The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area functions as a single jurisdiction for international travel purposes, with a common visa policy; the area is named after the 1985 Schengen Agreement signed in Luxembourg. Of the 27 EU member states, 22 participate in the Schengen Area. Of the five EU members that are not part of the Schengen Area, four—Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania—are obliged to join the area in the future, while the other one—Ireland—maintains an opt-out; the four European Free Trade Association member states, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, are not members of the EU, but have signed agreements in association with the Schengen Agreement. Three European microstates that are not members of the European Union but which are enclaves or semi-enclave within an EU member state—Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City—are de facto part of the Schengen Area; the Schengen Area has a population of over 420 million people and an area of 4,312,099 square kilometres.
About 1.7 million people commute to work across a European border each day, in some regions these people constitute up to a third of the workforce. Each year, there are 1.3 billion crossings of Schengen borders in total. 57 million crossings are due to transport of goods with a value of € 2.8 trillion each year. The decrease in the cost of trade due to Schengen varies from 0.42% to 1.59% depending on geography, trade partners, other factors. Countries outside of the Schengen area benefit. States in the Schengen Area have strengthened border controls with non-Schengen countries; the Schengen Agreement was signed on 14 June 1985 by five of the ten EC member states in the town of Schengen, Luxembourg. The Schengen Area was established separately from the European Communities, when consensus could not be reached among all EC member states on the abolition of border controls; the Agreement was supplemented in 1990 by the Schengen Convention, which proposed the abolition of internal border controls and a common visa policy.
The Agreements and the rules adopted under them were separate from the EC structures, led to the creation of the Schengen Area on 26 March 1995. As more EU member states signed the Schengen Agreement, consensus was reached on absorbing it into the procedures of the EU; the Agreement and its related conventions were incorporated into the mainstream of European Union law by the Amsterdam Treaty in 1997, which came into effect in 1999. A consequence of the Agreement being part of European law is that any amendment or regulation is made within its processes, in which the non-EU members are not participants; the UK and Ireland have maintained a Common Travel Area since 1923, but the UK could not accept abolishing border controls and was, granted a full opt-out from the area. While not signing the Schengen Treaty, Ireland has always looked more favourably on joining, but has not done so in order to maintain the CTA and its open border with Northern Ireland; the Nordic members required Norway and Iceland to be included, accepted, so a consensus could be reached.
The Schengen Area consists of 26 states, including four. Two of the non-EU members – Iceland and Norway – are part of the Nordic Passport Union and are classified as'states associated with the Schengen activities of the EU'. Switzerland was allowed to participate in the same manner in 2008. Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area on 19 December 2011. De facto, the Schengen Area includes three European micro-states – Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City – that maintain open or semi-open borders with other Schengen member countries. One EU member state – Ireland – negotiated opt-outs from Schengen and continue to operate border controls with other EU member states, while at the same time being part of the Common Travel Area together with the United Kingdom, a former EU member which had the same opt-out; the remaining four EU member states – Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania – are obliged to join the Schengen Area. However, before implementing the Schengen rules, each state must have its preparedness assessed in four areas: air borders, police cooperation, personal data protection.
This evaluation process involves a questionnaire and visits by EU experts to selected institutions and workplaces in the country under assessment. The only land borders with border controls between EU/EEA members, are those of Bulgaria and Romania. States which are not members of the Schengen Area but still have open borders with the area: Notes Although Cyprus, which joined the EU on 1 May 2004, is bound to join the Schengen Area, implementation has been delayed because of the Cyprus dispute. According to former Cypriot Minister of Foreign Affairs Giorgos Lillikas, "strict and full control based on Schengen will create a huge tribulation on a daily basis for the Turkish Cypriots" of Northern Cyprus, it is unclear if this control is possible before the resolution of the dispute; the British Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory, outside the EU needs "other handling and mechanisms". Akrotiri and Dhekelia has no border control to Cyprus, but has its own border control at its air base.
As of 2018 no date has been fixed for implementation of the Schengen rules by Cyprus. Cyprus has less potential benefit from an implementation of Schengen, for it has no land border with another EU member. In No
Stephen Wyn Roberts is a Welsh former professional footballer who most played for Walsall. He has represented Wales at under-21 level. Roberts began his career at hometown club Wrexham, where he took part in the club's Football League Trophy win in 2005, before moving to Doncaster Rovers where he joined up with his brother Neil Roberts who moved on to join Wrexham. On 1 July 2008, Roberts opted to turn down a new one-year contract at Doncaster Rovers, to drop down to League One to play for Walsall on a two-year contract, he became the "Saddlers" first signing of the 2008 pre-season. On 8 October 2009, Roberts announced his retirement from the game at the age of 29 due to a persistent back injury. Stephen Roberts at Soccerbase
Rogeting is a neologism created to describe the act of modifying a published source by substituting synonyms for sufficient words to fool plagiarism detection software resulting in the creation of new meaningless phrases through extensive synonym swapping. The term, a reference to Roget's Thesaurus, has been attributed to Chris Sadler, principal lecturer in business information systems at Middlesex University, who found the practice in papers submitted by his students, though there is no scholarly evidence of Rogeting more broadly, as little research into Rogeting has been conducted. In its basic form, Rogeting consists of replacing words with their synonyms, chosen from a thesaurus. Several websites can perform this task online for free. A plagiarism checker would not be able to detect the original source. A similar but much more sophisticated strategy consists of substituting synonyms of single words, or inserting different paragraphs, in the internal binary code of computer files containing essays, review articles, slide shows and so forth, which manage to deceive Turnitin.com as well as any other plagiarism checkers because of the inherent nature of the detection algorithms.
An example is the website cheatturnitin.com. The documents produced through this kind of technically-advanced rogeting beat plagiarism checkers but, unlike the simplest form of Rogeting, they are visually identical to the original ones and the changes are not visible to the naked eye. Moreover, the whole process can be automated and does not require a "second pass" carried out by a human operator, which can bring significant time savings and eliminate the risk of accidentally incrementing the similarity index