School Daze is a 1988 American musical comedy-drama film and directed by Spike Lee, starring Larry Fishburne, Giancarlo Esposito, Tisha Campbell-Martin. Based in part on Spike Lee's experiences at as a Morehouse student in the Atlanta University Center, it is a story about members of a fraternity and sorority clashing with some of their classmates at a black college during homecoming weekend, it touches upon issues of colorism, classism, political activism, female self-esteem, social mobility, hair texture bias within the African-American community. The second feature film by Spike Lee, School Daze was released on February 12, 1988 by Columbia Pictures. Vaughn "Dap" Dunlap is a politically and conscious black American student at Mission College, a leading black college in Atlanta, Georgia whose motto is "Uplift the Race." The college administration is portrayed as inept. Dunlap leads anti-apartheid demonstrations encouraging students and school administrators to divest from South Africa; when his buddies go into town, they find the local boys are not impressed with their activities, but think of them as privileged college boys.
Open conflict breaks out between the groups. Dunlap feuds with Julian Eaves aka Dean Big Brother Almighty of Gamma Phi Gamma Fraternity, Incorporated; this group is characterized as "wannabees," as in "wannabe better than me." The fraternity brothers are preparing for Homecoming parties. Meanwhile, Dap's younger cousin, aka "Half-Pint," is a Gamma pledge; the Gamma women's auxiliary, the Gamma Rays, who are sleek and light-skinned, confront non-Greek black co-eds over skin color and the nature of their hair. Some of the Rays use contact lens to change eye color. Larry Fishburne as Vaughn "Dap" Dunlap Giancarlo Esposito as Julian "Dean Big Brother Almighty" Eaves Tisha Campbell as Jane Toussaint Kyme as Rachel Meadows Joe Seneca as President Harold McPherson Ellen Holly as Odrie McPherson Art Evans as Cedar Cloud Ossie Davis as Coach Odom Bill Nunn as Grady James Bond III as Monroe Branford Marsalis as Jordan Edward D. Bridges as Moses Kadeem Hardison as Edge Eric Payne as Booker T. Spike Lee as Darrell "Half-Pint" Dunlap Anthony Thompkins as Doo-Doo Breath Darryl M. Bell as Big Brother X—Ray Vision Joie Lee as Lizzie Life Alva Rogers as Doris Witherspoon Paula Brown as Miriam Jasmine Guy as Dina Samuel L. Jackson as Leeds Roger Guenveur Smith as Yoda Dominic Hoffman as Mustafa Cinqué Lee as Buckwheat Kasi Lemmons as Perry Adrienne-Joi Johnson as Cecilia Guy Killum as Double Rubber Cylk Cozart as Big Brother Dr. Feelgood Rusty Cundieff as Big Brother Chucky Tyra Ferrell as Tasha Leonard L. Thomas as Big Brother General Patton Cassi Davis as Paula Erik Dellums as Slim Daddy Gregg Burge as Virgil Cloyd Kirk Taylor as Sir Nose Monique Mannen as Monique "Mo-Freak" Leslie Sykes as Miss Mission Tanya Lynne Lee as Tanya Eartha Robinson as Eartha Toni Ann Johnson as Muriel Kevin Rock as Mussolini Phyllis Hyman as Phyllis Spike Lee arranged for the two groups of actors to stay in separate hotels during filming.
The actors playing the "wannabees" were given better accommodations than the ones playing the "jigaboos." This favoritism contributed to tension on the set, which showed in the on-camera animosity between the two camps. In School Daze, the method approach yielded strong results — the fight that occurs at the step show between Dap's crew and the Gammas was not in the script. On the day the scene was shot, the fight broke out between the two sides. Lee ordered the cameras to keep rolling. Officials of Morehouse and Clark Atlanta University asked Lee to stop filming on the campuses before he completed his work because the colleges' Boards of Directors had concerns on how he was portraying the black colleges in the film. Lee had to finish filming at the neighboring Morris Brown College; the film received positive reviews for its exploration of issues within the black community. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times noted, "There is no doubt in my mind that'School Daze,' in its own way, is one of the most honest and revealing movies I've seen about modern middle-class black life in America."
He noted its frank exploration of issues of discrimination within the black community related to skin tone and nature of hair. He said. All of the characters and bad, are black, all of the character's references are to each other."John Simon of the National Review called School Daze contrived and overstylized. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 58%, based on 24 reviews, an average rating of 5.8/10. Kadeem Hardison, Darryl M. Bell, Jasmine Guy became principal cast members on The Cosby Show spin-off, A Different World — a TV series about life at a black college. Other School Daze cast members appeared on A Different World, including Dominic Hoffman, Tisha Campbell, Art Evans, Guy Killum and Roger Guenveur Smith. In 2009, Alicia Keys paid homage to School Daze in the music video for her song "Teenage Love Affair". "Da Butt," written by Marcus Miller and Mark Stevens, performed by the group E. U. hit number 35 on its Pop chart. The School Daze soundtrack features the song, "Be One," written by Bill Lee and performed by Phyllis Hyman, who appears in the film.
Black colleges and universities L
The All Bengal Women's Union was started in the 1932, when a group of women in West Bengal formed a cadre of like-minded women to help their helpless and victimized fellow women. The genesis of the group lay in the fact that trafficking in women and children had increased to an unprecedented extent in West Bengal and the Calcutta area and this NGO was an attempt to address the problem. In between the two World Wars, the number of sailors and soldiers had increased and the flesh trade found a ready and expanding market in Calcutta; the Calcutta Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act and the Children Act were passed in order to enable the police to rescue women and children from the brothels. A new bill entitled The Bengal Suppression of Immoral Traffic Bill was placed before the Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1932 by Mr. J. N. Basu, an eminent lawyer and social worker; the Bengal Presidency Council of Women and the All Bengal Women's Conference decided to form an independent organization for the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Bengal.
This society came into being with the name of All Bengal Women's Union and registered under Act XXI of 1860. The All Bengal Women's Union is affiliated to Geneva. On April 1, 1933, the bill was passed. Romola Sinha, the founder member was the first chairperson of Central Social Welfare Board in West Bengal. Among the other notable ladies who had made significant contributions to the institution were Smt Maneck Modi, Smt Sheila Davar and Mrs Bela Sen; the visit of Princess Anne was an important event in the history of the Institution. Mrs Davar became the president of the club on the death of Mrs Sinha, she founded the Bustee Welfare Society located at Lovelock Place. Mrs Bela Sen was the Chairman of the production Department for a long time; the All Bengal Women's Union is assisted in their work by several NGOs such as Save the Children Fund. The major projects of the organization have been: Creating homes for the housing of old aged women Creating children's welfare homes Providing vocational training Developing rehabilitation centers The Refill Project for those with learning disabilities The Bakery Project that provides employment to rehabilitated women Research and documentation into the sex trade of children and women Counselling services for mentally and psychologically traumatised women Sponsorship programs for health and education needs Free legal aid to women who are living below the poverty line to those who need it for any purpose The Sahayika Project, which trains girls who are victims of various atrocities and violence as ayahs and nursing assistants.
The Shikshalaya Prakalpo Project, supported by UNICEF, aims to provide primary school education to the dropouts The Swadhar Project, intended to work with 25 girls from the red light district is in its genesis All Bengal Women's Union
The Kawasaki Gpz305 was a 306 cc twin cylinder air-cooled SOHC four-stroke motorcycle, produced in 1983 to 1994 by Kawasaki in Japan. The model evolved from the earlier ER250 model and used an overbored 61 mm × 52.4 mm version of the 249 cc engine first produced in 1979. Kawasaki gave this model the "Gpz" nomenclature to add to its expanding air-cooled sports bike range, was marketed as a sports machine, it had chain final drive but in 1983 it had a new Kevlar belt final drive first seen on Kawasaki's American styled cruisers. It was available with a 250 cc engine as the Kawasaki Scorpion, but came in a different colour scheme. In Cycle World's "Ten Best Bikes of 1983", the Gpz305 won best "Under 460 cc Street" motorcycle, because it was the "best of the lightweight roadsters", combining small bike advantages of low weight and low cost with the fun of a sport bike. In their review, Cycle World praised the bike's quick handling in comparison with heavier, more powerful motorcycles, saying that the while 1,100 and 750 cc displacement bikes have a much greater engine power advantage, they have 60 in wheelbases, giving the 55.2 in wheelbase Gpz305 an advantage in the ease that it leans into a turn.
They said that while large engines have the advantage of having a wide power band and do not need frequent shifting during casual riding, the Gpz305's lack of power below 7,000 rpm forces the rider to shift to get the most out of the bike, making it more fun to ride. The review said the Gpz305's air-fuel ratio was excessively lean in order to meet EPA emissions requirements, which meant the bike took 10 mi of riding to warm up enough to run smoothly without using the choke, that the bike benefited from re-jetting the carburetor, without losing fuel economy in the process
Reconciliation ecology is the branch of ecology which studies ways to encourage biodiversity in human-dominated ecosystems. Michael Rosenzweig first articulated the concept in his book Win-Win Ecology, based on the theory that there is not enough area for all of earth’s biodiversity to be saved within designated nature preserves. Therefore, humans should increase biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes. By managing for biodiversity in ways that do not decrease human utility of the system, it is a "win-win" situation for both human use and native biodiversity; the science is based in the ecological foundation of human land-use trends and species-area relationships. It has many benefits beyond protection of biodiversity, there are numerous examples of it around the globe. Aspects of reconciliation ecology can be found in management legislation, but there are challenges in both public acceptance and ecological success of reconciliation attempts. Traditional conservation is based on "reservation and restoration".
However, reconciliation ecologists argue that there is too great a proportion of land impacted by humans for these techniques to succeed. While it is difficult to measure how much land has been transformed by human use, estimates range from 39 to 50%; this includes agricultural land, urban areas, harvested forest systems. An estimated 50% of arable land is under cultivation. Land transformation has increased over the last fifty years, is to continue to increase. Beyond direct transformation of land area, humans have impacted the global biogeochemical cycles, leading to human caused change in the most remote areas; these include addition of nutrients such nitrogen and phosphorus, acid rain, ocean acidification, redistribution of water resources, increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Humans have changed species compositions of many landscapes that they do not dominate directly by introducing new species or harvesting native species; this new assemblage of species has been compared to previous mass extinctions and speciation events caused by formation of land bridges and colliding of continents.
The need for reconciliation ecology was derived from patterns of species diversity. The most relevant of these patterns is the species-area curve which states that a larger geographic area will contain higher species diversity; this relationship has been supported by so large a body of research that some scholars consider it to be an ecological law. There are two main reasons for the relationship between number of species and area, both of which can be used as an argument for conservation of larger areas; the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis claims that a larger geographic area will have a greater variety of habitat types, therefore more species adapted to each unique habitat type. Setting aside a small area will not encompass enough habitat variety to contain a large variety of species; the equilibrium hypothesis draws from the theory of island biogeography as described by MacArthur and Wilson. Large areas have large populations, which are less to go extinct through stochastic processes; the theory assumes that speciation rates are constant with area, a lower extinction rate coupled with higher speciation leads to more species.
The species-area relationship has been applied to conservation quantitatively. The simplest and most used formula was first published by Frank W. Preston; the number of species present in a given area increases in relationship to that area with the relationship S = cAz where S is the number of species, A is the area, c and z are constants which vary with the system under study. This equation has been used for designing reserve size and placement; the most common version of the equation used in reserve design is the formula for inter-island diversity, which has a z-value between 0.25-0.55, meaning protecting 5% of the available habitat will preserve 40% of the species present. However, inter-provincial species area relationships have z-values closer to 1, meaning protecting 5% of habitat will only protect 5% of species diversity. Taken together, proponents of reconciliation ecology see the species-area relationship and human domination of a large percentage of the earth's area as a sign that we will not be able to set aside enough land to protect all of life's biodiversity.
There can be negative effects of setting land aside because it means the remaining land is used more intensely. For example, less land is required for crop production when high levels of inorganic fertilizer is applied, but these chemicals will affect nearby land set aside for natural ecosystems; the direct benefits of land transformation for the growing world population make it ethically difficult to justify the tradeoff between biodiversity and human use. Reconciled ecosystems are ones in which humans dominate, but natural biodiversity is encouraged to persist within the human landscape. Ideally, this creates a more sustainable socio-ecological system and does not necessitate a trade off between biodiversity and human use. How can understanding of species' natural history aid their effective conservation in human-dominated ecosystems? Humans conduct activities that allow for the incorporation of other species, whether as a by-product or as a result of a focus on nature. Traditional natural history can only inform how best to do this to a certain degree, because landscapes have been changed so dramatically.
However, there is much more to learn through direct study of species' ecology in human-dominated ecosystems, thro
Peter Skellern was an English singer-songwriter and pianist. The use of brass bands and choral arrangements in his music, to create a nostalgic and romantic feel, became a trademark, he enjoyed two UK top twenty hits in the 1970s. In October 2016, he was ordained as a deacon and priest of the Church of England, but died only four months later. Peter Skellern was born in Lancashire, to Margaret and John Skellern, he studied piano at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. He joined the pop groups Harlem and March Hare. Skellern's first song to become a hit was "You're a Lady" in 1972; the record featured the Congregation, who had recorded the top ten hit "Softly Whispering I Love You". "You're a Lady" reached number three on the UK Singles Chart and number 50 in the United States Billboard Hot 100. Success for Skellern followed three years with "Hold On to Love" which reached number 14 on the UK chart, he sang the theme song to the London Weekend Television series Billy Liar. For three years in the 1970s he worked on BBC Radio 4's Stop the Week.
A non-charting song, received radio play. In 1978 Skellern had a minor hit with the 1930s Ray Noble song "Love Is the Sweetest Thing", winning the Music Trades Association award for best middle of the road song; this followed his departure from Island Records after his previous album, Hard Times, had failed to chart despite a guest appearance by George Harrison. In 1981 he wrote and performed in a series of musical playlets for the BBC called Happy Endings. Two years he hosted the Private Lives television chat show, he wrote the lyrics for the song "Dear" from the film Blade Runner. In 1984, Skellern performed the theme song for the London Weekend Television programme Me and My Girl. In the same year, he formed a group called Oasis with cellist Julian Lloyd Mary Hopkin; the group released a self-titled album in 1984 on the Warner Bros. Records label which earned a silver record; the group performed live on television, but a planned concert tour was cancelled when Mary Hopkin became ill. In 1987, Skellern wrote and performed the theme music and song for the Yorkshire Television series Flying Lady.
Skellern provided the voice of Carter Brandon in the BBC Radio adaptations of Peter Tinniswood's Uncle Mort's North Country. The show was produced by Pete Atkin. Skellern collaborated with Richard Stilgoe in cabaret and in musical comedy with comic songs such as "Joyce the Librarian", they released three live albums. Toward the end of his career Skellern wrote pieces of sacred choral music, including "Waiting for the Word", Six Simple Carols and The Nativity Cantata written for a Hemel Hempstead choir, the Aeolian Singers; the work was first performed by them in 2004 and was recorded. In October 2016, it was revealed that Skellern had developed an inoperable brain tumour and that he had fulfilled a lifelong calling to be ordained in the Church of England. Under a special faculty from the Archbishop of Canterbury, he was ordained both as a deacon and priest on 16 October 2016 by the Bishop of Truro. Skellern died as a result of the brain tumour in February 2017 at the age of 69, at Lanteglos-by-Fowey, Cornwall.
He was survived by two children and five grandchildren. In 1972, the same year that "You're a Lady" was released, the song was covered in France by folk singer Hugues Aufray under the title "Vous ma lady", followed in the year by Brigitte Bardot with Laurent Vergez in a duet version released on 3 January 1973. Davy Jones from the Monkees recorded a version, it has been extensively covered since, by artists such as Johnny Mathis on his 1973 album Me and Mrs. Jones and Telly Savalas on his 1974 album Telly. Skellern's other songs have been recorded by a number of other singers, such as Andy Williams who included "Make It Easy for Me" on his 1973 album Solitaire and "My Lonely Room" on his 1975 album Andy. Ringo Starr recorded Skellern's "Hard Times" on his 1978 album Bad Boy. In her 1985 eponymous BBC television comedy series, Victoria Wood performed an affectionate parody of Skellern's style in a song entitled "Northern Boy", accompanied by a brass band and choir. On 17 April 2017, Tim Rice introduced an hour-long tribute for Skellern on BBC Radio 2.
Sources: "You're a Lady", 1972 – UK No. 3, US No. 50 "Our Jackie's Getting Married", 1972 "Hold On To Love", 1975 – UK No. 14, US No. 106 "Hard Times", 1975 "Love Is the Sweetest Thing", 1978 – UK No. 60 "So Said The Angel" on the CD Noel! Sung by the Bach Choir of London, 2001 The Nativity Cantata and other Christmas Music, performed by the Aeolian Singers, 2005 "So Said The Angel" on the album A Cotswold Christmas performed by the Abbey School Choir, Tewkesbury, 2006 Peter Skellern on IMDb Discography
Hughesville is a heritage-listed detached house at 2497 Logan Road, Eight Mile Plains, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was designed by George Thornhill Campbell-Wilson and built from 1892 to 1893, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. Hughesville, a substantial, single-storeyed timber residence, was erected in 1892-93 for Richard Alfred Hughes, a local horse-dealer, to a design by architect George Thornhill Campbell-Wilson. Reputedly, the house was a wedding gift from Alfred Hughes to his son Richard, who married Elizabeth Magee in 1891. Fred Hughes was a horse-dealer and livery stables keeper, resident in Brisbane from at least 1871, when he purchased land in Charlotte Street, he had established a livery stables on this site by 1874. In the mid-1880s, Hughes and his family moved to Upper Mt Gravatt, where they owned a property at the corner of Kessels and Logan Roads, he sold the Charlotte Street property in 1889, but maintained a livery stables in Adelaide Street during the first half of the 1890s.
At his Upper Mount Gravatt stables, Fred Hughes bred blood stock, including Arabs. In January 1892, his son Richard, aged 19 years, acquired title to over 8 hectares of land at Eight Mile Plains, just south of Upper Mt Gravatt along Logan Road. On this property Hughesville was erected, at the junction of Padstow Roads; the architect was George Thornhill Campbell-Wilson, who practised in Brisbane from 1889 to c. 1934. George Campbell-Wilson was born in Brisbane, the eldest son of architect George William Campbell Wilson and Ada Weedon, he trained under his father and practised as an architect in Queen Street, from 1889 until his retirement in c. 1934. Hughesville was arguably the finest house in the district, a farming community eight miles south of the One-mile Swamp; the Eight Mile Plains had been combed by timbergetters prior to its opening as an agricultural reserve in the early 1860s. Over 7,800 acres in the nearby Coopers Plains area had been proclaimed the Brisbane Agricultural Reserve in June 1861.
In October 1864, this was extended by a further 5,500 acres, the whole - encompassing what are now the suburbs of Sunnybank, Sunnybank Hills, Kuraby, Eight Mile Plains, parts of Coopers Plains and Stretton - were proclaimed the Eight Mile Plains Agricultural Reserve. Fruit and some vegetable growing were the principal activities. By 1869, the area was sufficiently populated to necessitate the opening of a school at Eight Mile Plains, but the real impetus for the expansion of small farming in the district came with the opening of the extension railway from Yeerongpilly to Loganlea, in April 1885. By the time Hughesville was erected in the 1890s, Eight Mile Plains had emerged as a solid farming community. Richard Hughes followed his father's occupation, ran horses on the Logan Road property until 1912-13; the house remained in the Hughes family until 1994. The house was unoccupied for some years and became derelict. Subsequently it is now used as offices, it featured in a XXXX beer television commercial.
Hughesville stands on a grassy slope at the intersection of Logan and Padstow Roads, both of which are major arterial roads. It is a substantial timber-framed house, clad with broad chamferboards and lined with double beaded tongue and groove boards, it sits on short wooden stumps. The core is encircled by wide beech verandahs, with step-out sash windows opening from every room, roofs of corrugated iron; the front and side verandahs have slender cast-iron corinthian columns, tripled at the corners, delicate cast iron balustrading. This decoration contrasts with the square timber posts and timber balustrading of the rear verandah; the pyramid-shaped corrugated iron roof of the core is separated from the verandah roofs by a small cornice with paired console brackets. At the apex is a widow's walk, with cast iron corner finials. In comparison with the exterior, the interior is functionally austere; the core comprises a wide central hallway, with front parlour and dining room to the right and three bedrooms to the left.
From the parlour a faceted bay window projects onto the front verandah. At either end of the hallway are mirror-imaged front and back doorways, each with a cedar fanlight and sidelights. Joinery throughout is of red cedar, as are the interior floorboards, with japanned edges in the main rooms. There is a cedar mantelpiece in the dining room and a grey marble mantelpiece with gilt mirror in the parlour, surrounding back-to-back fireplaces; the internal walls bear early paintwork, including a plain dado strip along the hallway. A servant's entrance leads from the dining room to a gable-roofed timber kitchen house, with servant's room, attached to the rear verandah, it is unlined, retains the original brick fireplace. All that remains visible of an early garden layout are two camphor laurel trees, one on either side of the front path, a large mango tree. Several outbuildings, including two stables, a buggy shed and harness room, are no longer extant, less than one hectare of the original property remains.
Hughesville was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria. The place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. Hughesville is a substantial 1890s residence which survives as illustration of a past way of life, of a particular residential type - the quintessential Queensland house of the late colonial period; the place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. Hughesville is a substantial 1890s residence which survives as illustration of a past way of life, of a particular residential type - the qui