The Security Service known as MI5, is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service, Government Communications Headquarters and Defence Intelligence. MI5 is directed by the Joint Intelligence Committee, the service is bound by the Security Service Act 1989; the service is directed to protect British parliamentary democracy and economic interests, counter terrorism and espionage within the UK. Within the civil service community the service is colloquially known as Box 500; the service has had a national headquarters at Thames House on Millbank in London since 1995, drawing together personnel from a number of locations into a single HQ facility: Thames House houses the Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre, a subordinate organisation to the Security Service. The service has offices across the United Kingdom including an HQ in Northern Ireland. Details of the northern operations centre in Greater Manchester were revealed by the firm who built it.
The Security Service comes under the authority of the Home Secretary within the Cabinet. The service is headed by a Director General at the grade of a Permanent Secretary of the British Civil Service, directly supported by an internal security organisation, legal advisory branch and information services branch; the Deputy Director General is responsible for the operational activity of the service, being responsible for four branches. The service is directed by the Joint Intelligence Committee for intelligence operational priorities, it liaises with SIS, GCHQ, DIS, a number of other bodies within the British government and industrial base. It is overseen by the Intelligence and Security Committee of Members of Parliament, who are directly appointed by the Prime Minister, by the Interception of Communications Commissioner, by the Intelligence Services Commissioner. Judicial oversight of the service's conduct is exercised by the Investigatory Powers Tribunal. Operations of the service are required to be proportionate and compliant with British legislation including the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, the Data Protection Act 1998, various other items of legislation.
Information held by the service is exempt from disclosure under section 23 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000. All employees of the service are bound by the Official Secrets Act. In certain circumstances employees can be authorised to carry out activity, which would otherwise be criminal, within the UK; the current Director General is Andrew Parker, who succeeded Jonathan Evans on 22 April 2013. The service marked its centenary in 2009 by publishing an official history, written by Christopher Andrew, Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at Cambridge University; the Security Service is derived from the Secret Service Bureau, founded in 1909 and concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German government as a joint initiative of the Admiralty and the War Office. The Bureau was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialised in foreign target espionage and internal counter-espionage activities respectively; this specialisation was a result of the Admiralty intelligence requirements related to the maritime strength of the Imperial German Navy.
This specialisation was formalised prior to 1914 and the beginning of World War I, with the two sections undergoing a number of administrative changes and the home section becoming Directorate of Military Intelligence Section 5, the name by which it is still known in popular culture. The founding head of the Army section was Vernon Kell of the South Staffordshire Regiment, who remained in that role until the early part of the Second World War, its role was quite restricted. With a small staff and working in conjunction with the Special Branch of the Metropolitan Police, the service was responsible for overall direction and the identification of foreign agents, whilst Special Branch provided the manpower for the investigation of their affairs and interrogation. On the day after the declaration of World War I, the Home Secretary, Reginald McKenna, announced that "within the last twenty-four hours no fewer than twenty-one spies, or suspected spies, have been arrested in various places all over the country, chiefly in important military or naval centres, some of them long known to the authorities to be spies", a reference to arrests directed by the service.
These arrests have provoked recent historical controversy. According to the official history of MI5, the actual number of agents identified was 22 and Kell had started sending out letters to local police forces on 29 July giving them advance warning of arrests to be made as soon as war was declared. Portsmouth Constabulary jumped the gun and arrested one on 3 August, not all of the 22 were in custody by the time that McKenna made his speech, but the official history regards the incident as a devastating blow to Imperial Germany which deprived them of their entire spy ring, upset the Kaiser; this view has been challenged by Nicholas Hiley. In 2006 his article "Entering the Lists" was published in the journal Intelligence and National Security outlining the products of his research into opened files
Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, its 746,878 inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area. Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations, it has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945.
A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and transportation, it is the site of many European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, several cloud and fintech startups and other institutes. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe, it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013, its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.
Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe; the Römer area was rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for eve
Frederick III, German Emperor
Frederick III was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors. Known informally as "Fritz", he was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service. Although celebrated as a young man for his leadership and successes during the Second Schleswig, Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, he professed a hatred of warfare and was praised by friends and enemies alike for his humane conduct. Following the unification of Germany in 1871 his father King of Prussia, became the German Emperor. Upon Wilhelm's death at the age of ninety on 9 March 1888, the thrones passed to Frederick, who had by been German Crown Prince for seventeen years and Crown Prince of Prussia for twenty-seven years. Frederick was suffering from cancer of the larynx when he died, aged fifty-six, following unsuccessful medical treatments for his condition. Frederick married Victoria, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
The couple were well-matched. Frederick, in spite of his conservative militaristic family background, had developed liberal tendencies as a result of his ties with Britain and his studies at the University of Bonn; as the Crown Prince, he opposed the conservative Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in speaking out against Bismarck's policy of uniting Germany through force, in urging that the power of the Chancellorship be curbed. Liberals in both Germany and Britain hoped that as emperor, Frederick III would move to liberalize the German Empire. Frederick and Victoria were great admirers of Queen Victoria's husband, they planned to rule as consorts, like Albert and Queen Victoria, to reform what they saw as flaws in the executive branch that Bismarck had created for himself. The office of Chancellor, responsible to the Emperor, would be replaced with a British-style cabinet, with ministers responsible to the Reichstag. Government policy would be based on the consensus of the cabinet. Frederick "described the Imperial Constitution as ingeniously contrived chaos."
The Crown Prince and Princess shared the outlook of the Progressive Party, Bismarck was haunted by the fear that should the old Emperor die—and he was now in his seventies—they would call on one of the Progressive leaders to become Chancellor. He sought to guard against such a turn by keeping the Crown Prince from a position of any influence and by using foul means as well as fair to make him unpopular. However, his illness prevented him from establishing policies and measures to achieve this, such moves as he was able to make were abandoned by his son and successor, Wilhelm II; the timing of Frederick's death and the length of his reign are important topics among historians. The premature demise of Frederick III is considered a potential turning point in German history. Frederick William was born in the New Palace at Potsdam in Prussia on 18 October 1831, he was a scion of the House of Hohenzollern, rulers of Prussia the most powerful of the German states. Frederick's father, Prince William, was a younger brother of King Frederick William IV and, having been raised in the military traditions of the Hohenzollerns, developed into a strict disciplinarian.
William fell in love with his cousin Elisa Radziwill, a princess of the Polish nobility, but his parents felt Elisa's rank was not suitable for the bride of a Prussian prince and forced a more suitable match. The woman selected to be his wife, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, had been raised in the more intellectual and artistic atmosphere of Weimar, which gave its citizens greater participation in politics and limited the powers of its rulers through a constitution; because of their differences, the couple did not have a happy marriage and, as a result, Frederick grew up in a troubled household, which left him with memories of a lonely childhood. He had one sister, eight years his junior and close to him. Frederick had a good relationship with his uncle, King Frederick William IV, called "the romantic on the throne". Frederick grew up during a tumultuous political period as the concept of liberalism in Germany, which evolved during the 1840s, was gaining widespread and enthusiastic support.
The liberals sought a unified Germany and were constitutional monarchists who desired a constitution to ensure equal protection under the law, the protection of property, the safeguarding of basic civil rights. Overall, the liberals desired; when Frederick was 17, these emergent nationalistic and liberal sentiments sparked a series of political uprisings across the German states and elsewhere in Europe. In Germany, their goal was to protect freedoms, such as the freedom of assembly and freedom of the press, to create a German parliament and constitution. Although the uprisings brought about no lasting changes, liberal sentiments remained an influential force in German politics throughout Frederick's life. Despite the value placed by the Hohenzollern family on a traditional military education, Augusta insisted that her son receive a classical education. Accordingly, Frederick was tutored in both military traditions and the liberal arts, his private tutor was a famous archaeologist. Frederick was a talented student good at foreign languages, becoming fluent in English and French, studying Lati
British royal family
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of, or is not a member of the British royal family; those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness, any styled His or Her Majesty, are considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign. By this criterion, a list of the current royal family will include the monarch, the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, all their current or widowed spouses; some members of the royal family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the royal family are funded from a parliamentary annuity, the amount of, refunded by the Queen to the Treasury. Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family have belonged, either by birth or by marriage, to the House of Windsor.
Senior titled members of the royal family do not use a surname, although since 1960 Mountbatten-Windsor, incorporating Prince Philip's adopted surname of Mountbatten, has been prescribed as a surname for Elizabeth II's direct descendants who do not have royal styles and titles, it has sometimes been used when required for those who do have such titles. The royal family are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the family among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture. On 30 November 1917, King George V issued letters patent defining the styles and titles of members of the royal family; the KING has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bearing date the 30th ultimo, to define the styles and titles to be borne henceforth by members of the royal family. It is declared by the Letters Patent that the children of any Sovereign of the United Kingdom and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour.
In 1996, Queen Elizabeth II modified these letters patent, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 21st August 1996, to declare that a former wife of a son of a Sovereign of these Realms, of a son of a son of a Sovereign and of the eldest living son of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness. On 31 December 2012, letters patent were issued to extend a title and a style borne by members of the royal family to additional persons to be born, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 31 December 2012 to declare that all the children of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales should have and enjoy the style and attribute of Royal Highness with the titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their Christian names or with such other titles of honour.
Members and relatives of the British royal family represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Aside from the monarch, their only constitutional role in the affairs of government is to serve, if eligible and when appointed by letters patent, as a Counsellor of State, two or more of whom exercise the authority of the Crown if the monarch is indisposed or abroad. In the other countries of the Commonwealth royalty do not serve as Counsellors of State, although they may perform ceremonial and social duties on behalf of individual states or the organisation; the Queen, her consort, her children and grandchildren, as well as all former sovereigns' children and grandchildren, hold places in the first sections of the official orders of precedence in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
Wives of the said enjoy their husbands' precedence, husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. However, the Queen changed the private order of precedence in the royal family in favour of Princesses Anne and Alexandra, who henceforth take private precedence over the Duchess of Cornwall, otherwise the realm's highest ranking woman after the Queen herself, she did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. As of 2019, members of the royal family are: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (the Queen's gra
Princess Margaret of Prussia
Princess Margaret of Prussia was a daughter of Frederick III, German Emperor and Victoria, Princess Royal, the younger sister of Emperor Wilhelm II and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. She married Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, the elected King of Finland, making her the would-be Queen of Finland had he not decided to reject the throne. In 1926 they assumed the titles of Landgravine of Hesse, she lost three sons in World Wars I and II. Princess Margaret of Prussia was the youngest of eight children born to Frederick III, German Emperor heir of the German Empire and his wife, Princess Royal, Queen Victoria's eldest daughter. Born on 22 April 1872 in the Hohenzollerns' New Palace in Potsdam, by the time the infant was christened, her head was covered with short hair like moss, from which she acquired her nickname "Mossy", her godparent was Emperor Pedro II of Brazil. She was named Margarethe Beatrice Feodora, Margaret, Crown Princess of Italy, was her godmother. Princess Margaret grew up amid great formality.
Together with her sisters, Princess Viktoria and Princess Sophie, Margaret was attached to her parents, forming an antagonist group to that of her eldest siblings, William II, Princess Charlotte and Prince Heinrich. She remained close to her mother after the death of her father. Margaret was regarded as the most popular of Kaiser Wilhelm II's sisters, she maintained good relations with a wide array of family members, she was a first cousin of both King George V of the United Kingdom and Empress Alexandra of Russia, all three being grandchildren of Victoria. As an adult, she was said to resemble Princess Alice. Princess Margaret was first attracted to Prince Maximilian of Baden; when he did not reciprocate her affection, she moved on to her second choice, Max's close friend, Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, future head of the Hesse-Kassel dynasty and future elected King of Finland. They were married on 25 January 1893 at the Hohenzollern Stadtschloss in Berlin on the anniversary of her parents' wedding.
At the time of the wedding, Prince Frederick Charles was not the Head of the House of Hesse-Kassel. The position was held by his older and blind brother Landgrave Alexander Friederich, who relinquished it in the mid-1920s in order to enter an unequal marriage. Prince Frederick Charles, as was his title when he married, was addressed as His Highness, while Princess Margaret warranted Royal Highness; this disparity came to an end in 1925 when Frederick Charles became Landgrave of Hesse and Head of the house of Hesse-Kassel. They were second cousins, both great-grandchildren of King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, he through his mother Anna, she through her father Friedrich, her brother Wilhelm opposed the match as he felt that Frederick Charles's position was too "minor" for the Kaiser's sister. However, he gave his blessing, since Margaret herself "was so unimportant"; the marriage was happy. Princess Margaret had a strong personality; the couple's main residence during the early years of marriage was Schloss Rumpenheim.
Margaret's husband was her mother's favorite son-in-law. In 1901, Princess Margaret inherited Schloss Friedrichshof at the death of her mother, it was unconventional for a husband to reside in his wife's home. However, Margaret was committed to maintain the house of her mother which entailed a great expense and the family moved to Friedrichshof. In 1918, Margaret's husband accepted the offer of the throne of newly independent Finland, but due to German misfortunes in World War I, soon renounced it, she would have become the Queen of Finland. Her predecessor as Grand Princess-consort of Finland was her first cousin, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia. Landgravine Margaret and her husband Frederick Charles of Hesse had six children, including two sets of twins: Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel, killed in action in World War I. Prince Maximilian of Hesse-Kassel, killed in action in World War I. Prince Philipp of Hesse-Kassel, married on 23 Sept 1925 to Princess Mafalda of Savoy, had issue.
Prince Wolfgang of Hesse-Kassel, married Princess Marie Alexandra of no issue. Prince Richard Wilhelm Leopold of Hesse-Kassel. Prince Christoph of Hesse-Kassel, married Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark on 13 December 1930 and 15 December 1930, had issue. Killed in action in World War II. Margaret's elder sons, Friedrich Wilhelm and Maximilian, were killed in action during World War I. Prince Maximilian, Princess Margaret's second and favorite son, was serving near Aisne when he was wounded by machine gun fire in October 1914, he died soon afterward and his body was secretly buried in the village of Caestre by the local people, who learned he was the Kaiser's nephew. The priest refused to identify the grave until the Germans had left Belgium and a compensation was paid. Max's younger brother Wolfgang appealed for help to the British authorities, after an enquiry was made, Maximilian's body was returned to his family. Princess Margaret's oldest son, Friedrich Wilhelm died on 12 September 1916 at Kara Orman in Romania.
He was killed in close fighting. Two other sons and Christoph, embraced Nazism, hoping that Hitler would one day restore the German monarchy. Philipp married Princess Mafalda, daughter of King Victor Em
Ernst von Ihne
Ernst Eberhard von Ihne was a German architect. He served as official architect to the German Emperor Frederick III and to his son and successor Wilhelm II. Among his best known works are the Prussian Royal Library building, the Neuer Marstall, the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum. Hans Reuther, "Ihne, Ernst von", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 10, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 128–129 Oliver Sander: Die Rekonstruktion des Architektennachlasses von Ernst v. Ihne. Diss. Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin 2000. Media related to Ernst von Ihne at Wikimedia Commons Entry for Ernst von Ihne on the Union List of Artist Names Brief entry on Ihne from the Oxford Dictionary of Architecture & Landscaping. Entry on Ihne from historismus.net
The Royal Archives known as the Queen's Archives, is a division of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. It is operationally under the control of the Keeper of the Royal Archives, customarily the Private Secretary to the Sovereign. Although Sovereigns have kept records for centuries, the Royal Archives was formally established as as 1912 and occupies part of the Round Tower of Windsor Castle. Since the Royal Archives are owned, requests for public access must be approved based on the needs and qualifications of the researcher. Following Queen Victoria’s death in 1901, an appointment for Keeper of the Royal Archives was made by Edward VII to safeguard the queen’s “collection of official and private correspondence.” At the behest of George V, this archive along with other royal collections were relocated for storage and display within the Round Tower of Windsor Castle in 1914. Through the attainment of additional records and collections through various means of acquisition, the Royal Archives increased in scale.
The tower’s renovation and subsequent expansion decades successfully addressed spatial constraints and provided more effective methods of archival preservation. The Queen's Archives is the responsibility of the Assistant Keeper of the Queen's Archives, professional staff under the Archives Services Manager, in charge of the day-to-day work in the archives. There are several qualified Archivists, as well as a small clerical staff. In addition to paid staff, volunteers are crucial in maintaining collections, developing exhibitions, facilitating research. Benefiting from the use of the Collections Management System, CALM, Royal Archives staff ensure that collections in the royal archives are efficiently catalogued and made accessible digitally. Sir John Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, MCG, OBE, FRSL, FBA, was Historical Adviser to the Queen's Archives from 1959 to 1975. Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher was the first appointment as Keeper of the Royal Archives. Clive Wigram Sir Alan Frederick Lascelles Sir Michael Edward Adeane Sir Martin Michael Charles Charteris Sir Phillip Brian Cecil Moore Sir William Frederick Payne Heseltine Sir Robert Fellowes Sir Robin Janvrin Sir Christopher Geidt Edward Young is the current Keeper of the Royal Archives since 2017.
Comprising collections including diaries, household papers. And administrative records, the Royal Archives retain significant personal and official information about the British monarchy; the Royal Photograph Collection occupies part of the Round Tower and holds over 400 000 items of photographic material from the Royal Collection. The Royal Photograph Collection is managed separately from the Royal Archives and is the responsibility of the Head Curator of the Photograph Collection, who reports to the Director of the Royal Collection. Twentieth century royals including Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, George VI are well represented in the Royal Archives. Documents ranging from private correspondence to official government papers illustrate public engagement and diplomacy. Recent files and those in use are retained at Buckingham Palace. In commemoration of the Royal Archives’ foundation, “Treasures from the Royal Archives” was published in 2014 and highlighted several noteworthy collections such as the Georgian Papers and the Letters of Queen Victoria.
Presented to George V in 1914 by the Duke of Buccleuch was a collection of papers including bills and receipts detailing the purchases of royal furnishings and wardrobes. The oldest records in the Royal Archives, the Wardrobe Papers originated from the Dukes of Montagu between 1660 and 1749. Records of the Royal Household including staff records are stored at the Royal Archives for safekeeping and made available online for public research; these papers detail financial and managerial information of various royal estates during the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. Following the death of Henry Benedict Stuart and letters belonging to the Stuart lineage were acquired by George IV after relocating from Rome to the Royal Archives through a complex set of circumstances. One of the first and oldest collections housed in the Royal Archives, the Stuart Papers are composed of letters and other papers illustrating the Jacobite conflict between 1713 and 1770. Obtained around the same time as the Stuart Papers, records of the Duke of Cumberland were transferred to the Royal Archives in 1914.
Significant moments in the Jacobite Rebellion from 1745 to 1757 were documented in military records and correspondence. In partnership with the Royal Library, The Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, the College of William and Mary, the Royal Archives are systematically cataloging the Georgian Papers, which will be made digitally accessible and searchable to users all over the world; as part of the Georgian Papers Programme, the Royal Archives plans to catalogue all its papers relating to the Hanoverian monarchy and make them available online by 2020. Introduced to the Royal Archives in 1914, both official and private correspondence of George III and George IV were found in the care of the Duke of Wellington who presented them to George V upon discovery. Although a small amount of the Georgian Papers includes records from George I and George II, most of the collection represents George III and George IV; this collection includes a sample of essays and other personal writings of George III.
Additionally, despite William IV’s official papers being destroyed after his death in 1837, records including pers