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Scavenger

Scavengers are animals that consume dead organisms that have died from causes other than predation. While scavenging refers to carnivores feeding on carrion, it is a herbivorous feeding behavior. Scavengers play an important role in the ecosystem by consuming dead plant material. Decomposers and detritivores complete this process, by consuming the remains left by scavengers. Scavengers aid in overcoming fluctuations of food resources in the environment; the process and rate of scavenging is affected by both biotic and abiotic factors, such as carcass size, habitat and seasons. Scavenger is an alteration of scavager, from Middle English skawager meaning "customs collector", from skawage meaning "customs", from Old North French escauwage meaning "inspection", from schauwer meaning "to inspect", of Germanic origin. Obligate scavenging is rare among vertebrates, due to the difficulty of finding enough carrion without expending too much energy. In vertebrates, only vultures and some pterosaurs are obligate scavengers, as terrestrial soaring flyers are the only animals able to find enough carrion.

Well-known invertebrate scavengers of animal material include burying beetles and blowflies, which are obligate scavengers, yellowjackets. Fly larvae are common scavengers for organic materials at the bottom of freshwater bodies. For example, Tokunagayusurika akamusi is a species of midge fly whose larvae live as obligate scavengers at the bottom of lakes and whose adults never feed and only live up to a few weeks. Most scavenging animals are facultative scavengers that gain most of their food through other methods predation. Many large carnivores that hunt such as hyenas and jackals, but animals thought of as scavengers, such as African lions and wolves will scavenge if given the chance, they may use their size and ferocity to intimidate the original hunters. All scavengers above insect size are predators and will hunt if not enough carrion is available, as few ecosystems provide enough dead animals year-round to keep its scavengers fed on that alone. Scavenging wild dogs and crows exploit roadkill.

Scavengers of dead plant material include termites that build nests in grasslands and collect dead plant material for consumption within the nest. The interaction between scavenging animals and humans is seen today most in suburban settings with animals such as opossums and raccoons. In some African towns and villages, scavenging from hyenas is common. In the prehistoric eras, the species Tyrannosaurus rex may have been an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs and juvenile sauropods, although some experts have suggested the dinosaur was a scavenger; the debate about whether Tyrannosaurus was an apex predator or scavenger was among the longest ongoing feuds in paleontology. Recent research shows that while an adult Tyrannosaurus rex would energetically gain little though scavenging, smaller theropods of 500 kg may have gained levels similar to that of hyenas, though not enough for them to rely on scavenging. There are an info that Otodus megalodon, Ceratosaurus and some more prehistoric animals were scavengers.

Animals which consume feces, such as dung beetles, are referred to as coprovores. Animals that collect small particles of dead organic material of both animal and plant origin are referred to as detritivores. Scavengers play a fundamental role in the environment through the removal of decaying organisms, serving as a natural sanitation service. While microscopic and invertebrate decomposers break down dead organisms into simple organic matter which are used by nearby autotrophs, scavengers help conserve energy and nutrients obtained from carrion within the upper trophic levels, are able to disperse the energy and nutrients farther away from the site of the carrion than decomposers. Scavenging unites animals which would not come into contact, results in the formation of structured and complex communities which engage in nonrandom interactions. Scavenging communities function in the redistribution of energy obtained from carcasses and reducing diseases associated with decomposition. Oftentimes, scavenger communities differ in consistency due to carcass size and carcass types, as well as by seasonal effects as consequence of differing invertebrate and microbial activity.

Competition for carrion results in the inclusion or exclusion of certain scavengers from access to carrion, shaping the scavenger community. When carrion decomposes at a slower rate during cooler seasons, competitions between scavengers decrease, while the number of scavenger species present increases. Alterations in scavenging communities may result in drastic changes to the scavenging community in general, reduce ecosystem services and have detrimental effects on animal and humans; the reintroduction of gray wolves into Yellowstone National Park in the United States caused drastic changes to the prevalent scavenging community, resulting in the provision of carrion to many mammalian and avian species. The reduction of vulture species in India lead to the increase of opportunistic species such as feral dogs and rats; the presence of both species at carcasses resulted in the increase of diseases such as rabies and bubonic plague in wildlife and livestock, as feral dogs and rats are transmitters of such diseases.

Furthermore, the decline of vul

Princess Paula of Brazil

Dona Paula was a princess of the Empire of Brazil and thus, a member of the Brazilian branch of the Portuguese House of Braganza. Her parents were Emperor Dom Pedro I, the first ruler of an independent Brazil, Archduchess Leopoldina of Austria. Born in Rio de Janeiro, Paula was the couple's third child. After her mother's death and her siblings were raised by a slave, a wet-nurse and a statesman whom Pedro I had appointed to take care of his five children. Paula and her siblings were present when her father married his second wife, Amélie de Beauharnais, who became like a mother to the children. After her father abdicated and left, the children were left alone in Brazil, as his father took with him Amélie. Paula became ill in late 1832 and died in early 1833, at the age of nine, she was buried, in Rio de Janeiro. Paula was born on 17 February 1823 at the Paço de São Cristóvão in Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian capital; the last four names were always bestowed on members of the royal family and the name Paula honored São Paulo, where the independence had been signed.

She was the third daughter of Emperor Dom Pedro I and his first wife Archduchess Leopoldina of Austria. Through her father, she was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza, an illegitimate branch of the Capetian dynasty, she was thus a granddaughter of João VI. Through her mother, she was a first cousin of Franz Joseph I of Austria; as the daughter of a member of the ruling Portuguese royal house, Paula was referred to by the honorific Dona from birth. The year before Paula's birth, the independence of Brazil had been declared in September 1822. However, under Portuguese law, Paula was a foreigner having been born after the independence and was thus excluded from the line of succession. However, her elder sister Maria da Glória was not excluded from the succession having been born in 1819. Instead of her mother, Paula was suckled by the same wet nurse who would suckle the Prince Imperial. On 11 December 1826, Empress Leopoldina died after either giving birth to a stillborn son or suffering a miscarriage.

However, at the time there were rumors that purported Pedro had killed Leopoldina during a heated discussion. Pedro had kicked Leopoldina in the womb, causing her to have a miscarriage and die. Domitila de Castro, Pedro's longtime mistress, Philipp von Mareschal, the Austrian minister in Brazil, had witnessed the quarrel and Mareschal stated that the couple exchanged only insults and nothing else. Pedro missed his wife and arranged a second marriage, this time to Napoleon's step-granddaughter, Amélie de Beauharnais von Leuchtenberg; the two were married on 17 October 1829. Amélie became like a mother to Pedro's five surviving children, D. Maria da Glória, D. Januária, D. Paula, D. Francisca and the Prince Imperial, all of whom adored their new mother; the Emperor abdicated the Brazilian throne of 7 April 1831 and left Brazil for Portugal in order to support his eldest daughter's claim to the Portuguese throne. Pedro's vessel left that morning and Pedro, now styling himself "the Duke of Braganza", took with him Amélie, Maria da Glória and his sister D. Ana de Jesus.

The children never saw their stepmother again. Before he left, Pedro had appointed José Bonifácio de Andrada as legal guardian, Mariana de Verna Coutinho to continue as aia, an afro-Brazilian war veteran named Rafael to tend to his children. Out of these three, Rafael remained loyal to the Emperor until his death in 1889. Left with no one else, the children formed close bonds with each other, they were "dependent on each other." Besides this, the three sisters were obedient and helpful towards their brother, now Emperor of Brazil and outranked them. The children attended Glória Church, studied and had meals as a family. On 9 April 1831, the Prince Imperial was acclaimed as the new Emperor. While the Emperor was displayed at a palace window, his sisters stood by him. Meanwhile, in Paris, D. Amélie gave birth to a daughter, Princess D. Maria Amélia. Paula was described as "filled with peace and resignation", or "the most quiet and gentle of Leopoldina and Pedro's children" and complained though she had suffered from frequent health problems since infancy.

She had never been robust or healthy until the middle of 1831, when she had a bout of strength: she was able to lead an active life and grew taller. However, at the end of 1832, she became ill. Historian Roderick Barman suggests. Isle further states that the royal doctors administered quinine, leeches, mustard plaster and applied acidic substances to her skin.

Money Showers

"Money Showers" is a song recorded by American rappers Fat Joe and Remy Ma. It was released on November 11, 2016, as the third single from their collaborative album, Plata O Plomo; the song, produced by Cool & Dre, features guest vocals from American singer Ty Dolla Sign. It samples Ralph Tresvant's 1991 R&B hit "Do What I Gotta Do" & Bobby Brown's 1988 single Rock Wit'cha; the music video for the song premiered on January 2017, via Tidal. The song premiered on November 10, 2016, the next day was released for digital download as a single on iTunes. "Money Showers" is the third single from Fat Joe and Remy Ma's collaborative album, Plata O Plomo, released on February 17, 2017."Money Showers" is hip hop and R&B track. In an interview with Billboard magazine, Remy Ma explained the song's meaning. While talking about working with Ty Dolla Sign, Fat Joe said: Jessie Morris from Complex wrote; as always, Ma's hard-hitting bars provide the perfect offset to Joe's verses while Ty Dolla Sign polishes the whole thing from the background with some silky ad-libs."

Emmanuel C. M. of XXL wrote that the song "sounds like it’s going to find it’s way on the charts too". Rap-Up praised Ty Dolla Sign's vocals saying that he "lays down some smooth melodies". OnSMASH wrote; the music video for "Money Showers" premiered on January 2017, via streaming service Tidal. It was uploaded to Fat Joe's Vevo channel on January 15, 2017; the Eif Rivera-directed video was filmed in Miami and was inspired by 1998 comedy/drama film, The Players Club. Actor Anthony Johnson, who appeared in the movie makes a cameo appearance in the video. On February 17, 2017, Fat Joe, Remy Ma and Ty Dolla Sign performed "Money Showers" on Jimmy Kimmel Live!. Joe and Ma performed the song with Sevyn Streeter on The Wendy Williams Show on March 3, 2017. Music video on YouTube Audio on YouTube