Scleractinia called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton. The individual animals are known as polyps and have a cylindrical body crowned by an oral disc in which a mouth is fringed with tentacles. Although some species are solitary, most are colonial; the founding polyp starts to secrete calcium carbonate to protect its soft body. Solitary corals can be as much as 25 cm across but in colonial species the polyps are only a few millimetres in diameter; these polyps reproduce asexually by budding, but remain attached to each other, forming a multi-polyp colony of clones with a common skeleton, which may be up to several metres in diameter or height according to species. The shape and appearance of each coral colony depends not only on the species, but on its location, the amount of water movement and other factors. Many shallow-water corals contain symbiont unicellular organisms known as zooxanthellae within their tissues; these give their colour to the coral which thus may vary in hue depending on what species of symbiont it contains.
Stony corals are related to sea anemones, like them are armed with stinging cells known as cnidocytes. Corals reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most species release gametes into the sea where fertilisation takes place, the planula larvae drift as part of the plankton, but a few species brood their eggs. Asexual reproduction is by fragmentation, when part of a colony becomes detached and reattaches elsewhere. Stony corals occur in all the world's oceans. Much of the framework of modern coral reefs is formed by scleractinians. Reef-building or hermatypic corals are colonial. Other corals that do not form reefs may be colonial. Stony corals first appeared in the Middle Triassic, but their relationship to the tabulate and rugose corals of the Paleozoic is unresolved. In modern times stony corals numbers are expected to decline due to the effects of global warming and ocean acidification. Scleractinian corals may be colonial. Colonies can reach considerable size. Stony corals are members of the class Anthozoa and like other members of the group, do not have a medusa stage in their life cycle.
The individual animals are known as polyps and have a cylindrical body crowned by an oral disc surrounded by a ring of tentacles. The base of the polyp secretes the stony material from; the body wall of the polyp consists of mesoglea sandwiched between two layers of epidermis. The mouth is at the centre of the oral disc and leads into a tubular pharynx which descends for some distance into the body before opening into the gastrovascular cavity that fills the interior of the body and tentacles. Unlike other cnidarians however, the cavity is subdivided by a number of radiating partitions, thin sheets of living tissue, known as mesenteries; the gonads are located within the cavity walls. The polyp is retractable into the corallite, the stony cup in which it sits, being pulled back by sheet-like retractor muscles; the polyps are connected by horizontal sheets of tissue known as coenosarc extending over the outer surface of the skeleton and covering it. These sheets are continuous with the body wall of the polyps, include extensions of the gastrovascular cavity, so that food and water can circulate between all the different members of the colony.
In colonial species, the repeated asexual division of the polyps causes the corallites to be interconnected, thus forming the colonies. Cases exist in which the adjacent colonies of the same species form a single colony by fusing. Most colonial species have small polyps, ranging from 1 to 3 mm in diameter, although some solitary species may be as large as 25 cm; the skeleton of an individual scleractinian polyp is known as a corallite. It is secreted by the epidermis of the lower part of the body, forms a cup surrounding this part of the polyp; the interior of the cup contains radially aligned plates, or septa, projecting upwards from the base. Each of these plates is flanked by a pair of mesenteries; the septa are secreted by the mesenteries, are therefore added in the same order as the mesenteries are. As a result, septa of different ages are adjacent to one another, the symmetry of the scleractinian skeleton is radial or biradial; this pattern of septal insertion is termed "cyclic" by paleontologists.
By contrast, in some fossil corals, adjacent septa lie in order of increasing age, a pattern termed serial and produces a bilateral symmetry. Scleractinians secrete a stony exoskeleton in which the septa are inserted between the mesenteries in multiples of six. All modern scleractinian skeletons are composed of calcium carbonate in the form of crystals of aragonite, however, a prehistoric scleractinian had a non-aragonite skeletal structure, composed of calcite; the structure of both simple and compound scleractinians is light and porous, rather than solid as is the case in the prehistoric order Rugosa. Scleractinians are distinguished from rugosans by their pattern of septal insertion. In colonial corals, growth results from the budding of new polyps. There are two types of budding and extratentacular. In intratentacular budding, a new polyp develops inside the ring of tentacles; this can form individual, separate polyps or a row of separated polyps sharing an elongate oral disc with a series of mouths.
Tentacles grow around the margin of this elongated oral dis
"Bathed in Light" is a song by Canadian rock band The Dirty Nil. It was their first single off of their second studio album Master Volume; the song was released as the first single from Master Volume. A music video was released on June 20, 2018, featuring the band performing the song with pyrotechnics and fireworks going off near the band members; the band released an alternate video of them performing the song live in the studio on September 13, 2018. Lyrically, the song is a tongue in cheek account of a narrator finding himself dealing with his own death, through falling down stairs or falling asleep while driving, embracing that he gets to see his grandmother and Jesus in the afterlife; the lyrics were described as being. The song was inspired by an experience by band frontman Luke Bentham, where he fell asleep in the tour bus and had a dream about crashing and dying a fiery death; the song was developed quickly. A guitar solo was later added to the track; the song's large rock sound was compared to the work of Pup, White Reaper, Cheap Trick.
Chloe McCardel, born 10 May 1985, is an open water swimmer and swim coach from Melbourne, Australia. McCardel's past swims include twenty-nine solo crossings of the English Channel, including eight crossings in one season and three crossings in one week, three double-crossings in 2010, 2012 and 2017 and, in 2015, the fourth person to do a non-stop triple-crossing, she won the 28.5-mile Manhattan Island Marathon Swim in 2010. As of Summer 2015, she holds the world record for the longest unassisted open-water swim, at 128 km. On 22 October 2016 McCardel completed her 20th solo swim across the English Channel, she set a new Australian crossing record. On 22 October 2014 McCardel completed an unprecedented swim from South Eleuthera Island to Nassau, Bahamas. 124.4 kilometers in 41 hours, 21 minutes. She set a new world record, longest unassisted ocean swim, conducted under the ‘Rules of Marathon Swimming’; this swim was ratified by the Marathon Swimming Federation. The Rules of Marathon Swimming are a globally-endorsed framework of rules and guidelines for any swim in any body of water.
The Documented Swims program offers a venue for publishing documentation and requesting peer-reviewed ratification of independent marathon swims. She won the 2014 MSF ‘Solo Swim of the Year’ for this World Record swim. On 12 June 2013, she attempted to be the first person to swim across the Straits of Florida from Cuba to Florida without using the protection of a shark cage, she did not wear a stinger suit or a wet suit. This swim. McCardel had a 32-person support team that included weather experts and doctors that accompanied her throughout her trip, to last about 55–65 hours, she was to drink every half hour. After 11 hours, McCardel stopped her record swim attempt after she was stung by multiple box jellyfish and was in too much pain to continue, she was treated for the stings. Across June/July 2015, McCardel, with the support of her team, coached seven relay teams and three solo swimmers to swim the English Channel. Two of these relays were from the Geelong Grammar School. Geelong were part of the "Channel Conquerors" program which featured two school age Relay teams from The Arch Academy – coached by Dan Simonelli.
In 2014, she crewed 2x relays to swim the English Channel. These swimmers raised over US$125 000 for a cancer charity – Swim Across America. In July 2015, she coached and crewed one of the 2014 English Channel relay fundraisers, Grant Wentworth, to swim between Cape Cod and Nantucket and, in doing so, raising $150 000 for Swim Across America. Channel Swimming Association 2018 CSA Fastest swim on the highest tide 2017 CSA Fastest 2 way swim 2016 CSA Gold medal for the fastest swim of the year in 8 hours 51 minutes 2016 CSA Sotiraki trophy for the fastest swim by a lady in 8 hours 51 minutes 2016 CSA Belhedi trophy for the swim on the highest tide 2016 CSA Most solo crossings in a season in history with 8 crossings 2016 Inducted in the International Marathon Swimming Hall of Fame 2015 Marathon Swimmers Federation solo swim of the year award for the most outstanding solo marathon swim of 2015 2015 CSA Oldman trophy for the British Long Distance Swimming Association swimmer of the year 2015 CSA Mark Rickhuss trophy for the fastest 2 way swim in 22 hours 42 minutes 2015 CSA Captain Webb trophy for the fastest 3 way swim in 36 hours 12 minutes 2015 CSA Sotiraki trophy for the fastest swim by a lady in 8 hours 52 minutes 2015 CSA Van Audenaerde trophy for the greatest feat of endurance 2015 CSA Rosemary George trophy for the most meritorious swim of the year 2014 Marathon Swimmers Federation solo swim of the year award for the most outstanding solo marathon swim of 2014 2014 CSA Sotirake trophy for the fastest swim by a lady 9 hours 12 minutes 2012 CSA Gold medal for fastest swim of the year 9 hours 30 minutes 2012 CSA Sotirake trophy for the fastest swim by a lady 9 hours 30 minutes 2012 CSA Mark Rickhuss trophy for the fastest two-way swim 19 hours 20 minutes 2011 CSA Gold medal for fastest swim of the year 9 hours 3 minutes 2011 CSA Sotirake trophy for fastest swim by a lady 9 hours 3 minutes 2010 Nomination for open water swimming performance of the year on 2010 CSA Mark Rickhuss memorial trophy 21 hours 48 minutes 2010 The Van Audenaerde trophy for greatest feat of endurance English Channel King of the Channel List of successful English Channel swimmers