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Scientific racism

Scientific racism is a pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism, racial inferiority, or racial superiority. Scientific racism received credence throughout the scientific community, but it is no longer considered scientific. Scientific racism employs anthropology, anthropometry and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, that might be asserted to be superior or inferior. Scientific racism was common during the period from 1600s to the end of World War II. Since the second half of the 20th century, scientific racism has been criticized as obsolete and discredited, yet has persistently been used to support or validate racist world-views, based upon belief in the existence and significance of racial categories and a hierarchy of superior and inferior races. After the end of World War II, scientific racism in theory and action was formally denounced in UNESCO's early antiracist statement "The Race Question": "The biological fact of race and the myth of'race' should be distinguished.

For all practical social purposes'race' is not so much a biological phenomenon as a social myth. The myth of ` race' has created an enormous amount of social damage. In recent years, it has taken a heavy toll in human lives, caused untold suffering"; such "biological fact" has not reached a consensus as developments in human evolutionary genetics showed that human genetic differences are gradual. The term "scientific racism" is used pejoratively as applied to more modern theories, as in The Bell Curve. Critics argue that such works postulate racist conclusions unsupported by available evidence such as a connection between race and intelligence. Publications such as the Mankind Quarterly, founded explicitly as a "race-conscious" journal, are regarded as platforms of scientific racism for publishing articles on fringe interpretations of human evolution, ethnography, mythology and race subjects. During the Age of Enlightenment, concepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular, though they would only be systematized epistemologically during the 19th century.

Monogenism contends that all races have a single origin, while polygenism is the idea that each race has a separate origin. Until the 18th century, the words "race" and "species" were interchangeable. An early scientist who studied race was Robert Boyle, an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist and inventor. Boyle believed in what today is called'monogenism', that is, that all races, no matter how diverse, came from the same source and Eve, he studied reported stories of parents' giving birth to different coloured albinos, so he concluded that Adam and Eve were white and that whites could give birth to different coloured races. Theories of Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton about color and light via optical dispersion in physics were extended by Robert Boyle into discourses of polygenesis, speculating that maybe these differences were due to "seminal impressions". However, Boyle's writings mention that at his time, for "European Eyes", beauty was not measured so much in colour, but in "stature, comely symmetry of the parts of the body, good features in the face".

Various members of the scientific community rejected his views and described them as "disturbing" or "amusing". On the other hand, historian Henri de Boulainvilliers divided the French as two races: the aristocratic "French race" descended from the invader Germanic Franks, the indigenous Gallo-Roman race; the Frankish aristocracy dominated the Gauls by innate right of conquest. In his time, Henri de Boulainvilliers, a believer in the "right of conquest", did not understand "race" as biologically immutable, but as a contemporary cultural construct, his racialist account of French history was not mythical: despite "supporting" hagiographies and epic poetry, such as The Song of Roland, he sought scientific legitimation by basing his racialist distinction on the historical existence of genetically and linguistically distinguished Germanic and Latin-speaking peoples in France. His theoretic racialism was distinct from the biologic facts manipulated in 19th-century scientific racism; the Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions.

In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks. Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish physician and zoologist, modified the established taxonomic bases of binomial nomenclature for fauna and flora, was a pioneer researcher in biologically defining human race. In Systema Naturae, he labeled five "varieties" of human species; each one was described as possessing the following physiognomic characteristics "varying by culture and place": The Americanus: red, righteous. The Europeanus: white, browny; the Asiaticus: yellow, stiff. The Afer or Africanus: black, phleg

John Stokesley

John Stokesley was an English church leader, Catholic Bishop of London during the reign of Henry VIII. Stokesley was born at Collyweston in Northamptonshire, became a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1495, serving as a lecturer. In 1498 he was made principal of Magdalen Hall, in 1505 vice-president of Magdalen College. Soon after 1509 he was appointed a member of the royal council, chaplain and almoner to Henry VIII, he succeeded his brother Richard as rector of North Luffenham in 1527. In 1529 and 1530 he went to France and Italy as ambassador to Francis I and to gain opinions from foreign universities in favour of the king's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, he became Bishop of London and Lord Almoner in 1530, in September 1533 christened the future Queen Elizabeth. His years were troubled by disputes with Archbishop Cranmer. Stokesley was a staunch opponent of Lutheranism and active in persecuting heretics. In May 1538, the King's attorney took out a writ of Praemunire against Stokesley and, as accessories with him, against the Abbess Agnes Jordan and the Confessor-General of Syon Abbey.

Stokesley acknowledged his guilt, implored Thomas Cromwell's intercession, threw himself on the King's mercy. He obtained the King's pardon. Stokesley was a man of learning, writing in favour of Henry's divorce, with Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, a treatise against Henry VIII's kinsman Cardinal Pole; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Stokesley, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 953. Henry VIII's Conservative Scholar: Bishop John Stokesley and the Divorce, Royal Supremacy, Doctrinal Reform by Andrew A. Chibi.

Varhaug IL

Varhaug Idrettslag is the main sports club for people living in the village of Varhaug and was established on 1 August 1932. The club caters for a wide range of sports and activities with the most popular being football and handball. Varhaug IL owns an area in the eastern part of Varhaug, called Varhaug Idrettspark, the venue for most of the sports, it was decided, in October 2007. At the club's AGM in 2007, it was agreed that the sports facilities would be developed including a multi-purpose hall; this was reaffirmed at an EGM in 2008. However, because of dissatisfaction with the way that Chairman Paul Skretting was handling negotiations with the municipality, six of the seven board members resigned, were replaced, shortly before Christmas 2009; the Varhaug football team will in the 2011 season play at tier five after being relegated in 2010, though in the past it has played at tier two. It qualified for the Norwegian Cup in 1982 and 1997; the woman's handball team, though presently playing in tier 3, competed in Division 1 in season 2007-08.

They did, have a difficult time in their sole season in that division, losing their first eight matches. The men's handball team plays in tier 3. Official website

Albert Maier

Albert Maier was the founder of the German Christadelphians. 1. Maier returned to Obertürkheim in Stuttgart in the mid-1890s with the intention of preaching there, but found little interest so sold his house and prepared with his mother to emigrate permanently, he left two converts: 27-year-old Friedrich Weber and, in Schmalkalden near Kassel, Henriette Britzius, who with her husband emigrated to Birmingham and remained a bridge between British and German Christadelphians into her old age. Following the death of his mother in the USA, Maier returned to Germany, carrying his own translations of booklets by John Thomas and Robert Roberts, Thomas Williams' book „Der Welt Erlösung” translated by A. H. Zilmer and Johann G. Miller. With materials in German, the help of Weber, Maier was more successful, he founded the first Urchristen Gemeinde in Stuttgart-Gaisburg. After the First World War in 1922 Maier met Johannes Reich a preacher of the Neuapostolische Gemeinde, Reich and most of his congregation were rebaptised.

New Gemeinde appeared in Nufringen, Pfullingen, Ludwigsburg und Kirchheim am Neckar. At the same time Ludwig von Gerdtell, who had made direct contact with Professor Thomas Turner of the English Fraternal Visitor magazine, was leading a Gemeinde in Berlin with the Christadelphian Ludwig Knupfer. Gerdtell was with the Baptists, for a time would be with the Christadelphians, though following his outspoken engagement in politics - and the reporting of a statement made in a local grocer's shop in 1934 that "Hitler is synonymous with war", he had to flee via Spain to America. Maier was more circumspect. Although the Christadelphians were suspect for their pacifism, pro-Jewish interpretations of prophecy, Maier maintained a "strangers and pilgrims" attitude to Germany's politics, with the result that most of the Christadelphians avoided arrest until war broke out and conscription was introduced. Maier died peacefully on 3 April 1944. After the war the Gemeinde started by Maier in Baden-Württemberg recovered and built a new Gemeindehaus in Esslingen am Neckar.

1 Owen, Stanley Into All the World, p.33, Crowmell Press, Trowbridge UK, 1998

The Mad Bomber (film)

The Mad Bomber, a.k.a. The Police Connection and Detective Geronimo, is a 1972 film produced and scripted by Bert I. Gordon, it stars Chuck Connors and Neville Brand. William Dorn, a middle-aged man in Los Angeles and sets off bombs in places he associates with the drug-overdose death of his daughter and the collapse of his life. Investigating detective Geronimo Minnelli learns that at one of the locations of his attacks, a hospital, a rape took place, both the victim and her rapist saw the face of the as-yet-unidentified bomber; the police attempt to identify and apprehend both violent criminals, hoping one will lead them to the other. Vince Edwards as Geronimo Minelli Chuck Connors as William Dorn Neville Brand as George Fromley Hank Brandt as Blake Christina Hart as Fromley's victim It was released on DVD as The Mad Bomber by Geneon on October 4, 2005, as part of the same company's six-disc Cinema Deluxe Terror Pack on December 5, 2005; this release presented an edited-for-television cut of the movie.

The full uncut version was released as The Police Connection by Code Red DVD on DVD in 2013, upgraded to Blu-Ray in 2016. The Mad Bomber on IMDb

Ed Bethune

Edwin Ruthvin Bethune Jr. known as Ed Bethune, is an American lawyer and lobbyist in Washington, D. C., a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Arkansas from 1979-1985. Bethune was born to Mrs. Edwin Bethune Sr. in Pocahontas, Arkansas. He graduated in 1953 from Pocahontas High School, he was a Sergeant in the United States Marine Corps from 1954–1957, with service in South Korea. After military service, Bethune obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1961 from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, he received the Juris Doctor degree from the University of Arkansas School of Law in 1963 and was admitted to the Arkansas bar that same year. That year he began his practice in Pocahontas. In 1972, while he was living in Searcy north of Little Rock, he practiced with former Arkansas Republican Party chairman Odell Pollard, who served as his political mentor. Bethune was admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court.

He was a prosecuting attorney for the First Judicial District of Arkansas from 1970-1971. He was chairman of the Ninth District Federal Home Loan Bank Board from 1973-1976. In 1972, Bethune was the unsuccessful Republican nominee for Arkansas attorney general against the Democrat James Guy Tucker Jr. Tucker defeated Bethune, 370,647 to 247,404. Once in the House, Bethune spending his chief concern. Bethune opposed Reagan's proposal to sell AWACS fighter planes to Saudi Arabia, against the advice of Israel. Bethune joined Senators Bumpers and Pryor to veto a proposal to override Arkansas' 10 percent interest ceiling for retail loans. Bethune was chosen in 1979 as the president of the U. S. House Republican freshman class, he was reelected with ease in 1980—he polled 159,148 votes to 42,278 for his Democratic opponent, Jacksonville Mayor James G. Reid. In 1982, a year of widespread election of Democrats, Bethune had a harder race, he did not begin campaigning until the final three weeks of the contest, as he had been confident of winning a third term.

His opponent was the Democratic former state Senator Charles Lindbergh George Sr. from Cabot. George was not the Democrats' first choice. Bethune survived the challenge and gained re-election: 96,775 to George's 82,913, it was his last election victory. In 1984, Bethune sought the Senate seat against the incumbent Senator Pryor, he was decisively defeated, with Pryor receiving 502,341 votes to Bethune's 373,615. After leaving Congress, Bethune served from 1986-1988 as the Arkansas Republican Party state Chairman, he resisted suggestions that he run for governor in 1986, the nomination went to Frank White. United States Congress. "Ed Bethune". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-04-01 Arkansas Gazette, November 5, 1972. Topping Jr. ed. "1978 Election Preview"', Ripon Forum, September/October 1978, p. 11 Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, February 15, 1978, p. 424.