Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. It follows the Neogene Period and spans from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present. The Quaternary Period is divided into two epochs: the Holocene; the informal term "Late Quaternary" refers to the past 0.5–1.0 million years. The Quaternary Period is defined by the cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets associated with Milankovitch cycles and the associated climate and environmental changes that occurred. In 1759 Giovanni Arduino proposed that the geological strata of northern Italy could be divided into four successive formations or "orders"; the term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks. The Quaternary Period extends to the present; the Quaternary covers the time span of glaciations classified as the Pleistocene, includes the present interglacial time-period, the Holocene.
This places the start of the Quaternary at the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation 2.6 million years ago. Prior to 2009, the Pleistocene was defined to be from 1.805 million years ago to the present, so the current definition of the Pleistocene includes a portion of what was, prior to 2009, defined as the Pliocene. Quaternary stratigraphers worked with regional subdivisions. From the 1970s, the International Commission on Stratigraphy tried to make a single geologic time scale based on GSSP's, which could be used internationally; the Quaternary subdivisions were defined based on biostratigraphy instead of paleoclimate. This led to the problem that the proposed base of the Pleistocene was at 1.805 Mya, long after the start of the major glaciations of the northern hemisphere. The ICS proposed to abolish use of the name Quaternary altogether, which appeared unacceptable to the International Union for Quaternary Research. In 2009, it was decided to make the Quaternary the youngest period of the Cenozoic Era with its base at 2.588 Mya and including the Gelasian stage, considered part of the Neogene Period and Pliocene Epoch.
The Anthropocene has been proposed as a third epoch as a mark of the anthropogenic impact on the global environment starting with the Industrial Revolution, or about 200 years ago. The Anthropocene is not designated by the ICS, but a working group has been working on a proposal for the creation of an epoch or sub-period; the 2.6 million years of the Quaternary represents the time during which recognizable humans existed. Over this geologically short time period, there has been little change in the distribution of the continents due to plate tectonics; the Quaternary geological record is preserved in greater detail than that for earlier periods. The major geographical changes during this time period included the emergence of the Strait of Bosphorus and Skagerrak during glacial epochs, which turned the Black Sea and Baltic Sea into fresh water, followed by their flooding by rising sea level; the current extent of Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes and other major lakes of North America are a consequence of the Canadian Shield's readjustment since the last ice age.
The climate was one of periodic glaciations with continental glaciers moving as far from the poles as 40 degrees latitude. There was a major extinction of large mammals in Northern areas at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch. Many forms such as saber-toothed cats, mastodons, etc. became extinct worldwide. Others, including horses and American cheetahs became extinct in North America. Glaciation took place during the Quaternary Ice Age – a term coined by Schimper in 1839 that began with the start of the Quaternary about 2.58 Mya and continues to the present day. In 1821, a Swiss engineer, Ignaz Venetz, presented an article in which he suggested the presence of traces of the passage of a glacier at a considerable distance from the Alps; this idea was disputed by another Swiss scientist, Louis Agassiz, but when he undertook to disprove it, he ended up affirming his colleague's hypothesis. A year Agassiz raised the hypothesis of a great glacial period that would have had long-reaching general effects.
This idea led to the establishment of the Glacial Theory. In time, thanks to the refinement of geology, it has been demonstrated that there were several periods of glacial advance and retreat and that past temperatures on Earth were different from today. In particular, the Milankovitch cycles of Milutin Milankovitch are based on the premise that variations in incoming solar radiation are a fundamental factor controlling Earth's climate. During this time, substantial glaciers advanced and retreated over much of North America and Europe, parts of South America and Asia, all of Antarctica; the Great Lakes formed and giant mammals thrived in parts of North America and Eurasia not covered in ice. These mammals became extinct. Modern humans evolved about 315,000 years ago. During the Quaternary Period, flowering plants, insects dominated
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago. The Miocene was named by Charles Lyell; the Miocene is followed by the Pliocene. As the earth went from the Oligocene through the Miocene and into the Pliocene, the climate cooled towards a series of ice ages; the Miocene boundaries are not marked by a single distinct global event but consist rather of regionally defined boundaries between the warmer Oligocene and the cooler Pliocene Epoch. The Apes first evolved and diversified during the early Miocene, becoming widespread in the Old World. By the end of this epoch and the start of the following one, the ancestors of humans had split away from the ancestors of the chimpanzees to follow their own evolutionary path during the final Messinian stage of the Miocene; as in the Oligocene before it, grasslands continued to forests to dwindle in extent. In the seas of the Miocene, kelp forests made their first appearance and soon became one of Earth's most productive ecosystems.
The plants and animals of the Miocene were recognizably modern. Mammals and birds were well-established. Whales and kelp spread; the Miocene is of particular interest to geologists and palaeoclimatologists as major phases of the geology of the Himalaya occurred during the Miocene, affecting monsoonal patterns in Asia, which were interlinked with glacial periods in the northern hemisphere. The Miocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are named according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy: Regionally, other systems are used, based on characteristic land mammals. Of the modern geologic features, only the land bridge between South America and North America was absent, although South America was approaching the western subduction zone in the Pacific Ocean, causing both the rise of the Andes and a southward extension of the Meso-American peninsula. Mountain building took place in western North America and East Asia. Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines.
Well studied continental exposures occur in Argentina. India continued creating dramatic new mountain ranges; the Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish–Arabian region between 19 and 12 Ma. The subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a global fall in sea levels combined to cause a temporary drying up of the Mediterranean Sea near the end of the Miocene; the global trend was towards increasing aridity caused by global cooling reducing the ability of the atmosphere to absorb moisture. Uplift of East Africa in the late Miocene was responsible for the shrinking of tropical rain forests in that region, Australia got drier as it entered a zone of low rainfall in the Late Miocene. During the Oligocene and Early Miocene the coast of northern Brazil, south-central Peru, central Chile and large swathes of inland Patagonia were subject to a marine transgression; the transgressions in the west coast of South America is thought to be caused by a regional phenomenon while the rising central segment of the Andes represents an exception.
While there are numerous registers of Oligo-Miocene transgressions around the world it is doubtful that these correlate. It is thought that the Oligo-Miocene transgression in Patagonia could have temporarily linked the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, as inferred from the findings of marine invertebrate fossils of both Atlantic and Pacific affinity in La Cascada Formation. Connection would have occurred through narrow epicontinental seaways that formed channels in a dissected topography; the Antarctic Plate started to subduct beneath South America 14 million years ago in the Miocene, forming the Chile Triple Junction. At first the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction lay near the Strait of Magellan; as the southern part of Nazca Plate and the Chile Rise became consumed by subduction the more northerly regions of the Antarctic Plate begun to subduct beneath Patagonia so that the Chile Triple Junction advanced to the north over time.
The asthenospheric window associated to the triple junction disturbed previous patterns of mantle convection beneath Patagonia inducing an uplift of ca. 1 km that reversed the Oligocene–Miocene transgression. Climates remained moderately warm, although the slow global cooling that led to the Pleistocene glaciations continued. Although a long-term cooling trend was well underway, there is evidence of a warm period during the Miocene when the global climate rivalled that of the Oligocene; the Miocene warming b
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes. The ray-finned fishes are so called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines, as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii; these actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton. Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish, they are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 mm, to the massive ocean sunfish, at 2,300 kg, the long-bodied oarfish, at 11 m. Ray-finned fishes occur in many variant forms; the main features of a typical ray-finned fish are shown in the adjacent diagram. In nearly all ray-finned fish, the sexes are separate, in most species the females spawn eggs that are fertilized externally with the male inseminating the eggs after they are laid.
Development proceeds with a free-swimming larval stage. However other patterns of ontogeny exist, with one of the commonest being sequential hermaphroditism. In most cases this involves protogyny, fish starting life as females and converting to males at some stage, triggered by some internal or external factor. Protandry, where a fish converts from male to female, is much less common than protogyny. Most families use external rather than internal fertilization. Of the oviparous teleosts, most do not provide parental care. Viviparity, ovoviviparity, or some form of parental care for eggs, whether by the male, the female, or both parents is seen in a significant fraction of the 422 teleost families. Viviparity is rare and is found in about 6% of teleost species. Male territoriality "preadapts" a species for evolving male parental care. There are a few examples of fish; the mangrove rivulus is an amphibious, simultaneous hermaphrodite, producing both eggs and spawn and having internal fertilisation.
This mode of reproduction may be related to the fish's habit of spending long periods out of water in the mangrove forests it inhabits. Males are produced at temperatures below 19 °C and can fertilise eggs that are spawned by the female; this maintains genetic variability in a species, otherwise inbred. The earliest known fossil actinopterygiian is Andreolepis hedei. Remains have been found in Russia and Estonia. Actinopterygians are divided into the subclasses Neopterygii; the Neopterygii, in turn, are divided into the infraclasses Teleostei. During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic the teleosts in particular diversified and as a result, 96% of all known fish species are teleosts; the cladogram shows the major groups of actinopterygians and their relationship to the terrestrial vertebrates that evolved from a related group of fish. Approximate dates are from al.. 2012. The polypterids are the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Acipenseriformes are the sister lineage of Neopterygii, Holostei are the sister lineage of teleosts.
The Elopomorpha appears to be the most basic teleosts. The listing below follows Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes with notes when this differs from Nelson, ITIS and FishBase and extinct groups from Van der Laan 2016. Order †? Asarotiformes Schaeffer 1968 Order †? Discordichthyiformes Minikh 1998 Order †? Paphosisciformes Grogan & Lund 2015 Order †? Scanilepiformes Selezneya 1985 Order †Cheirolepidiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Paramblypteriformes Heyler 1969 Order †Rhadinichthyiformes Order †Palaeonisciformes Hay 1902 Order †Tarrasiiformes sensu Lund & Poplin 2002 Order †Ptycholepiformes Andrews et al. 1967 Order †Redfieldiiformes Berg 1940 Order †Haplolepidiformes Westoll 1944 Order †Aeduelliformes Heyler 1969 Order †Platysomiformes Aldinger 1937 Order †Dorypteriformes Cope 1871 Order †Eurynotiformes Sallan & Coates 2013 Subclass Cladistii Pander 1860 Order †Guildayichthyiformes Lund 2000 Order Polypteriformes Bleeker 1859 Clade Actinopteri Cope 1972 s.s. Order †Elonichthyiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Phanerorhynchiformes Order †Saurichthyiformes Berg 1937 Subclass Chondrostei Order †Birgeriiformes Jin 2001 Order †Chondrosteiformes Order Acipenseriformes Berg 1940 Subclass Neopterygii Regan 1923 sensu Xu & Wu 2012 Order †Pholidopleuriformes Berg 1937 Order †Peltopleuriformes Lehman 1966 Order †Perleidiformes Berg 1937 Order †Luganoiiformes Lehman 1958 Order †Pycnodontiformes Berg 1937 Infraclass Holostei Muller 1844 Division Halecomorpha Cope 1872 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998 Order †Parasemionotiformes Lehman 1966 Order †Ionoscopiformes Grande & Bemis 1998 Order Amiiformes Huxley 1861 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998 Division Ginglymodi Cope 1871 Order †Dapediiformes Thies & Waschkewitz 2015 Order †Semionotiformes Arambourg & Bertin 1958 Order Lepisosteiformes Hay 1929 Clade Teleosteomorpha Arratia 2000 sensu Arratia 2013 Order †Prohaleciteiformes Arratia 2017 Division Aspidorhynchei Nelson, Grand & Wilson 2016 Order †Aspidorhynchiformes Bleeker 1859 Order †Pachycormiformes Berg 1937 Infraclass Teleostei Müller 1844 sensu Arratia 2013 Order †?
Araripichthyiformes Order †? Ligulelliiformes Taverne 2011 Order †? Tselfatiiformes Nelson 1994 Order †Pholidophori
A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes and the ichthyosaur. Most species have only one dorsal fin. Wildlife biologists use the distinctive nicks and wear patterns which develop on the dorsal fins of large cetaceans to identify individuals in the field; the bony or cartilaginous bones that support the base of the dorsal fin in fish are called pterygiophores. The main purpose of the dorsal fin is to stabilize the animal against rolling and to assist in sudden turns; some species have further adapted their dorsal fins to other uses. The sunfish uses the dorsal fin for propulsion. In anglerfish, the anterior of the dorsal fin is modified into a biological equivalent to a fishing pole and a lure known as illicium or esca. Many catfish can lock the leading ray of the dorsal fin in an extended position to discourage predation or to wedge themselves into a crevice; some animals have developed dorsal fins with protective functions, such as spines or venom.
For example, both the spiny dogfish and the Port Jackson shark have spines in their dorsal fins which are capable of secreting venom. Billfish have prominent dorsal fins. Like tuna and other scombroids, billfish streamline themselves by retracting their dorsal fins into a groove in their body when they swim; the shape, size and colour of the dorsal fin varies with the type of billfish, can be a simple way to identify a billfish species. For example, the white marlin has a dorsal fin with a curved front edge and is covered with black spots; the huge dorsal fin, or sail, of the sailfish is kept retracted most of the time. Sailfish raise them if they want to herd a school of small fish, after periods of high activity to cool down. A dorsal fin is classified as a medial, unpaired fin, located on the midline of the backs of some aquatic vertebrates. In development of the embryo in teleost fish, the dorsal fin arises from sections of the skin that form a caudal fin fold; the larval development and formation of the skeleton that support the median fins in adults result in pterygiophores.
The skeletal elements of the pterygiophore includes radials. The basals are located at the base of the dorsal fin, are closest to the body; the radials extend outward from the body to support the rest of the fin. These elements serve as attachment sites for epaxial muscles; the muscles contract and pull against the basals of the pterygiophores along one side of the body, which helps the fish move through water by providing greater stability. In these types of fish, the fins are made of 2 main components; the first component is the dermal fin rays known as lepidotrichia, the endoskeletal base with associated muscles for movement is the second. Fish fin Submarine sail Vertical stabilizer
Thunnus is a genus of ocean-dwelling, ray-finned bony fish from the Scombridae family. More Thunnus is one of five genera which make up the Thunnini tribe – a tribe, collectively known as the tunas. Called the true tunas or real tunas, Thunnus consists of eight species of tuna, divided into two subgenera; the word Thunnus is the Middle Latin form of the Ancient Greek: translit. Lit.'tunny-fish' –, in turn derived from θύνω, "to rush. The first written use of the word was by Homer, their coloring, metallic blue on top and shimmering silver-white on the bottom, helps camouflage them from above and below. Atlantic bluefin tuna, the largest member of this genus, can grow to 15 feet long and weigh up to 1,500 pounds. All tunas are strong swimmers, the yellowfin tuna is known to reach speeds of up to 50 miles per hour when pursuing prey; as with all tunas, members of this genus are warm-blooded, a rare trait among fish. Bluefin tunas, for example, are found in Newfoundland and Iceland, in the tropical waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, where some individuals go each year to spawn.
Due to overfishing, the range of this genus has declined having been expirated from the Black Sea, for example. Based on morphology and short-length mitochondrial DNA sequence data, the genus Thunnus is classified into two subgenera: Thunnus, Thunnus; however this classification has been questioned by a recent phylogenetic analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data, which resolved different relationships among species and did not support the traditional definition of the bluefin and yellowfin groups. Earlier nuclear ribosomal DNA phylogenetic reconstructions showed similar results; this genus has eight species in two subgenera: Subgenus Thunnus: Albacore, T. alalunga Southern bluefin tuna, T. maccoyii Bigeye tuna, T. obesus Pacific bluefin tuna, T. orientalis Atlantic bluefin tuna, T. thynnus Subgenus Thunnus: Yellowfin tuna, T. albacares Blackfin tuna, T. atlanticus Longtail tuna, T. tonggol Until seven Thunnus species were thought to exist, Atlantic bluefin tuna and Pacific bluefin tuna were subspecies of a single species.
In 1999, Collette established that based on both molecular and morphological considerations, they are, in fact, distinct species. The worldwide demand for sushi and sashimi, coupled with increasing population growth, has resulted in global stocks of the species being overfished and bluefin is the most endangered and considered "a serious conservation concern". Complicating the efforts for sustainable management of bluefin fish stocks within national exclusive economic zones is bluefin migrate long distances and hunt in the midocean, not part of any country's EEZ, so have been vulnerable to overfishing by multiple countries' fishing fleets. International agreements and conventions are good-aith agreements and are difficult to monitor or enforce. Though this fish has been farmed in captivity by the Japanese and by the Australians with the help of the Japanese, yields are lower than other farmed fish due to the slow growth rate of bluefin tuna, therefore keeping prices high. On December 30, 2012, a 222-kilogram bluefin tuna caught off northeastern Japan, was sold at the Tsukiji fish market in Tokyo for a record 155.4 million yen – a unit price of JP¥ 1.274 million/kg.
Charles Clover. 2004. The End of the Line: How Overfishing Is Changing the World and What We Eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7 Newlands, Nathaniel K.. "Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Gulf of Maine, I: Estimation of Seasonal Abundance Accounting for Movement and School-Aggregation Behaviour". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 77: 177–195. Doi:10.1007/s10641-006-9069-5. ISSN 0378-1909. Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. Species of Thunnus in FishBase. January 2006 version. Nutritional benefits of tunadead link] The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, as he is known in Europe, was a nineteenth-century polymath born near Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and self-educated in France. He traveled as a young man in the United States settling in Ohio in 1815, where he made notable contributions to botany and the study of prehistoric earthworks in North America, he contributed to the study of ancient Mesoamerican linguistics, in addition to work he had completed in Europe. Rafinesque was eccentric, is portrayed as an erratic genius, he was an autodidact who excelled in various fields of knowledge, as a zoologist, botanist and polyglot. He wrote prolifically on such diverse topics as anthropology, biology and linguistics, but was honored in none of these fields during his lifetime. Among his theories were that ancestors of Native Americans had migrated by the Bering Sea from Asia to North America, that the Americas were populated by numerous black indigenous peoples at the time of European contact. Rafinesque was born on October 1783 in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople.
His father F. G. Rafinesque was a French merchant from Marseilles, his father died in Philadelphia about 1793. Rafinesque spent his youth in Marseilles, was self-educated. By the age of twelve, he had begun collecting plants for a herbarium. By fourteen, he taught himself perfect Greek and Latin because he needed to follow footnotes in the books he was reading in his paternal grandmother's libraries. In 1802, at the age of nineteen, Rafinesque sailed to Philadelphia in the United States with his younger brother, they traveled through Pennsylvania and Delaware, where he made the acquaintance of most of the young nation's few botanists. In 1805 Rafinesque returned to Europe with his collection of botanical specimens, settled in Palermo, where he learned Italian, he became so successful in trade that he retired by age twenty-five and devoted his time to natural history. For a time Rafinesque worked as secretary to the American consul. During his stay in Sicily, he studied fishes, naming many new discovered species of each.
He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1808. Rafinesque had a common-law wife. After their son died in 1815, he returned to the United States; when his ship Union foundered near the coast of Connecticut, he lost all his books and all his specimens. Settling in New York, Rafinesque became a founding member of the newly established "Lyceum of Natural History." In 1817 his book Florula Ludoviciana or A Flora of the State of Louisiana was criticized by fellow botanists, which caused his writings to be ignored. By 1818, he had named more than 250 new species of plants and animals, he was rebuilding his collection of objects from nature. In the summer of 1818, in Henderson, Rafinesque made the acquaintance of fellow naturalist John James Audubon, in fact stayed in Audubon's home for some three weeks. Audubon, although enjoying Rafinesque's company, took advantage of him in practical jokes involving fantastic, made-up species. In 1819 Rafinesque became professor of botany at Transylvania University in Lexington, where he gave private lessons in French and Spanish.
He was loosely associated with John D. Clifford, a merchant, interested in the ancient earthworks which remained throughout the Ohio Valley. Clifford conducted archival research, seeking the origins of these mounds, Rafinesque measured and mapped them; some had been lost to American development. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1820. Rafinesque started recording all the new species of plants and animals he encountered in travels throughout the state, he was considered an erratic student of higher plants. In the spring of 1826, he left the university after quarreling with its president, he traveled and lectured in various places, endeavored to establish a magazine and a botanic garden, but without success. He moved to a center of publishing and research, without employment, he published The Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge, a Cyclopædic Journal and Review, of which only eight issues were printed. He gave public lectures and continued publishing at his own expense.
Rafinesque died of stomach and liver cancer in Philadelphia on September 18, 1840. It has been speculated that the cancer may have been induced by Rafinesque's self-medication years before with a mixture containing maidenhair fern, he was buried in a plot in. In March 1924 what were thought to be his remains were transported to Transylvania University and reinterred in a tomb under a stone inscribed, "Honor to whom honor is overdue." Rafinesque published 6,700 binomial names of plants, many of which have priority over more familiar names. The quantity of new taxa he produced, both plants and animals, has made Rafinesque memorable or notorious among biologists. Rafinesque applied to join the Lewis and Clark Expedition, but was twice turned down by Thomas Jefferson. After studying the specimens collected by the expedition, he assigned scientific names to the black-tailed prairie dog, the white-footed mouse and the mule deer. Rafinesque was one of the first to use the term "evolution" in the context of biological speciation.
Rafinesque proposed a theory of evolution before Charles Darwin. In a letter in 1832, Rafinesque wrote: The truth is that Species and Genera are forming i
Zoological Society of London
The Zoological Society of London is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats. It was founded in 1826. On 29 November 1822, the birthday of John Ray, “the father of modern zoology”, a meeting held in the Linnean Society in Soho Square led by Rev. William Kirby, resolved to form a "Zoological Club of the Linnean Society of London". Between 1816 and 1826 discussions between Stamford Raffles, Humphry Davy, Joseph Banks and others led to the idea that London should have an establishment similar to the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, it would house a zoological collection "which should interest and amuse the public." The society was founded in April 1826 by Sir Stamford Raffles, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Robert Peel, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors along with various other nobility and naturalists. Raffles was the first chairman and president, but died after only a few months in office, in July 1826, he was succeeded by the Marquess of Lansdowne who supervised the building of the first animal houses, a parcel of land in Regent's Park having been obtained from the Crown at the inaugural meeting.
It received a Royal Charter from George IV on 27 March 1829. The purpose of the society was to create a collection of animals for study at leisure, an associated museum and library. In April 1828 the Zoological Gardens were opened to members. In 1831 William IV presented the Royal Menagerie to the Zoological Society, in 1847 the public were admitted to aid funding, Londoners soon christened the Zoological Gardens the "Zoo". London Zoo soon had the most extensive collection of animals in the world. A History of the ZSL, written by Henry Scherren, was published in 1905; the History was criticised as inadequately researched by Peter Chalmers Mitchell in 1929. As the twentieth century began, the need to maintain and research large animals in a more natural environment became clear. Peter Chalmers Mitchell conceived the vision of a new park no more than 70 miles away from London and thus accessible to the public, at least 200 acres in extent. In 1926, profiting from the agricultural depression, the ideal place was found: Hall Farm, near Whipsnade village, was derelict, held 600 acres on the Chiltern Hills.
ZSL bought the farm in December 1926 for £13,480 12s 10d. In 1928 the first animals arrived at the new Whipsnade Park – two Amherst pheasants, a golden pheasant and five red jungle fowl. Others soon followed, including muntjac deer, llamas and skunks. In 1931 Whipsnade Park was opened to the public as the world's first open zoological park. In 1960–61, Lord Zuckerman Secretary of ZSL, raised funds from two medical foundations to found laboratories as an Institute of Zoology where scientists would be employed by ZSL and undertake research. In June 2015 ZSL rebranded, taking on a new tagline - "Let's Work for Wildlife"; the new brand will be used to boost awareness in the UK and beyond of ZSL’s global conservation programmes, scientific research and wildlife education through the charity’s two zoos. The Society is a registered charity under English law; the Institute of Zoology is the scientific research division of the ZSL. It is a government-funded research institute, which specialises in scientific issues relevant to the conservation of species and their habitats.
The Institute of Zoology focuses its research on five areas: evolutionary biology, ecology, reproductive biology and wildlife epidemiology. The Institute of Zoology was graded 4 in the 1997–2001 UK Research Assessment Exercise, publishes reports annually. From the late 1980s the Institute of Zoology had been affiliated to the University of London. However, in 2000 this was replaced with a partnership with the University of Cambridge. ZSL runs ZSL London Zoo, ZSL Whipsnade Zoo and had planned to open an aquarium, Biota!. The society published the Zoological Record from 1864 to 1980, when the ZR was transferred to BIOSIS; the Society has published the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, now called the Journal of Zoology, since 1830. Since 1998 it has published Animal Conservation. Other publications include the International Zoo Yearbook; the society administers the following award programmes: Frink Medal Stamford Raffles Award Silver Medal Scientific Medal Marsh Award for Conservation Biology Marsh Award for Marine and Freshwater Conservation Thomson Reuters/Zoological Record Award for Communicating Zoology Prince Philip Award and Marsh Prize Charles Darwin Award and Marsh Prize Thomas Henry Huxley Award and Marsh Prize the Landseer Medal Individuals can be elected Fellows of the Zoological Society of London and therefore granted the post-nominal letters FZS.
The ZSL's Honorary Fellows include: 1975 Professor Jean Anthony, Professor Jean Dorst 1977 HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 1984 Professor Ernst Mayr 1988 Professor Milton Thiago de Mello 1990 Professor Knut Schmidt-Nielsen 1991 Emperor Akihito of Japan 1992 Professor Edward Wilson 1996 Professor John Maynard Smith 1997 The Hon. Miriam Rothschild 1998 Sir David Attenborough 1999 Sir Robert May 2001 Professor Patrick Bateson 2002 Professor Robert McNeill Alexander 2002 Dr William G. Conway 2003 Professor Sir Brian Follett 2004 Sir Martin Holdgate 2005 Professor Sir John Krebs, Professor Katherine Ralls, Professor Sir Brian Heap 2006 Professor Sir John Lawton 2007 Professor John Beddington 2011 Lord Moser 2012 Dr Desmond Morris 2013 Ken Sims The Council is the governing body of the ZSL. There are 15 Council members, served by the Secretary and Treasurer. Council members serve for up to five years at a time; the Presidency is