields, London. George Scammell, the founder, was joined by Richard's sons Alfred and James. By the early 1900s, the firm had become financially stable, providing maintenance to customers of Foden steam wagons. One such customer, Edward Rudd, had imported a Knox Automobile tractor from the United States, impressed with its low weight/high hauling power had asked Scammell if they could make a similar model of their own. However, the outbreak of World War I in 1914 stopped the project and presented itself as a turning point in road transport history. Mechanical transport was seen to work, proving its vast potential beyond doubt to forward-thinking companies such as Scammell. George Scammell's great nephew, Lt Col Alfred Scammell, was injured and invalided out of the army, he was able to apply the practical experience he had gained during the war and began developing the articulated six wheeler.
Percy G Hugh, chief designer, conceived the idea and at the 1920 Commercial Motor Show, 50 orders were taken for the new design. The vehicle's low axle weight allowed it to carry 7.5 tonnes payload at 12 miles per hour, rather than being limited to 5 mph. Scammell started production of the 7.5-ton articulated vehicle in 1920. Needing to move to new premises, Scammell & Nephew floated a new company, Scammell Lorries Ltd in July 1922, with Col Scammell as Managing Director; the new firm built a new factory at Tolpits Lane, next to Watford West railway station on the branch line from Watford Junction to Croxley Green. The original company remained in business in Fashion Street, Spitalfields refurbishing and bodybuilding until taken over in 1965 by York Trailer Co. In 1929, Scammell manufactured the "100 Tonner" low loader. Only two were produced. Scammell were looking for new markets, diversified into four- and six-wheel rigid designs. The'Rigid Six-wheeler' found some success and, with its balloon tyres, at last permitted sustained high-speed, long-distance road operation.
In 1934, Scammell produced the three-wheeled Mechanical Horse, designed by Oliver North to replace horses in rail and other delivery applications. This featured automatic carriage coupling and the single front wheel could be steered through 360 degrees, it was sold in three- and six-ton versions. The three-tonner was powered by a 1,125-cc side-valve petrol engine and the six-tonner by a 2,043-cc engine. Karrier had introduced the Cob, four years earlier. From 1937, a Citroën Traction Avant powered version was made under licence in France, by Chenard-Walcker-FAR, known as the Pony Mécanique; this continued in production, in various versions, until 1970. In the late 1940s, the Mechanical Horse was superseded by the Scammell Scarab, with similar features, but a much less angular cab and now with a 2,090-cc, side-valve petrol engine in both models and a diesel version with a Perkins engine; the company concentrated on articulated and rigid eight-wheeler lorries, from the 1920s. One vehicle not in those lines that became well-known was the 6×4 Pioneer.
This was an off-highway, heavy haulage tractor, first produced in 1927. It showed outstanding cross-country performance due to the design that included the patent beam bogie rear axle, with 2 feet of vertical movement for each of the rear wheels; this design was the work of Oliver Danson North. The Pioneer proved popular in the oil field and forestry markets, formed the basis of the British Army's World War II R100 30-ton tank transporter. With the outbreak of war, development of new vehicles stopped and production concentrated on military Pioneers for use as artillery tractors and transporter vehicles. Post war, foreign competition and rationalisation of the UK manufacturers led to Scammell coming under Leyland Motors in 1955; this provided access to ready-made components within the Leyland group, allowing the replacement of the "lightweight" range with the: Highwayman: bonneted 4x2 Routeman: forward control 8-wheeler Handyman: forward control 4x2Both the tractor units could be configured up to 50 tons, complemented by the full range of Scammell trailers made at the Moor Park works, allowed the company to continue production in specialist and military markets.
In the 1960s, Scammell contracted Giovanni Michelotti to design its cabs, resulting in a series of glass-reinforced plastic "spring"-like designs. The first to be redesigned was the Routeman, followed by the Handyman. In 1967, the'Scarab' was replaced by the'Townsman', which had a GRP body; the factory designed the 6x4 Contractor equipped with a Cummins 335 engine, Lipe clutch and Fuller semi-automatic gearbox, that went into production in 1964. Offered with a choice of Leyland 24 tonne or Scammell 30 and 40 tonne bogies, the Contractor was popular in the UK for 240+ ton GTW operation, overseas heavy haul, with the military for tank transport. In 1964, Scammell assembled 38 BUT RETB/1 trolleybuses for use in New Zealand. Scammell launched the three-axle 6x4 Crusader at London's 1968 Earl's Court Commercial Vehicle Show; the truck was designed for high-speed long distance transport to cover 250,000 miles a year. The truck included a'repair by replacement' philosophy to cut downtime and the consequences of unscheduled maintenance.
The drive line included a 9.3-litre GM Detroit Diesel 8V71N
Mack NO 7½-ton 6x6 truck
The Mack NO 7 1/2 ton 6x6 truck was a heavy 6x6 cargo truck designed in the 1940s by the American manufacturer Mack Trucks. It was used by the U. S. Army as an artillery tractor for heavy artillery during and after World War II; the official U. S. Army designation was: 7 1/2 ton, 6x6, Prime Mover, its G-number was. In 1940 Mack Trucks started the development of a wheeled artillery tractor for the U. S. Army, with an off-road payload of 7 1⁄2 tons, to tow the 155 mm gun, the 8 inch howitzer, the 240 mm howitzer. A contract for the production of the vehicle was awarded in September 1940, in January 1942 a vehicle of the NO-1 type towed the first 240 mm howitzer carriage from the Bucyrus plant in South Milwaukee, Wisconsin to the Aberdeen Proving Ground test facility; the NO-1 was the first in a series of five similar prime mover vehicles. The NO-2 differed among them a canvas cabin roof and the winch behind the front bumper. A total of 403 units of the NO-2 were delivered in 1943; the next prime mover models, which marginally differed from the NO-2, were the NO-3 and NO-6.
A total of 1,097 units of these were ordered and delivered in 1943 and 1944. The last of the series was the NO−7 model, of which 188 were delivered in 1944 and 362 in 1945. Several NO-7 were provided after the war to the European armies being rebuilt, including those of United Kingdom, France and Netherlands; the models NO-4 and NO-5 were prototypes of heavy salvage vehicles, equipped with a Gar Wood crane which could swivel to the left and right. Neither model was put in production; the vehicle had a typical configuration, with a hooded front engine behind, a large driver cabin that could seat five soldiers, a rear cargo area. The engine was 6-cylinder gasoline with a displacement of 707 cu in; the transmission had one reverse. The installation of a transfer case with an additional reduction gear allowed low gearing. Traction was with 14.00-24 tires. The empty weight of the vehicle was 29,103 lb, 44,453 lb loaded; the gas tanks were located with a total capacity of 170 US gallons. At the front of the vehicle a Gar Wood winch was installed with a pulling capacity of 40,000 lb.
It could be used to help moving the vehicle if it was stuck. The cargo area could carry 7 1⁄2 tons of cargo. Starting with the NO-2 model, at the rear of the cargo compartment a small crane was installed to assist in placing the gun; the maximum towed load of the vehicle was 50,000 lb In total 2,053 Mack NO vehicles were built, in 7 variants as described in the following table. List of U. S. military vehicles by supply catalog designation List of U. S. military vehicles by model number Mack Trucks Mack NR Mack NO 7 1/2 Ton 6x6 Truck.
The AEC Matador was a heavy 4x4 truck and medium artillery tractor built by the Associated Equipment Company for British and Commonwealth forces during the Second World War. AEC had built a 4x2 lorry known as the Matador; the Matador was distinctive with its flat fronted cab with curved roof, wheels at the corners and a flat load carrying area covered by a canvas or tarpaulin tilt. As an artillery tractor, rather than a cargo vehicle, the wooden sides were fixed in place without folding down, but did have a narrow crew door on each side. Two transverse bench seats were provided for the gun crew, accessed through the side doors, at the 1st side bay on the left and the 2nd on the right; the cab was framed in clad in steel. It was equipped with a winch like all artillery tractors; the O853 provided the basis for the'Dorchester' armoured command vehicle. AEC produced a larger'Marshall' 6x6 vehicle based on the 4x4 Matador which were if not also called Matador; the O854 provided the basis for an armoured command vehicle, the O857.
About 9,000 Matadors were built, some going to the Royal Air Force. For the British Army, it fulfilled a role between field artillery tractors such as the Morris C8 Quad, which towed smaller guns such as the 25-pounder gun-howitzer, the Scammell Pioneer, used for towing the 7.2-inch howitzer. It was used to tow the 5.5-inch medium gun and the QF 3.7-inch AA gun. The Matador was found to be a useful vehicle and was adapted for other roles, including carrying a 25-pounder gun; the RAF used Matadors in the flat bed form for load carrying. The 6-wheeler Matador Type A with refuelling pumps and equipment by Zwicky Ltd, was used as a refuelling tanker, capable of carrying 2,500 Imperial gallons of fuel and for towing ashore Short Sunderland flying boats at their stations. Six armoured flamethrowers, the'Heavy Cockatrice' on the 6×6 chassis, were used by the RAF for airfield defence. In 1942/43, for the North African campaign, some Matadors mounted the 6-pounder anti-tank gun to give the AEC Mk1 Gun Carrier "Deacon".
The Canadian Army used the Matador during the Second World War. Post-war, the Matador was found in civilian use as a recovery truck, a showman's vehicle, general contractor use, it was useful for forestry work because of its good off-road performance. When used as a bus fleet recovery truck, many were fitted with lifting jibs for suspended towing and re-bodied with semi-enclosed bodies based on bodywork from scrapped buses. Bedford QLD - 3 ton general service truck four wheel drive, 4WD, introduced 1941. Austin K2/Y Canadian Military Pattern Field Artillery Tractor Steve Richards, AEC Matador: Taking The Rough With The Smooth, Japonica Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-904686-24-8. AEC Militant and Matador owners
L. Gardner and Sons
L. Gardner and Sons Ltd was a British builder of diesel engines for stationary, marine and rail applications; the company was founded in Hulme, England in 1868. It started building engines around 1895; the firm ceased engine production in the mid-1990s. About 1868 Lawrence Gardner set up as a sewing machine maker in Upper Duke Street, Stretford Road, Manchester, he died in 1890. From about 1895 the company was building gas engines and, in 1899 it moved into Barton Hall Engine Works, Manchester. In 1903 it became a limited company, L Gardner and Sons Ltd. Norris and Henty Ltd, of London, were appointed as sales agents. Diesel engine production began in around 1903. In 1912 a new sales subsidiary, Norris and Gardners Ltd, was formed. During World War I the company made parts for heavy guns and engines for tanks. During the 1920s there was rapid development in the design of diesel engines. In 1929 a Gardner "4L2" marine engine was fitted into a Lancia bus; this conversion was successful and prompted Gardner to introduce the "LW" series of diesel engines, designed for road vehicles but modified and supplied as a marine engines with factory-fitted bilge pumps.
During the 1930s a number of LW-series engines were installed in large luxury cars including Lagondas and Rolls-Royces. The Gardner engine's reliability and economy, coupled to its remarkable refinement and smooth running abilities, made it the only suitable compression-ignition engine at the time During World War II Gardner's war work consisted of building diesel engines of their own design, their 4LK bus engines were used as the main powerplant in the Royal Navy's X class and XE class midget submarines. After the war the'LW' diesel engine continued to be built in large numbers for lorries and buses and was supplemented by the more modern'LX'. In the mid-sixties, the LW range was upgraded to develop 20 bhp per cylinder, known as LW20; the 6LX was upgraded in 1967 from 150 bhp @1700rpm to 180 bhp @1850rpm. An 8-cylinder version was developed which developed 240 bhp @ 1850rpm, was said to be the smoothest running automotive diesel built; the larger'6L3' and'8L3' engines were used in railway locomotives, such as British Rail Class 01 and British Rail Class 04 and in vessels of up to 120 feet such as MV Havengore, the famous maxi yachts Condor and Condor of Bermuda, S.
Y. Crescent and others. In the summer of 1986, after months of denials, Perkins Engines purchased Gardner to complement their line of lighter diesel engines. Production was shut down until October, as Gardner's truck engine market share had slumped precariously. Gardner's market for buses and coaches was doing better. L. Gardner and Sons ceased production of new engines in the early 1990s; the introduction of emissions regulations for road-going Gardner diesels would have required the development of modified or new engine designs, in the marine market there was a shift away from big, low-speed, high-torque engines such as Gardners towards adapted high-speed automotive turbodiesels. Two spin-off firms from the original company are still in existence: Gardner Marine Diesels overhauls, re-manufactures and installs a wide range of marine-spec Gardners and both they and Walsh Engineering supply genuine Gardner engine parts for all types of Gardner engines worldwide. Another firm, Marine Power Services, specialise in the restoration and marinisation of Gardners for the inland waterways and the manufacture of component castings incl LW range exhaust and water manifolds.
And on the other side of the world in Australia, Mainline Diesel Engineering, headed by business principal Kevin Riley, trained by L. Gardner & Sons in the UK as a diesel fitter, supplies parts and restores Gardner engines to the same high specification Gardner was renowned for. Gardner 4LK, 60 hp @ 2100 RPM, Natural 4-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 3,800 cc Gardner 4LW, 75 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 4-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 5,580 cc Gardner 5LW, 85 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 5-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 7,000 cc Gardner 6LW 102 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 6-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 8,370 cc Gardner 6LX, 150 hp @ 1700 RPM, Natural 6-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 10,450 cc Gardner 6LXB, 180 hp @ 1850 RPM, Natural 6-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 10,450 cc Gardner 8LXB, 240 hp @ 1850 RPM, Natural 8-cylinder diesel, Cylinder capacity: 13,933 ccThe 6LXC engine is not mentioned. Source The Anson Engine Museum has an extensive collection of historic Gardner engines.
Smith, Donald H. The Modern Diesel, pp 151–154, published by Iliffe & Sons, London, 13th edition 1959 L. Gardner & Sons Limited: Legendary Engineering Excellence by Graham Edge"L. Gardner and Sons Limited: the history of a British industrial firm. A study with special reference to markets, workplace industrial relations, manufacturing engineering technology, 1955-1986" PhD Thesis published 2010 Maurice J. Halton http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/263/1/his_theses-1.pdf
A tractor unit is a characteristically heavy-duty towing engine that provides motive power for hauling a towed or trailered load. These fall into two categories: heavy and medium duty military and commercial rear-wheel drive "semi tractors" used for hauling semi-trailers, heavy-duty off-road-capable 6×6, military and commercial tractor units, including ballast tractors. Tractor units have large displacement diesel engines for power and economy; the tractor-trailer combination distributes a load across multiple axles while being more maneuverable than an equivalently sized rigid truck. The most common trailer attachment system is a fifth wheel coupling, allowing rapid shift between trailers performing different functions, such as a bulk tipper and box trailer. Trailers containing differing cargos can be swapped between tractors, eliminating downtime while a trailer is unloaded or loaded. Drawbar couplings are found in dedicated exceptionally heavy-duty ballast tractors and as a means to connect intermediate fifth-wheel dollies for pulling multiple semi trailers.
There have been three common cab configurations used in tractors, two are still used. The conventional has an engine and hood over the front axle in front of the cab, as in most automobiles; this style is universal in North America. The cab over engine or cab forward has a flat nose cab with the driver sitting in front of the front axle. Used in the EU and Japan, this style has the advantages of good vision and maneuverability and allows maximum trailer length relative to overall length. In the North America this type of cab can be useful in rigid trucks, but now has little advantage in tractors and is used. A North American style cab over engine, now obsolete, had a flat nose cab located higher over the engine, with the driver sitting above the front axle; this allowed a sleeper compartment in a short tractor, maximum wheelbase relative overall length, important for bridge formula weight restrictions. With the loosening of length restrictions in 1982 this style had limited applications, is no longer manufactured for the U.
S. market. This style is still however popular in Australia where length restrictions still apply on many roads and it is used to maximise the capacity of both single trailer and B double configurations, American companies Freightliner and Kenworth still manufacture trucks in this style for this market. In Australia both styles of cab over engine truck as well as conventionals are in common use. A tractor unit can have many axles depending on axle load legislation; the most common varieties are those of 6 × 2 and 6 × 4 types. However, some manufacturers offer 6×6, 8×6, 8×8, 10×8, 10×10 axle configurations. A 6×4 has three axles an undriven front steer axle and the two rear axles driven. 6×4 units are more common in long distance haulage in larger countries such as the United States and Australia. In Europe, the 4×2 and 6×2 variants are more commonplace. Tractors with three axles or more can have more than one steering axle, which can be driven. Most 6×2 units allow the undriven rear axle to be raised when loaded, or running without a trailer, to save tire wear, save toll road fees, increase traction on the driven axle.
The 6×6 units have three axles, all can be driven, 8×6 units have four axles, with either the rear three driven and the front axle not, or the front and rear-most two axles powered and an unpowered lifting bogie center axle to spread the load when needed. The 8×8 units have four axles, but with all of them driven, 10×8 units have five axles with the rear four driven and the front axle for steering. All five axles of 10×10 units are driven; the front two axles are both steer axles. The axle configurations are based on axle load legislation, maximum gross vehicle weight ratings. Heavier versions of tractor units, such as those used in heavy haulage and road trains, tend to have four or more axles, with more than two axles driven. In certain countries, a certain amount of weight must be spread over driven axles, which led to heavier varieties having six-wheel drive, otherwise another tractor unit would have to be used. Heavy haulage variants of tractor-units are turned into a ballast tractor by fitting temporary ballast, which may require special permitting
BL 5.5-inch Medium Gun
The BL 5.5 inch Gun was a British artillery gun introduced during the middle of the Second World War to equip medium batteries. In January 1939 a specification was issued for a gun to replace the 6 inch 26 cwt howitzers in use with most medium batteries; the first units were equipped in UK in the summer of 1941 and in North Africa a year 20 guns equipped British and Free French batteries at El Alamein. Subsequently, it equipped Canadian, South African and Indian regiments, after the war, it was used by New Zealand. In the Second World War the normal organisation was a regiment of 16 guns organised into two batteries; the 5.5 was retained in service after the war. It was used by the Royal Artillery on operations in South Arabia and Borneo, it was used by the Indian Army in wars against Pakistan, was used by the Pakistan Army against India in the mountains of Kashmir during the Kargil War of 1999. The South African Defence Force used it extensively in the early stages of the South African Border War, including Operation Savannah, calling it the G2.
72 are still held in reserve by the South African Army. In British post-war service it replaced the BL 4.5 inch Medium Field Gun. When 6-gun batteries were introduced in the late 1950s, medium regiments had 18 guns and the third battery in each field regiment was equipped with 5.5 inch guns instead of 25 pounder guns. It remained in UK service with Territorial Army regiments until 1980 and in Australian service until replaced by M198 in about 1984; the UK replacement for 5.5 inch was the FH-70 155 mm towed howitzer, in service as the L121. The last 5.5 rounds were fired in the UK in 1995. In use, the 5.5 was towed by the AEC Matador artillery tractor. From the 1950s in British service, the 5.5 was towed by an AEC Militant Mk 1 6x6 truck and subsequently the FV 1103 Leyland Martian 6x6 Medium Artillery Tractor. All 5.5 guns were manufactured in the UK. There were four marks of 5.5 inch ordnance although only three and, after World War II, four entered service, the differences were only minor. There were two marks of carriage where the differences were greater use of welding and less of riveting.
The carriages were identical to those used with Ordnance BL 4.5 inch Mark 2. No limber was used and the gun fired with its wheels in contact with the ground. During World War II the PL Locks and AC Slide Boxes, utilising 0.5 inch tubes were replaced by PK Locks and Y Slide Boxes using 0.303 inch tubes. It had Probert pattern calibrating sights; the Dial Sight was the No 7 but was replaced by the No 9. In the 1960s sights were converted from degrees and yards to mils and metres. There was no anti-tank telescope. Late in the war a sight adapter was introduced to permit upper register fire when the wheels were raised above the level of the spades; the normal gun detachment was 10 men. The 5.5 inch gun fired a 100-pound shell, using four charges in two cartridges to give a maximum range table muzzle velocity of 1,675 feet per second and a maximum range of 16,200 yards. In 1944 a 82-pound shell was introduced along with Charge Super giving a maximum muzzle velocity of 1,950 feet per second and a range of 18,100 yards yards.
The new lighter shell contained 1.5 pounds more explosive and replaced the older, heavier shell. In addition to high explosive rounds, there were several types of chemical shell weighing between 90 and 98 pounds and 100-pound coloured smoke shells. After World War 2, only HE was used; the normal HE fuze was No 117, a percussion, impact fuze, introduced in 1920 and saw use until the 1960s. In late 1944, the T100 Proximity fuze became available. No variants entered service although the UK developed two self-propelled versions to prototype stage; the first in 1945 used the Crusader gun tractor. It was a turretless design with no casemate; the second, FV3805, in the 1950s used a Centurion tank carriage, the gun being in a barbette mounting in a enclosed casemate. Fort Lytton Military Museum, Brisbane. National Military Vehicle Museum Edinburgh, South Australia. Arromanches-les-Bains, Normandy - Musee du Debarquement Southern Command Hospital, Pune Regiment of Artillery Museum, Nashik Road Overloon War Museum Royal Artillery Museum Shropshire Regiment Museum, Shrewsbury Castle Imperial War Museum DuxfordOutside 47 Regt Royal Artillery lines Larkhill 155 mm Howitzer M1 US equivalent 15 cm sFH 18 German equivalent, shorter ranged Skoda K-series Czech equivalent used by Germany Specifications sheet