Tournai, known in Dutch as Doornik, is a Walloon city and municipality of Belgium located 85 kilometres west-southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt, in the province of Hainaut. Tournai is part of the Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai, which had 2,155,161 residents in 2008, along with Tongeren, Tournai is the oldest city in Belgium and it has played an important role in the countrys cultural history. Tournai is located in the Wallonia region of Belgium, at the limit of the Flemish plain, in the basin of the River Scheldt. Administratively, the town is part of the Province of Hainaut and it is a municipality that is part of the French-speaking Community of Belgium. Tournai has its own arrondissements, both administrative and judicial and its area of 213.75 square kilometres makes it the largest municipality in size in Belgium, it is the largest in population in Western Hainaut. Rocks from the Tournai area date from the Carboniferous Period and have used to define the Tournaisian Age.
Tournai stone is a limestone which takes a polish and was used particularly in the Romanesque period for sculpted items such as Tournai fonts. It is enough to have been used locally for pavements. It is sometimes called Tournai marble, though this is geologically inaccurate, known as Tornacum, was a place of minor importance in Roman times, a stopping place where the Roman road from Cologne on the Rhine to Boulogne on the coast crossed the river Scheldt. It was fortified under Maximian in the 3rd century AD, when the Roman limes was withdrawn to the string of outposts along the road and it came into the possession of the Salian Franks in 432. Under king Childeric I, whose tomb was discovered there in 1653, in 486, Clovis moved the center of power to Paris. In turn, a son of Tournai, became bishop of the newly created bishopric of Tournai. In 862 Charles the Bald, first king of Western Francia and still to become Holy Roman Emperor, after the partition of the Frankish empire by the Treaties of Verdun and of Meerssen, Tournai remained in the western part of the empire, which in 987 became France.
The city participated in 11th-century rise of towns in the Low Countries, with a cloth industry based on English wool. An ambitious rebuilding of the cathedral was initiated in 1030, the stone Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with defensive towers at either end, was built in 1290, replacing an earlier wooden structure. During the 15th century, the textile trade boomed and it became an important supplier of tapestry. The art of painting flourished too, Jacques Daret, Robert Campin and it was captured in 1513 by Henry VIII of England, making it the only Belgian city ever to have been ruled by England. It was represented in the 1515 Parliament of England, the city was handed back to French rule in 1519, following the Treaty of London
The Eastern Scheldt is a former estuary in the province of Zeeland, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen on the north and Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland on the south. It is the largest national park in the Netherlands, founded in 2002, during the Roman Era it was the major mouth of the Scheldt River. Later parts of that lost land were reclaimed, restricting part of the connection to the Scheldt River to a channel called the Kreekrak. In 1867 the Kreekrak was closed off with a railway embankment, from that moment on, the Oosterschelde lost its connection with the Scheldt, and is no longer functioning as an estuary. Between Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland there are two connections, the Oosterscheldedam on the west and the Zeeland Bridge on the east. After the North Sea flood of 1953, it was decided to close off the Oosterschelde by means of a dam, the Oosterscheldekering, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland, is the largest of 13 ambitious Delta Works designed to protect a large part of the Netherlands from flooding. A four-kilometre section has huge sluice gates, which are normally open, upon completion of the barrier in 1986, the flow of water decreased and the tidal height differential reduced from 3.40 metres to 3.25 metres.
As a result, no new sand is being deposited on the sand bars—they are now slowly eroding, changing the character of the coast, since May 8,2002, the entire Oosterschelde was designated a national park. Its boundaries are the dikes of Schouwen-Duiveland and Sint-Philipsland, Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland, having an area of 370 square kilometres, it is the largest national park in the Netherlands. Total shore length is 125 kilometres, the park consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but includes some mud flats and shoals. Because of the variety of sea life, including unique regional species. Other activities include sailing, fishing and bird watching, Delta Works Western Scheldt Oosterschelde National Park official website Satellite view, google maps
The Leie or Lys is a river in France and Belgium, and a left tributary of the Scheldt. Its source is in Pas-de-Calais, and it flows into the river Scheldt in Ghent and its total length is 202 kilometres. It is a polluted river from the high population density. Historically, the Lys valley was known for the spinning and weaving of flax, the region of the Leie was known as a favourite place for numerous painters in the first half of the 20th century. The source of the Lys is in a village, east of Fruges, the river was the location of three battles between the Allies and the German Army. During the Second World War, the Battle of the Lys was part of the 1940 German offensive in Flanders towards the English Channel, geoportail. fr The Lys at the Sandre database River basin of the Lys in Flanders
Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is descended from Old Saxon in its earliest form, as an Ingvaeonic language, Low German is quite distinct from the Irminonic languages like Standard German. It is closely related to Anglo-Frisian group of languages and more distantly to Dutch and this difference resulted from the High German consonant shift, with the Uerdingen and Benrath lines being two notable linguistic borders. Dialects of Low German are widely spoken in the area of the Netherlands and are written there with an orthography based on Standard Dutch orthography. Small portions of northern Hesse and northern Thuringia are traditionally Low Saxon-speaking too, Low German was spoken in formerly German parts of Poland as well as in East Prussia and the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia. Under the name Low Saxon, there are speakers in the Dutch north-eastern provinces of Groningen, Stellingwerf, German speakers in this area fled the Red Army or were forcibly expelled after the border changes at the end of World War II.
Today, there are still speakers outside Germany and the Netherlands to be found in the areas of present-day Poland. In some of these countries, the language is part of the Mennonite religion, there are Mennonite communities in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia and Minnesota which use Low German in their religious services and communities. The type of Low German spoken in communities and in the Midwest region of the United States has diverged since emigration. The survival of the language is tenuous in many places and has died out in places where assimilation has occurred. Mennonite colonies in Paraguay and Chihuahua, Mexico have made Low German a co-official language of the community, in Germany, native speakers of Low German call it Platt, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch. In the Netherlands, native speakers refer to their language as dialect, nedersaksies, or the name of their village, Low German is called Niederdeutsch by the German authorities and Nedersaksisch by the Dutch authorities. Plattdeutsch/Niederdeutsch and Platduits/Nedersaksisch are seen in texts from the German.
In Danish it is called Plattysk, Nedertysk or, Mennonite Low German is called Plautdietsch. Etymologically Platt meant clear in the sense of a language the people could understand. In Dutch, the word Plat can mean improper, or rude, the ISO 639-2 language code for Low German has been nds since May 2000. The question of whether Low German should be considered a separate language, linguistics offers no simple, generally accepted criterion to decide this question. Scholarly arguments have been put forward in favour of classifying Low German as a German dialect, as said, these arguments are not linguistic but rather socio-political and build mainly around the fact that Low German has no official standard form or use in sophisticated media
The Western Scheldt in the province of Zeeland in the southwestern Netherlands, is the estuary of the Scheldt river. This river once had several estuaries, but the others are disconnected from the Scheldt and it is an important shipping route to the Port of Antwerp, Belgium. Therefore, unlike the other sea arms, it is not closed by a dam as part of the Delta Works, the dykes around it have been heightened and reinforced. Many ships have sunk in the Western Scheldt, following an agreement between the Dutch and Belgian governments in 1995, many of these wrecks have been removed to improve shipping access to Antwerp. It was expected that the last 38 wrecks in the channel would be removed during 2003. The largest wreck was the 131-metre long Alan A. Dale which was removed during June 2003, the Western Scheldt was freed from German occupation in October and November 1944 by the First Canadian Army during The Battle of the Scheldt. In mid-March 2003, a 6.6 km tunnel under the Western Scheldt opened and it is the longest road traffic tunnel in the Netherlands.
The toll is €5,00 for cars and €2,50 for motorcycles, prior to 2011, the charge for motorcycles was the same as for cars but it was reduced following protests. There is a toll station for both directions, located on the north bank. Pedestrians and moped riders are not allowed in the tunnel, with the opening of the road tunnel, the Breskens-Vlissingen ferry was restricted to pedestrians and cyclists only. It is operated by Westerschelde Ferry BV, a subsidiary of the province of Zeeland, the Kruiningen-Perkpolder ferry was discontinued without replacement. Eastern Scheldt Ferry Tunnel Ferry and Tunnel
Valenciennes is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. It lies on the Scheldt river, although the city and region experienced a steady population decline between 1975 and 1990, it has since rebounded. The 1999 census recorded that the population of the commune of Valenciennes was 41,278, Valenciennes is first mentioned in 693 in a legal document written by Clovis II. In the 843 Treaty of Verdun, it was made a city between Neustria and the Austrasia. Later in the 9th century the region was overrun by the Normans, in 923 it passed to the Duchy of Lower Lotharingia dependent on the Holy Roman Empire. Once the Empire of the Franks was established, the city began to develop, under the Ottonian emperors, Valenciennes became the centre of marches on the border of the Empire. In 1008, a famine brought the Plague. According to the tradition, the Virgin Mary held a cordon around the city which. Since then, every year at that time, the Valenciennois used to walk around the 14 kilometres road round the town, many Counts succeeded, first as Margraves of Valenciennes and from 1070 as counts of Hainaut.
In 1285, the currency of Hainaut was replaced by the currency of France, Valenciennes was full of activity, with numerous corporations, and outside its walls a large number of convents developed, like that of the Dominicans. In the 14th century, the Tower of Dodenne was built by Albert of Bavaria, where even today, in the 15th century, the County of Hainault, of which Valenciennes is part, was re-attached to Burgundy, losing its autonomy. On the Journée des Mals Brûlés in 1562, a mob freed some Protestants condemned to die at the stake, in the wave of iconoclastic attacks called the Beeldenstorm that swept the Low Countries in the summer of 1566, the city was the furthest south to see an attack. In 1576, when for a time the Southern Netherlands joined the revolt, however, in 1580, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma took Valenciennes and Protestantism was eradicated there. Hereafter, Valenciennes remained under Spanish protection, no longer involved in fighting of the Eighty Years War. With its manufacturers of wool and fine linens, the city was able to economically independent.
In 1591, the Jesuits built a school and the foundations of a church of Sainte-Croix, in 1611, the façade of the town hall was completely rebuilt in magnificent Renaissance style. In the seventeenth century the Scheldt was channelled between Cambrai and Valenciennes, benefitting Valenciennes wool and fine arts, to use up flax yarn, women began to make the famous Valenciennes lace. The French army laid siege to the city in 1656, defending the city, Albert de Merode, marquis de Trélon was injured during a sortie on horseback, died as a result of his injuries and was buried in the Church of St. Paul
Mons is a Belgian city and municipality, and the capital of the province of Hainaut. Together with the Czech city of Plzeň, Mons was the European Capital of Culture in 2015, the first signs of activity in the region of Mons are found at Spiennes, where some of the best flint tools in Europe were found dating from the Neolithic period. When Julius Caesar arrived in the region in the 1st century BC, the region was settled by the Nervii, a Belgian tribe. A castrum was built in Roman times, giving the settlement its Latin name Castrilocus, soon after, Saint Waltrude, daughter of one of Clotaire II’s intendants, came to the oratory and was proclaimed a saint upon her death in 688. Like Ath, its neighbour to the north-west, Mons was made a city by Count Baldwin IV of Hainaut in the 12th century. The population grew quickly, trade flourished, and several buildings were erected near the Grand’Place. The 12th century saw the appearance of the first town halls, the city had 4,700 inhabitants by the end of the 13th century.
Mons succeeded Valenciennes as the capital of the county of Hainaut in 1295, in the 1450s, Matheus de Layens took over the construction of the Saint Waltrude church from Jan Spijkens and restored the town hall. In 1515, Charles V took an oath in Mons as Count of Hainaut, after the murder of de Coligny during the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, the Duke of Alba took control of Mons in September 1572 in the name of the Catholic King of Spain. This spelled the ruin of the city and the arrest of many of its inhabitants, from 1580 to 1584, on 8 April 1691, after a nine-month siege, Louis XIV’s army stormed the city, which again suffered heavy casualties. From 1697 to 1701, Mons was alternately French or Austrian, after being under French control from 1701 to 1709, the Dutch army gained the upper hand in the Battle of Malplaquet. In 1715, Mons returned to Austria under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, but the French did not give up easily, Louis XV besieged the city again in 1746. After the Battle of Jemappes, the Hainaut area was annexed to France, following the fall of the First French Empire in 1814, King William I of the Netherlands fortified the city heavily.
In 1830, Belgium gained its independence and the decision was made to dismantle fortified cities such as Mons, the actual removal of fortifications only happened in the 1860s, allowing the creation of large boulevards and other urban projects. The Industrial Revolution and coal mining made Mons a center of heavy industry and it was to become an integral part of the sillon industriel, the industrial backbone of Wallonia. On 17 April 1893, between Mons and Jemappes, seven strikers were killed by the guard at the end of the Belgian general strike of 1893. The proposed law on universal suffrage was approved the day after by the Belgian Parliament and this general strike was one of the first general strikes in an industrial country. On 23–24 August 1914, Mons was the location of the Battle of Mons—the first battle fought by the British Army in World War I
Terneuzen is a city and municipality in the southwestern Netherlands, in the province of Zeeland, in the middle of Zeelandic Flanders. With over 55,000 inhabitants, it is the most populous municipality of Zeeland, first mentioned in 1325, Terneuzen was a strategically located port on the waterways to Ghent, in present-day Belgium. It received city rights in 1584, before 1877, the city was often called Neuzen. The city of Terneuzen is located on the shore of the Western Scheldt estuary. The municipality of Terneuzen consists of the population centres, Nowadays the Ghent–Terneuzen Canal is still an important shipping route. The port of Terneuzen is the third largest in the Netherlands, the largest plant of Dow Chemical Company outside of the United States is located at Terneuzen, on the west side of the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal. It can be reached from the rest of the Netherlands via the Western Scheldt Tunnel, Terneuzen is not linked to the rest of the Netherlands by rail - although the Dow Chemical plant is served by a freight only line to Gent/Ghent in Belgium.
Sandra E. Roelofs, the former first lady of Georgia, lodewijk van den Berg, astronaut on a Challenger Space Shuttle mission, born in Sluiskil, Terneuzen. Klaas de Vries, a composer and one of the founders of a style that became known as the Rotterdam School. Jacques Hamelink, a novelist and literary critic, who is best known for his poetry, erik de Bruyn, film director Eric van Damme, Dutch economist Port of Terneuzen Official Website Official Website
Walcheren is a former island in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. It lies between the Oosterschelde in the north and the Westerschelde in the south and is roughly the shape of a rhombus, the two sides facing the North Sea consist of dunes, the rest of its coastline is made up of dykes. Middelburg lies at its centre, this city is the provincial capital, Walcheren was an island, but polders and a dam across the Oosterschelde have connected it to the island of Zuid-Beveland, which in turn has been connected to the North Brabant mainland. The Romans called it Wallacra, a term most likely associated with Walha, Walcheren became the seat of the Danish Viking Harald, who conquered what would become the Netherlands together with his brother Rorik in the ninth century. One fringe theory has it that Ibn Rustah described Walcheren when reporting on the seat of the khagan of the Rus, another fringe theory mentions Walcheren as the seat of Hades, described by Homer.
The expedition turned into a disaster – although Flushing surrendered the Austrians had already been defeated at the Battle of Wagram in early July and were suing for peace. The French suffered some 4000 dead and captured, with the strategic reasons for the campaign gone and the worsening conditions, the British force was withdrawn in December. On 3 October 1944 the RAF bombed the sea wall at Westkapelle causing flooding, the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division cleared South Beveland to the east and approached the island on 31 October 1944. The plan was to cross the Sloe Channel, but leading troops of the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade found that assault boats were useless in the mud of the channel. The only route open was the 40 metre wide Walcheren Causeway, the Canadian Black Watch sent a company across on the evening of 31 October, but were stopped. The Calgary Highlanders sent two companies over in succession, the second attack opening up a bridgehead on the island, the Highlanders were eventually thrown back, having lost 64 killed and wounded.
Le Régiment de Maisonneuve relieved them on the causeway, followed by the 1st Battalion, meanwhile, on 1 November 1944, the British Commandos landed in the village of Westkapelle in order to silence the German coastal batteries looking out over the Scheldt. The amphibious assault proved a success and by 8 November, all German resistance on the island had ceased
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine,30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city, examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864, a number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, on the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple.
Small statues of the dea Sequana Seine goddess and other ex voti found at the place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea, commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine,560 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges, the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine Maritime,105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Multiple locks at Bougival / Chatou and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne, from the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine.
From there on, the river is only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes and this canal has been abandoned for many years. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres. Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second
Vlissingen is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren. With its strategic location between the Scheldt river and the North Sea, Vlissingen has been an important harbour for centuries and it was granted city rights in 1315. In the 17th century Vlissingen was a harbour for ships of the Dutch East India Company. It is known as the birthplace of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter, Vlissingen is mainly noted for the yards on the Scheldt where most of the ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy are built. The Counts of Holland and Zeeland had the first harbours dug, over the centuries, Vlissingen developed into a hub for fishing, especially the herring fishery, commerce and the slave trade. Under the Treaty of Nonsuch, English garrisons were stationed here, during the heyday of the Dutch Golden Age, ships from Vlissingen set sail for the various outposts of the Dutch colonial empire and contributed to the world power of The Seven Provinces. The history of Vlissingen was marked by invasion, floods have been a constant threat.
Vlissingen declined during the 18th century, the Napoleonic Wars were particularly disastrous. After 1870, the economy revived after the construction of new docks and the Walcheren canal, the arrival of the railway, the Second World War interrupted this growth. The city was damaged by shelling and inundation but was captured and liberated by British Commandos of 4th Special Service Brigade on 3 November 1944. The city was rebuilt after the war, in the 1960s, the seaport and industrial area of Vlissingen-Oost developed and flourished. Now this area is the driving force behind central Zeeland. 50,000 ships annually from all corners of the pass through the Schelde. Tourists are attracted to Vlissingen not just because of its history and maritime character, the derivation of the name Vlissingen is unclear, though most scholars relate the name to the word fles in one way or another. According to one story, when saint Willibrord landed in Vlissingen with a bottle in the 7th century, a miracle occurred, familiar to readers of hagiography, when the contents of the bottle did not diminish.
When the bishop realised the beggars did not want to listen to his words, after that, he supposedly called the city Flessinghe. Another source states that the name had its origins in an old ferry-service house, the monk Jacob van Dreischor, who visited the city in 967, apparently called the ferry-house het veer aan de Flesse. Because many cities in the region received the appendix -inge