Lord mayor is a title of a mayor of what is a major city in the United Kingdom or Commonwealth realm, with special recognition bestowed by the sovereign. However, the title or an equivalent is present in countries outside such realms, including forms such as "high mayor". In Australia, lord mayor is a special status granted by the monarch to mayors of major cities the capitals of Australian states and territories. Australian cities with lord mayors are: Adelaide, Darwin, Melbourne, Parramatta, Perth and Wollongong. See list of cities in Australia. In Canada, the only town with a lord mayor in the traditional sense is Niagara-on-the-Lake, as recognition of its role as the first capital of Upper Canada. Unusually, the council of Brantford, Ontario has taken upon itself to appoint an honorary Lord Mayor Walter Gretzky in addition to the elected mayor; this is the only example of a council granting the cachet itself, rather than the cachet being granted by a higher authority, such as the Crown or national government.
In England and Northern Ireland, it is a purely ceremonial post conferred by letters patent. See List of lord mayoralties and lord provostships in the United Kingdom. Most famously it refers to the Lord Mayor of London, who only has jurisdiction over the City of London, as opposed to the modern title of Mayor of London governing Greater London. In Uganda, the only jurisdiction with a lord mayor is Kampala, in recognition of its status as the capital city of the country. In Ireland, the posts of Lord Mayor of Dublin and Lord Mayor of Cork still exist, are symbolic titles as in the UK. Annapolis, the only city in the thirteen colonies to receive a royal charter, used the title Lord Mayor prior to the American Revolution. In Denmark, as the translation of Danish Overborgmester, it is the title of the highest mayor of Denmark's capital city, Copenhagen. In Germany, it is sometimes used to translate German Oberbürgermeister, the title of the mayors of large county-free cities. In large cities that consist of subunits governed by mayors, the title Oberbürgermeister is used to distinguish the head executive of the entire city from those of the subunits.
As in Austria, Germany's mayors serve as the actual executive leaders of their cities and are elected officials. However, the post of mayor in the three German city-states is equivalent to that of a Ministerpräsident and the respective post is referred to as Regierender Bürgermeister in Berlin, Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg and Bürgermeister in Bremen. In Finland, the head city manager of the capital, Helsinki, is customarily given by the country's President the title ylipormestari, a tradition that resembles the lord mayoralties in other countries. In Romania and Moldova, the mayors of the capitals are named Primar General which means General Mayor; the name is ceremonial and it has no higher powers than mayors of other cities. In Hungary, the mayor of the capital Budapest is called főpolgármester which means chief mayor or grand mayor. Only the capital has a főpolgármester. Between 1873 and 1945, the Lord Mayor of Budapest was representative of the Hungarian government at the capital's municipal authority.
In ancient China, jīng zhào yĭn was the title given to the mayor of capital city. Today, on the other hand, city mayor and party-appointed secretary of the four direct-controlled municipalities, Tianjin and Chongqing, though without special titles, share the rank of provincial governor and party-appointed secretary. In Estonia, the mayor of the capital, was named Lord Mayor from 1938 to 1940. In Czech Republic, the mayor of the capital Prague and so-called statutory cities is called Primátor. In Sweden, the titles of mayor and lord mayor have no direct equivalent since the 1970s; the executive leader of Swedish municipalities is one of sometimes several Kommunalråd in the function of Chair of the Municipal Board. In the capital Stockholm the chief executive is traditionally called Finansborgarråd —"council" in this context referring to the executive rather than the legislative branch of local government; the Welsh translation of Lord Mayor is Arglwydd Faer. The Irish translation of Lord Mayor is Ard-Mhéara, which means "Chief Mayor".
The style of address for the office of the Lord Mayors of Belfast, the City of London, York is The Right Honourable. All other Lord Mayors are The Right Worshipful; this refers only to the post, rather than the person. The title Sir can be used for salutations. Lord Provost, the similar post in Scotland
Bishopric of Würzburg
The Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire located in Lower Franconia west of the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg. Würzburg had been a diocese since 743; as established by the Concordat of 1448, bishops in Germany were chosen by the canons of the cathedral chapter and their election was confirmed by the pope. Following a common practice in Germany, the prince-bishops of Würzburg were elected to other ecclesiastical principalities as well; the last few prince-bishops resided at the Würzburg Residence, one of the grandest baroque palaces in Europe. As a consequence of the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, Würzburg, along with the other ecclesiastical states of Germany, was secularized in 1803 and absorbed into the Electorate of Bavaria. In the same year Ferdinand III, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, was compensated with the Electorate of Salzburg. In the 1805 Peace of Pressburg, Ferdinand lost Salzburg to the Austrian Empire, but was compensated with the new Grand Duchy of Würzburg, Bavaria having relinquished the territory in return for the Tyrol.
This new state lasted until 1814. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Würzburg was reestablished in 1821 without temporal power. In 1115, Henry V awarded the territory of Eastern Franconia to his nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen, who used the title "Duke of Franconia." Franconia remained a Hohenstaufen power base until 1168, when the Bishop of Würzburg was formally ceded the ducal rights in Eastern Franconia. The name "Franconia" fell out of usage, but the bishop revived it in his own favour in 1442 and held it until the reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte abolished it; the charge of the original coat of arms showed the “Rennfähnlein” banner, quarterly argent and gules, on a lance or, in bend, on a blue shield. In the 14th century another coat of arms was created; the coat of arms represents the holism of earth. The three white pikes represent the Trinity of God and the four red pikes, directed to earth, stand for the four points of the compass, representing the whole spread of earth; the red colour represents the blood of Christ.
The Prince-Bishops used both within their personal coat of arms. The Rechen and the Rennfähnlein represented the diocese, while the other fields showed the personal coat of arms of the bishop's family; the coat of arms showed the Rechen in the first and third field, the Rennfähnlein in the second and fourth field. In 741 or 742 the first bishop of Würzburg was consecrated by Saint Boniface. Secular power lost in 1803. Territory ceded to Bavaria until 1805. Würzburg Cathedral – for burial locations of most Würzburg bishops Ebrach Abbey – beginning with the 13th century, the bishops of Würzburg had their hearts brought to Ebrach Abbey. About 30 hearts of bishops, some of, desecrated during the German Peasants' War, are said to have found their final resting place at Ebrach. Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn broke with this tradition and had his heart buried in the Neubaukirche at Würzburg. Peter Kolb und Ernst-Günther Krenig: Unterfränkische Geschichte. Würzburg 1989. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg Teil 1: Die Bischofsreihe bis 1254.
Germania Sacra, NF 1: Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Mainz, Berlin 1962. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg Teil 2 - Die Bischofsreihe von 1254 bis 1455. In: Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte: Germania Sacra - Neue Folge 4 - Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Mainz. Berlin 1969. ISBN 978-3-11-001291-0. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg Teil 3: Die Bischofsreihe von 1455 bis 1617. Germania Sacra, NF 13: Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Mainz, Berlin/New York 1978. Alfred Wendehorst: Das Bistum Würzburg 1803-1957. Würzburg 1965. Wissenschaftliche Vereinigung für den Deutschen Orden e. V. und Historische Deutschorden-Compaigne zu Mergentheim 1760 e. V.: 1300 Jahre Würzburg - Zeichen der Geschichte, Bilder und Siegel der Bischöfe von Würzburg. Heft 23. Lauda-Königshofen 2004
Free imperial city
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities worded free imperial city, was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town, subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord or a secular prince; the evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities for fiscal reasons; those cities, founded by the German kings and emperors in the 10th through 13th centuries and had been administered by royal/imperial stewards gained independence as their city magistrates assumed the duties of administration and justice.
The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, that were subjected to a prince-bishop and progressively gained independence from that lord. In a few cases, such as in Cologne, the former ecclesiastical lord continued to claim the right to exercise some residual feudal privileges over the Free City, a claim that gave rise to constant litigation until the end of the Empire. Over time, the difference between Imperial Cities and Free Cities became blurred, so that they became collectively known as "Free Imperial Cities", or "Free and Imperial Cities", by the late 15th century many cities included both "Free" and "Imperial" in their name. Like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, control their own trade, they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, sometimes — if — lost, their freedom through the vicissitudes of power politics.
Some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds; some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and others lost their privileges during the same period by the same way. Some cities became free through the void created by the extinction of dominant families, like the Swabian Hohenstaufen; some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler and therefore lost their independence. A few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. However, this happened after the Reformation, of the sixty Free Imperial Cities that remained at the Peace of Westphalia, all but the ten Alsatian cities continued to exist until the mediatization of 1803. There were four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, although around the year 1600 over nine-tenths of them had fewer than one thousand inhabitants.
During the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, this figure had fallen to sixty-five by the time of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. From the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. Unlike the Free Imperial Cities, the second category of towns and cities, now called "territorial cities" were subject to an ecclesiastical or lay lord, while many of them enjoyed self-government to varying degrees, this was a precarious privilege which might be curtailed or abolished according to the will of the lord. Reflecting the extraordinarily complex constitutional set-up of the Holy Roman Empire, a third category, composed of semi-autonomous cities that belonged to neither of those two types, is distinguished by some historians; these were cities whose size and economic strength was sufficient to sustain a substantial independence from surrounding territorial lords for a considerable time though no formal right to independence existed.
These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were the exception among the multitude of territorial towns and cities. Cities of both latter categories had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet. Free imperial cities were not admitted as own Imperial Estates to the Imperial Diet until 1489, then their votes were considered only advisory compared to the Benches of the electors and princes; the cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. The following list contains the 50 Free imperial cities that took part in the Imperial Diet of 1792, they are listed according to their voting order on the Swabian benches. These same cities were among the 85 free imperial cities listed on the Reichsmatrikel of 1521: the federal civil and military tax-schedule used for more than a century to assess the contributions of all the Imperial Estates in case
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading, or inside a vehicle getting its wheels wet. A ford may occur or be constructed. Fords may be impassable during high water. A low water crossing is a low bridge that allows crossing over a river or stream when water is low but may be covered by deep water when the river is high. A ford is a much cheaper form of river crossing than a bridge, but it may become impassable after heavy rain or during flood conditions. A ford is therefore only suitable for minor roads. Most modern fords are shallow enough to be crossed by cars and other wheeled or tracked vehicles. In New Zealand, fords are a normal part of major roads, until 2010, along State Highway 1 on the South Island's east coast; as most inter-city domestic passengers travel by air and as much cargo goes by sea, long distance road traffic is low and fords are thus a practical necessity for crossing seasonal rivers. In dry weather, drivers become aware of a ford by crunching across outwash detritus on the roadway.
A Bailey bridge may be built off the main line of the road to carry emergency traffic during high water. At places where the water is shallow enough, but the material on the riverbed will not support heavy vehicles, fords are sometimes improved by building a submerged concrete floor. In such cases a curb is placed on the downstream side to prevent vehicles slipping off, as growth of algae will make the slab slippery. Fords may be equipped with a post indicating the water depth, so that users may know if the water is too deep to attempt to cross; some have an adjacent footbridge. A road running below the water level of a stream or river is known as a "watersplash", it is a common name for a ford or stretch of wet road in some areas, sometimes used to describe tidal crossings. They have become a common feature in rallying courses. There are enthusiasts who seek out and drive through these water features, recording details on dedicated websites. There are many old fords known as watersplashes in the United Kingdom.
Examples are at Brockenhurst in Hampshire, Wookey in Somerset, Swinbrook in Oxfordshire. Some of these are being replaced by bridges as these are a more reliable form of crossing in adverse weather conditions; the Dean Ford in Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, is mentioned in the deeds of Dean Castle, gifted to the local people. The ford has had to be maintained as a property boundary feature, despite several cars a year being washed away. Not just a British phenomenon, some spectacular versions of the watersplash feature can be found in diverse locations. Australia has the Gulf Savannah, others may be found in Canada, South Africa, Finland, they are found on some Tennessee backroads, where they are referred to as "underwater bridges". In Israel and part of the British areas under the mandate a low water crossing or watersplash had been known as "Irish bridge" in reference to the Anglo–Irish war; the names of many towns and villages are derived from the word'ford'. Examples include Oxford; the German word Furt and the Dutch voorde are cognates with the same meaning, all deriving from Proto-Indo-European *pértus'crossing'.
This is the source of Gaulish ritus, which underlies such names as Chambord and Niort. Towns such as Maastricht and Utrecht formed at fords; the ending tricht, drecht, or trecht is derived from the Latin word traiectum, meaning "crossing". Thus the name Utrecht the Roman fort of Traiectum, is derived from "Uut Trecht", meaning "downstream crossing"; the Afrikaans form was taken into South African English as drift and led to place names like Rorke's Drift. In Slavic languages, the word brod comes from the linguistic root that means "river-crossing" or "place where a river can be crossed". Although today "brod" in the Croatian language means "ship", Slavonski Brod in Croatia, as well as Makedonski Brod in Macedonia and other place names containing "Brod" in Slavic countries, where "brod" is still the word for ford, are named after fords; because in historic times a ford was a strategic military point, many famous battles were fought at or near fords. Battle of Xiaoyao Ford, 215–217 Battle of Fulford, 1066 Battle of Jacob's Ford, 1179 Battle of Imjin River, 1592 Battle of the Yellow Ford, 1598 Battle of Newburn Ford, 1640 Battle of the Boyne, 1690 Battle of Matson's Ford, 1777 Battle of Brandywine, 1777 Battle of Minisink, 1779 Battle of Cowan's Ford, 1781 Battle of Assaye, 1803 Battle of Blackburn's Ford, 1861 Battle of Kelly's Ford, 1863 Battle of Buffington Island, 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville, 1863 Battle of Byram's Ford, 1864 Battle of Morton's Ford, 1864 Battle of Rorke's Drift, 1879 Battle of Cut Knife, 1885 Achilles Fights the River, Trojan War, as found in The Illiad, by Homer, Book 21, line 1 The Defence of Duffer's Drift, 1900 First Battle of Beruna, Narnian year 1000 Second Battle of Beruna, Narnian year 2303 First Battle of the Fords of
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Gustavus Adolphus known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power. He led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe, he was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634. He is regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time, with innovative use of combined arms, his most notable military victory was the Battle of Breitenfeld. With a superb military machine, good weapons, excellent training, effective field artillery, backed by an efficient government that could provide necessary funds, Gustavus Adolphus was poised to make himself a major European leader, he was killed a year however, at the Battle of Lützen. He was assisted in his efforts by Count Axel Oxenstierna, the Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, who acted as regent after his death.
In an era characterized by endless warfare, Gustavus Adolphus inherited three simultaneous and ongoing wars of his father at the age of sixteen. Two of these were border wars with Russia and Denmark, a more personal war with Gustavus' first cousin, King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland. Of these three wars that were passed onto his rule, the Danish war was the most acute one. During his reign, Sweden rose from the status of a Baltic Sea basin regional power to one of the great powers of Europe and a model of early modern era government. Gustavus Adolphus is famously known as the "father of modern warfare", or the first great modern general. Under his tutelage and the Protestant cause developed a number of excellent commanders, such as Lennart Torstensson, who would go on to defeat Sweden's enemies and expand the boundaries and the power of the empire long after Gustavus Adolphus's death in battle. Spoils meant. Called "The Golden King" and "The Lion of the North", he made Sweden one of the great powers of Europe, in part by reforming the administrative structure.
For example, he began parish registration of the population, so that the central government could more efficiently tax and conscript the people. Historian Christer Jorgensen argues that his achievement in the field of economic reform, trade and the creation of the modern bureaucratic autocracy was as great as his exploits on the battlefields, his domestic reforms, which transformed a backward medieval economy and society, were in fact not only the foundations for his victories in Germany, but absolutely crucial for the creation and survival of the Swedish Empire. He is commemorated by Protestants in Europe as the main defender of their cause during the Thirty Years' War, with multiple churches and other undertakings named after him, including the Gustav-Adolf-Werk, he became a symbol of Swedish pride and had a song composed for him, "Lion From The North." Gustavus Adolphus was born in Stockholm as the oldest son of Duke Charles of the Vasa dynasty and his second wife, Christina of Holstein-Gottorp.
At the time, the King of Sweden was Gustavus Adolphus' cousin Sigismund. The staunch Protestant Duke Charles forced the Catholic Sigismund to let go of the throne of Sweden in 1599, a part of the preliminary religious strife before the Thirty Years' War, reigned as regent before taking the throne as Charles IX of Sweden in 1604. Crown Prince Gustav Adolph had Gagnef-Floda in Dalecarlia as a duchy from 1610. Upon his father's death in October 1611, a sixteen-year-old Gustavus inherited the throne, being declared of age and able to reign himself at seventeen as of 16 December, he inherited an ongoing succession of belligerent dynastic disputes with his Polish cousin. Sigismund III wanted to regain the throne of Sweden and tried to force Gustavus Adolphus to renounce the title. In a round of this dynastic dispute, Gustavus invaded Livonia when he was 31, beginning the Polish–Swedish War, he intervened on behalf of the Lutherans in Germany. His reign became famous from his actions a few years when in June 1630 he landed in Germany, marking the Swedish Intervention in the Thirty Years' War.
Gustavus intervened on the anti-Imperial side, which at the time was losing to the Holy Roman Empire and its Catholic allies. Gustavus was married to Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, the daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, chose the Prussian city of Elbing as the base for his operations in Germany, he died in the Battle of Lützen in 1632. His early death was a great loss to the Lutheran side; this resulted in large parts of Germany and other countries, conquered for Lutheranism, to be reconquered for Catholicism. His involvement in the Thirty Years' War gave rise to the saying that he was the incarnation of "the Lion of the North", or as he is called in German "Der Löwe aus Mitternacht". Historian Ronald S. Love finds that in 1560–1660 there were "a few innovators, notably Maurice of Nassau and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, whom many scholars credit with revolutionary developments in warfare and with having laid the foundations of military practice for the next two centuries." Scholars all agree that Gustavus Adolphus was an able military commander.
His innovative tactical integration of infantry, cavalry and his use of
The Main is a river in Germany. With a length of 525 kilometres, it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine, it is the longest river lying in Germany. The largest cities along the Main are Würzburg; the mainspring of the Main River flows through the German states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Hesse. Its basin competes with the Danube for water; the Main begins near Kulmbach in Franconia at the joining of its two headstreams, the Red Main and the White Main. The Red Main originates in the Franconian Jura mountain range, 50 km in length, runs through Creussen and Bayreuth; the White Main originates in the mountains of the Fichtelgebirge. In its upper and middle section, the Main runs through the valleys of the German Highlands, its lower section crosses the Lower Main Lowlands to Wiesbaden. Major tributaries of the Main are the Regnitz, the Franconian Saale, the Tauber, the Nidda; the name "Main" derives from the Latin Moenus or Menus. It is not related to the name of the city Mainz; the Main is navigable for shipping from its mouth at the Rhine close to Mainz for 396 km to Bamberg.
Since 1992, the Main has been connected to the Danube via the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and the regulated Altmühl river. The Main has been canalized with 34 large locks to allow CEMT class V vessels to navigate the total length of the river; the 16 locks in the adjacent Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and the Danube itself are of the same dimensions. There are 34 dams and locks along the 380 km navigable portion of the Main, from the confluence with the Regnitz near Bamberg, to the Rhine. No.: Number of the lock. Name: Name of the lock. Location: City or town where the lock is located. Year built: Year when the lock was put into operation. Main-km: Location on the Main, measured from the 0 km stone in Mainz-Kostheim; the reference point is the center of the lock group. Distance between locks: length in km of impoundment. Altitude: height in meters above mean sea level of the upper water at normal levels. Height: Height of the dam in meters. Lock length: Usable length of the lock chamber in meters. Lock width: Usable width of the lock chamber in meters.
Most of the dams along the Main have turbines for power generation. No.: Number of the dam. Name: Name of the dam. Height: Height of the dam in meters. Power: Maximum power generation capacity in megawatts. Turbines: Type and number of turbines. Operator: Operator of the hydroelectric plant. Tributaries from source to mouth: Around Frankfurt are several large inland ports; because the river is rather narrow on many of the upper reaches, navigation with larger vessels and push convoys requires great skill. The largest cities along the Main are Würzburg; the Main passes the following towns and cities: Burgkunstadt, Bad Staffelstein, Eltmann, Haßfurt, Volkach, Marktbreit, Karlstadt, Gemünden, Marktheidenfeld, Miltenberg, Erlenbach/Main, Seligenstadt, Hanau, Hattersheim, Flörsheim, Rüsselsheim. The river has gained enormous importance as a vital part of European "Corridor VII", the inland waterway link from the North Sea to the Black Sea. In a historical and political sense, the Main line is referred to as the northern border of Southern Germany, with its predominantly Catholic population.
The river marked the southern border of the North German Federation, established in 1867 under Prussian leadership as the predecessor of the German Empire. The river course corresponds with the Speyer line isogloss between Central and Upper German dialects, sometimes mocked as Weißwurstäquator; the Main-Radweg is a major German bicycle path running along the Main River. It is 600 kilometres long and was the first long-distance bicycle path to be awarded 5 stars by the General German Bicycle Club ADFC in 2008, it starts from either Creußen or Bischofsgrün and ends in Mainz. Roman camp at Marktbreit Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte, Main und Meer - Porträt eines Flusses. Exhibition Catalogue to the Bayerische Landesausstellung 2013. WBG. ISBN 978-3-534-00010-4. Main River Website on the River Main by the Tourist Board of Franconia. "Main". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Main". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. There is literature about Main in the Hessian Bibliography Water levels of Bavarian rivers Wasser- und Schifffahrtsdirektion Süd Main Cycleway Historical map of the Main confluence at Steinenhausen from BayernAtlas