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Schuyler Colfax

Schuyler Colfax Jr. was an American journalist and politician who served as the 17th vice president of the United States from 1869 to 1873, prior to that as the 25th speaker of the House of Representatives from 1863 to 1869. A member of the Republican Party, he was the U. S. Representative for Indiana's 9th congressional district from 1855 to 1869. Colfax was known for his opposition to slavery while serving in Congress, was a founder of the Republican Party. During his first term as speaker he led the effort to pass what would become the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery; when it came before the House for a final vote in January 1865, he made the unusual choice to cast a vote, voting in the affirmative. Chosen as Ulysses S. Grant's running mate in the 1868 election, the pair won over Democratic Party nominees Horatio Seymour and Francis Preston Blair Jr.. As was typical during the 19th century, Colfax had little involvement in the Grant administration. In addition to his duties as president of the U.

S. Senate, he continued to write for the press while in office. In January 1871, Colfax encouraged a unified Italy to adopt a republican government that protected religious freedom and civil rights of its citizens. Believing Grant would only serve one term, in 1870 Colfax attempted unsuccessfully to garner support for the 1872 Republican presidential nomination by telling friends and supporters he would not seek a second vice presidential term. However, when Grant announced that he would run again, Colfax reversed himself and attempted to win the vice presidential nomination, but was defeated by Henry Wilson. An 1872–73 Congressional investigation into the Crédit Mobilier scandal identified Colfax as one of several federal government officials who in 1868 accepted payments of cash and discounted stock from the Union Pacific Railroad in exchange for favorable action during the construction of the transcontinental railroad. Though he vociferously defended himself against charges his reputation suffered.

Colfax left the vice presidency at the end of his term in March 1873 and never again ran for office. Afterwards he became a popular lecturer and speech maker. Colfax suffered a heart attack and died in a Mankato, Minnesota railroad station on January 13, 1885, en route to a speaking engagement in Iowa. To date, he is one of only two persons to have served as both speaker of the House and vice president. Schuyler Colfax was born on March 23, 1823, in New York City to Schuyler Colfax Sr. a bank teller, Hannah Delameter Stryker, both from Dutch ancestry, who had married on April 25, 1820. His grandfather, William Colfax, served in George Washington's Life Guard during the American Revolution, became a general in the New Jersey militia and married Hester Schuyler, a 2nd cousin 1x removed of General Philip Schuyler. Hester Schuyler was the second great granddaughter of Philip Pieterse Schuyler. William was commander at Sandy Hook during the War of 1812. Colfax's father contracted tuberculosis and died on October 30, 1822, five months before Colfax was born.

His sister Mary died in July 1823. Colfax's mother and grandmother ran a boarding house as their primary means of economic support. Colfax attended school in New York City until he was 10, when family financial difficulties forced him to end his formal education and to take a job as a clerk in the store of George W. Matthews. Hannah Colfax and George Matthews were married in 1836, the family moved to New Carlisle, where Matthews ran a store which served as the village post office. There, Colfax became an avid reader of books; the family moved again in 1841, to nearby South Bend, after Matthews became St. Joseph County Auditor, he appointed Colfax as his deputy, a post which Colfax held throughout the eight years Matthews was in office. In 1842, Colfax became the editor for the pro-Whig South Bend Free Press, owned by John D. Defrees; when Defrees moved to Indianapolis the following year and purchased the Indiana Journal, he hired Colfax to cover the Indiana Senate for the paper. In addition to covering the state senate, Colfax contributed articles on Indiana politics to the New York Tribune, leading to a friendship with its editor, Horace Greeley.

In 1845 Colfax purchased the South Bend Free Press and changed its name to the St. Joseph Valley Register, he owned the Register for nine years, at first in support of the Whigs shifting to the newly established Republican Party. Colfax was a delegate to the 1848 Whig National Convention, he was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1849–50. Colfax was the 1852 Whig nominee for Congress in the district which included South Bend, but narrowly lost to his Democratic opponent. In 1854 Colfax ran for Congress again, this time as a candidate of the short-lived Indiana People's Party, an anti-slavery movement which formed to oppose the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Victorious, Colfax would represent the people of Indiana's 9th congressional district for seven terms, from March 4, 1855, to March 3, 1869. In 1855 Colfax considered joining the Know Nothing Party because of the antislavery plank in its platform, he was selected, without his knowledge, to be a delegate to the party's June convention, but had mixed feelings about the party and subsequently denied having been a member.

Although he agreed with many Know Nothing policies, he disapproved of its secrecy oath and citizenship test. By the time of his 1856 campaign for re-election, the new Republican Party had become the main anti-slavery party, Colfax became an early member; when Republicans h

1981 United Kingdom budget

The 1981 United Kingdom budget was delivered by Geoffrey Howe, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, to the House of Commons on 10 March 1981. It was the second of the first Thatcher ministry; the budget represented a monetarist response to the stagflation and high government borrowing which the UK was suffering at the time. The budget speech lasted for 91 minutes; the budget was given during a time of significant economic malaise in the United Kingdom, with unemployment having increased by one million in the prior 12 months and inflation running at around 15%. The budget increased net taxes by £4 billion. A new 20% tax on North Sea oil was introduced. A one-off windfall tax on certain bank deposits was introduced, in the form of a 2.5% levy on deposits of banking businesses, charged by reference to non-interest bearing sterling deposits in excess of £10 million averaged over the final three months of 1980. The tax was estimated to raise £400 million in total revenues. There was no increase in income tax personal allowances or tax rate thresholds, resulting in a significant real-terms income tax rise as inflation was around 15% per year at the time.

The 25p rate of tax introduced by Labour in 1978 was abolished. Duties were raised with duty on petrol increased by 20p per gallon, duty on a packet of 20 cigarettes increased by 13p, duty on beer increased by 4p, duty on spirits increased by 60p, duty on wine increased by 12p; the budget was controversial. A number of Conservative MPs walked out of the Commons; the leader of the Opposition Michael Foot said of it "This is a budget to produce over three million unemployed". A group of 364 economists wrote a letter to The Times newspaper, critical of the budget and expressed the view that there was "no basis in economic theory or supporting evidence" for its measures, that it threatened the UK's "social and political stability". One week after the budget was delivered, the Conservative member Christopher Brocklebank-Fowler crossed the floor of the House to join the SDP during a debate on the budget resolutions. "Economy: The 1981 budget - memoirs extract". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 21 March 2013

Flag and coat of arms of Terengganu

The flag and the coat of arms of Terengganu are state symbols of Terengganu, a state in Malaysia. Like the majority of state symbols for states with Malay royalties, the flag and the arms of Terengganu centre on its royalty, as well as Islam, the state's traditional religion. First revealed in 1953, the present flag of Terengganu encompasses a black flag with a thick, white border and a white star and crescent in the centre that points towards the fly; the width of the crescent is five-sixths the width of the black panel, while the width of the star, tilting clockwise, is two-thirds that of the crescent. The white signifies the Sultan of Terengganu; the star and crescent denote Islam as the official religion of the state. In October 2006, then-Menteri Besar of Terengganu Idris Jusoh voiced intentions by the state government to " up" the flag and incorporate an emblem by first seeking opinions from professions, citing feedback of the flag being too "simple and dull"; as of 2008, there have been no reports of further action.

Terengganu has eight administrative districts, each assigned their own district-level flags. All eight of the flags consist of only a single coloured field with the state flag on the canton; the Sultan's Royal Standard is known as Tanah Putih and consists of a white flag bearing a partial rendition of the state emblem, as well as a wreath of rice stalks and a motto. A plain white flag, the additional emblem, coloured yellow, was added to identify the flag to Terengganu's royal family; the design of the Pemaisuri's Royal Standard is similar to that of the Sultan's, but features a reversed arrangement of colours, with a white emblem against a yellow field. The Royal Standard of the Yang Di-pertuan Muda bears a similar colour configuration as the Queen's, but features only the partial rendition of the state emblem, larger than that of the Sultan's and the Queen's; the Royal Standard for the Crown Prince is named as Tanah Kuning Muda. Prior to the adoption of the present flag, the state flag of Terengganu sported a different design, although many of its elements would be carried over to its successor.

The earliest known variant of the state flag was used between 1925 and 1933, consisted of only a white-black flag divided vertically with the black stripe two times wider than the white stripe. In 1933, a star and crescent that pointed upwards and featured rounder crescent was added on the black band, signifying Terengganu's recognition of Islam as the state's religion; the flag remained in use until the introduction of the current flag. Additionally, the state government of Terengganu flew its own "Governmental Service Flag", which design originated in the same manner as the state flag. Bearing the same vertical white-black layout, a white saltire was included on the black stripe. A star and crescent was added in a date, but was placed on the white stripe; the flag was rendered obsolete following the adoption of the present state flag, to be used by the state government. Approved for official use by the State Ministers Committee in 1932, the state arms or emblem of Terengganu was designed by several state officials during the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin III, is thought to have been drawn by Mohamad bin Abdul Rahim, the relative of Dato' Nara Wangsa.

The arms consisted of a white outlined oval that encompassed a series of symbols coloured in yellow and a Jawi motto. During the rule of Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah, the emblem was modified with the addition of a dotted figure of a seal around all of the symbols except the star and crescent, which resides over the seal, the addition of a pair of maces and the shortening of the motto. Details of the emblem's components are as follows: Star and crescent The star and crescent reside atop the seal, pointing upwards; as a symbol of the Islamic faith, they represent Terengganu as an Islamic state. Seal The seal consists of a near-oval, shield-like dotted outline that encompasses all symbols in the emblem with the exception of the star and crescent, including: A crown, located near the top, which represents the sovereignty of the Sultan of Terengganu. MottoThe motto, "Terengganu" written in Jawi, is located below the seal; when introduced in 1932, the emblem's motto read "Jawatan Kerajaan Terengganu" in Jawi.

During the rule of Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah, "Jawatan Kerajaan" was omitted from the motto, resulting in its present form. The state emblem of Terengganu is included on the Royal Standards of Terengganu's royal family, but differs as it is only duplicated without the

Milan, Georgia

Milan is a city in Dodge and Telfair counties in the U. S. state of Georgia. The population was 700 at the 2010 census, down from 1,012 in 2000. Milan was founded in the 1880s; the Georgia General Assembly incorporated Milan as a town in 1891. The city was named in Italy. On May 25, 1919, at the age of 72, a black man named Berry Washington defended two young black girls who were attacked by two drunken white men. A mob of 75 to 100 white men hung him from a post shot his corpse to pieces. In spite of a $1,000 reward offered by Governor Dorsey, no one was arrested. Milan is located in southeastern Dodge County and northwestern Telfair County at 32°1′13″N 83°3′51″W; the county boundary passes through the center of the city. U. S. Route 280 passes through the city just south of the center, leading east 10 miles to McRae and west 15 miles to Abbeville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.2 square miles, of which 3.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1.26%, is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,012 people, 326 households, 215 families residing in the town. The population density was 322.6 people per square mile. There were 383 housing units at an average density of 122.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 64.72% White, 34.88% African American, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.28% of the population. There were 326 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families. 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.97. In the town the population was spread out with 18.2% under the age of 18, 14.9% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.

For every 100 females, there were 154.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 166.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,461, the median income for a family was $33,438. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,451. About 19.8% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 28.8% of those age 65 or over. Wayne Cooper, former NBA basketball player, born in Milan

Arab and Muslim rescue efforts during the Holocaust

A number of Arabs participated in efforts to help save Jewish residents of Arab lands from the Holocaust while fascist regimes controlled the territory. From June 1940 through May 1943, Axis powers, namely Germany and Italy, controlled large portions of North Africa. 1 percent of the Jewish residents, about 4,000 to 5,000 Jews, of that territory were murdered by these regimes during this period. The small percentage of Jewish casualties, as compared to the 50 percent of European Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust, is due to the successful Allied North African Campaign and the repelling of the Axis powers from North Africa. No occupied country in Africa or Europe was free of collaboration with the genocide campaign against the Jews, but this was more common in European countries than Arab ones; the offer made to Algerians by colonial French officials to take over confiscated Jewish property found many French settlers ready to profit from the scheme, but no Arab participated and, in the capital, Algiers itself, Muslim clerics declared their opposition to the idea.

While some Arabs collaborated with the Axis powers by working as guards in labor camps, others risked their own lives to attempt to save Jews from persecution and genocide. Arab rescue efforts were not limited to the Middle EastSi Kaddour Benghabrit, the rector of the Great Mosque of Paris, according to different sources, helped from 100 to 500 Jews disguise themselves as Muslims. There are examples of non-Arab Muslim populations assisting Jews to escape from the Holocaust in Europe, in Albania for example. In September 2013, Yad Vashem declared an Egyptian doctor, Mohammed Helmy, one of the Righteous Among the Nations for saving the life of Anna Gutman, putting himself at personal risk for three years, for helping her mother Julie, her grandmother Cecilie Rudnik, her stepfather Georg Wehr, to survive the holocaust. Helmy is the first Arab to have been so honoured. During his career Si Ali Sakkat held positions of a government mayor of Tunis. By 1940 Si Ali Sakkat was enjoying retirement on his farm at the base of Jebel Zaghouan.

There was a forced labor camp for the Jews not far away from Sakkat's farm. Jews from the camp were put to work repairing an airfield, bombed by Allies. Arabs saw. One night, during an heavy battle, sixty Jewish laborers were able to escape; the first structure they encountered was the wall of Sakkat's farm. They knocked on the gate, were allowed shelter and food, they were allowed to stay until the liberation of Tunisia by Allied forces. Abdul-Wahab was a son of a well-known Tunisian historian, he was 32 years old. He was the population of the coastal town of Mahdia; when he overheard German officers planning to rape a local Jewish woman, Odette Boukhris, he hid the woman and her family, along with about two dozen more Jewish families, at his farm outside of town. The families stayed there for four months. Abdul-Wahab is sometimes called the Arab Oskar Schindler. In 2009 two trees were dedicated to honor his bravery. One tree was planted in Adas Israel Garden of the Righteous in Washington, D. C. the other was planted in the Garden of the Righteous Worldwide.

His daughter Faiza attended the ceremony in Milan. Taieb el-Okbi was a member of Algerian Islah Party, a friend of the prominent Algerian reformist Abdelhamid Ben Badis, tolerant of different religions and cultures. Ben Badis directed the Algerian League of Muslims and Jews, he died before Vichy forces occupied Algeria. Taieb el-Okbi discovered that the leaders of the pro-fascist group the Légion Français des Combattants were planning a Jewish pogrom with the help of Muslim troops, he issued a fatwa ordering Muslims not to attack Jews. His actions were compared to French archbishops Jules-Géraud Saliège and Pierre-Marie Gerlier, both of whom saved some Jews in France. Albania, a predominantly Muslim country, saved all of its resident Jewish population; the survival rate in the then-Yugoslavian province of Kosovo was 60%, making it one of the areas with the highest Jewish survival rate in Europe. Most of the 2,000 Jews of Albania were sheltered by the Muslim population. Refik Veseli, a 17-year-old Muslim boy, took in the family of Mosa and Gabriela Mandil, including their five-year-old son Gavra and his sister Irena refugees from Belgrade but from Novi Sad, for whom he had been working as an apprentice in their Tirana photographic shop.

When the Germans took over from the Italians, he took them, another Jewish family on a long night journey to his family village at Kruja, where they were protected by his parents until the war's end, some 9 months even against Enver Hoxha's partisans. His example inspired his whole village to risk their lives. On receiving Gavra Mandil's request for them to be recognized as righteous, the authorities of Yad Vashem inscribed both Refka and Drita Veseli in 1988 among the Righteous; the story became better known after Albania's surviving Jewish community was allowed to perform aliyah in the 1990s,Many survivors told how their Albanian hosts vied for the privilege of offering sanctuary, on the grounds that it was an Islamic ethical obligation. Since that date, a further 50 Albanians have been registered among the ranks of the Righteous. Saviours in a strange world New booklet reveals Muslim acts of heroism during Holocaust

Bill & Ben Video

BBV is a video and audio production company specialising in science fiction drama, known for its links with the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. Its founder Bill Baggs is a fan, BBV productions involve characters or actors from the series; the name of the company is short for Bill & Ben Video, "Ben" being the nickname of Bill Baggs's wife, Helen. Marian Baggs, the mother of Bill Baggs operated a second distribution chain on behalf of BBV. BBV's first production was Summoned by Shadows, co-produced with the BBC Film Club; as a homage to Doctor Who, of which Baggs was a fan, in a pragmatic attempt to take advantage of a pre-existing audience, Summoned by Shadows was a Who-style tale of strange doings on a distant planet starring Colin Baker as the nameless protagonist. Nicola Bryant co-starred as "Miss Brown"; the adventures of The Stranger ran to six videos. BBV's next effort was The AirZone Solution?, an ecologically-themed thriller about a near-future conspiracy. Released in 1993, Doctor Who's thirtieth anniversary year, it involved four ex-Doctors.

Baker and Bryant starred. Successor Sylvester McCoy and predecessors Peter Davison and Jon Pertwee appeared as members of a small group joined against a sinister conspiracy; the Zero Imperative marked a new departure for BBV. Although stuffed to the gills with ex-Doctor Who guest stars, only one of them was playing the same character: the story was built around Caroline John's Dr Elizabeth Shaw, the Doctor's companion in the seventh season of Doctor Who, now depicted as an investigator for PROBE; the PROBE series ran for an additional three stories. The potentially-confusing mixture of Caroline John reprising her Doctor Who role with other recognisable Who stars playing different characters worked against the series, as did the way that Liz Shaw seemed to be herself a different character from the Doctor Who original. BBV's next series was a spin-off from two Doctor Who stories in the 1970s in which the Doctor assisted the United Nations Intelligence Taskforce in defeating the Autons, robotic invaders sent to conquer Earth on behalf of the alien Nestenes.

The trilogy, beginning with Auton in 1997, recounted UNIT's battle against another Auton invasion, this time without the Doctor's aid. Auton was the first BBV production to have no Doctor Who guest stars at all, after Nicholas Courtney was forced by ill health to withdraw from the project. With Courtney out, the focus of the series was the original character of Lockwood, an enigmatic UNIT agent played by Michael Wade. After the success of the Auton trilogy, BBV produced Cyberon. 2001's "Do you Have a Licence to Save this Planet?" was a comedy starring Sylvester McCoy as the chiropodist. This spoof not only referenced previous BBV productions- but Doctor Who itself. BBV's Zygon:. In which Mike Kirkwood dreams of being a monster, he is in fact a Zygon, believing himself to be human; this story includes Jo Castleton's character of Doctor Lauren Anderson from Cyberon. A new PROBE film was released 15 April 2015 with Hazel Burrows taking over from Caroline John as Liz Shaw. After a few earlier experiments, BBV began releasing audio dramas on CD in 1998, under the umbrella title Audio Adventures in Time & Space.

The mainstay of the CD line to begin with was a series starring Sylvester McCoy and Sophie Aldred as a pair of wanderers in time and space named "The Professor" and "Ace" who so resembled the characters McCoy and Aldred had played on Doctor Who - addressing each other by the same nicknames - that the BBC stepped in and their seventh outing, Ghosts introduced a number of changes to the characters that made the resemblance somewhat less close, the main one being that the protagonists were now called "The Dominie" and "Alice". The first of the Audio Adventures in Time & Space not to include the McCoy/Aldred double act was Cyber-Hunt, the first BBV production about the Cyberons. A further Who-ish note was added by the introduction of an amnesic space traveler played by Nicholas Briggs, who some years earlier had played the Doctor in the Audio Visuals series of unlicensed fan audios.. BBV moved away from characters-who-might-be-the-Doctor and, following the success of the Auton trilogy, focussed more on stand-alone dramas about various Doctor Who alien races, licensed directly from the writers who created them.

For some of those writers, the BBV audios