Scotiabank Saddledome is a multi-use indoor arena in Calgary, Canada. Located in Stampede Park in the southeast end of downtown Calgary, the Saddledome was built in 1983 to replace the Stampede Corral as the home of the Calgary Flames of the National Hockey League, to host ice hockey and figure skating at the 1988 Winter Olympics; the facility hosts concerts and other sporting championships, events for the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede. It underwent a major renovation in 1994–95 and sold its naming rights, during which its original name of Olympic Saddledome was changed to Canadian Airlines Saddledome; the facility was given the name Pengrowth Saddledome in 2000, after Pengrowth Management Ltd. signed a ten-year agreement. It adopted its current name in October 2010; the Saddledome is owned by the City of Calgary, who leases it to the Saddledome Foundation, a non-profit organization, to oversee its operation. Since 1996, it has been managed by the Flames; the Saddledome was damaged during the 2013 Alberta floods but was repaired and reopened in time for the 2013–14 NHL season.
The arena's roof is shaped like a saddle, thus earning the name "Saddledome". Calgary had been served for 30 years by the Stampede Corral when the Calgary Flames arrived in 1980. With a total capacity of 8,700, the Corral was the largest arena in Canada west of Toronto in 1950, but had fallen below major league standards by the 1970s; the Corral was deemed insufficient for the National Hockey League in 1977, leading the World Hockey Association's Calgary Cowboys to fold rather than hope to be a team selected to merge with the NHL. Calgary's bid to host the 1988 Winter Olympics, coupled with the arrival of the Flames, drove the need to build a new arena. City Council debated the merits of several locations for the city's new Olympic Coliseum, narrowed their choices down to two areas in the Victoria Park neighbourhood on the east end of downtown. Two other sites, one on the west end of downtown, a late bid by several businessmen pushing to build the arena in the northern suburb of Airdrie were considered.
The Victoria Park Community Association fought the bid to build the arena in their neighborhood, threatening to oppose the city's Olympic bid if necessary. City Council voted on March 3, 1981 to build the proposed 20,000 seat arena on the Stampede grounds east of the Corral and south of Victoria Park; the community continued to fight the city over rezoning the land to allow for the new arena amidst fears of traffic congestion in their neighbourhood which resulted in numerous costly delays to the start of construction. In a bid to end the battle, Mayor Ralph Klein asked the provincial government in July 1981 to take over the land designated for the arena to bypass the appeals process and force approval; the province supported the city amidst protests by community associations and invoked used powers to overrule planning regulations, allowing construction to begin. The following day, on July 1981, builders began construction of the arena; the International Olympic Committee was impressed that the project was underway, as noted in the XV Olympic Winter Games official report which stated "The fact that this facility was being built added credibility to bid and proved to be a positive factor in demonstrating Calgary's commitment to hosting the Games".
The facility was designed by Graham McCourt Architects. While they set out to design a unique building, the idea of a western theme never occurred to Barry Graham or his team; the roof of the building was designed to be a reverse hyperbolic paraboloid, allowing for a pillar free view from all seats and reducing the interior volume by up to one-third when compared to traditional arenas, resulting in reduced heating and maintenance costs, plus the floating roof can flex to compensate for the city's frequent temperature fluctuations. When the design was unveiled, the roof was referred to as being saddle-shaped. Of 1,270 entries submitted in a contest to name the arena, 735 involved the word Saddle; the winning name in the contest, Olympic Saddledome, was drawn from a hat filled with several similar saddle-themed names. At the time the name received a tepid reception from some, including the chairman of Calgary's Olympic Organizing Committee, Frank King, quoted as saying "It is neither Olympic nor western, it's not dome".
The designers won several architectural and engineering awards for their work on the Saddledome, were honoured by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada at its millennium celebration of architecture in 2000. As of 2008, the Saddledome was still reported as the world record holder for the longest spanning hyperbolic paraboloid concrete shell; the Saddledome was featured on the cover of Time magazine on September 27, 1987, for an article discussing the city of Calgary and the upcoming 1988 Olympics. The location of the Saddledome within Stampede Park allows for easy access to Calgary's CTrain light rail transit system via the Victoria Park/Stampede station that stands parallel to Macleod Trail; the CTrain station, BMO Centre, Stampede Corral and Saddledome are all connected via a Plus 15 pedestrian skyway. Direct vehicle access is gained from the north via 5th Street Olympic Way; the arena was projected to cost $60 million to build, revised to over $80 million. Attempts to fast track construction resulted in a $16 million cost overrun, resulting in a final cost of $97.7 million and an eight-month delay in its completion.
Builders faced delays while building the roof as numerous adjustments were required to fit the giant concrete slabs between the array of cables that held them in place. Upset with the excess cost, opposition politicians i
The 1997 Westar Rules season was the 113th season of senior football in Perth, Western Australia. It featured a number of dramatic changes to a competition whose popularity had been reduced by the drain of players to the Eagles and Dockers of the AFL; the competition's name was changed from the prosaic ‘West Australian Football League’ to ‘Westar Rules’ in an attempt to update the local competition for a more sophisticated audience. However, this change became regarded as unsuccessful and was reversed as per recommendations of the “Fong Report” after four seasons. West Perth changed their name to Joondalup to recognise their location in Perth's growing northwestern suburbs, but changed back after the ninth round. More after intense debate for a number of years about whether to expand or contract the competition, a new team, Peel Thunder, was added, despite requests from Peel's licence holders that they not be required to enter before 1998; this was the first change to the number of teams in the WAFL for sixty-three years.
In their first eighteen seasons, Peel won only seventy-three matches out of 354 and never had a winning season, finishing with nine wooden spoons. Along with occasional serious financial difficulties, this produced serious criticism of the decision in subsequent years, but Peel qualified for the finals for the first time in 2015, won the premiership the following year. A proposal to limit Westar to players under 25 and a few older veterans in order to allow a better flow of players to the AFL was made during the season but rejected. Affected badly by the erratic availability of a number of AFL-listed players, reigning premiers Claremont had their worst season since 1975 and equalled East Fremantle's decline in 1980 from premiers to only five wins, whilst Swan Districts, brilliant but erratic during 1996, began with nine wins in their first ten matches before losing eight of their next nine to miss the finals for the third successive season. On a more positive side, the season saw South Fremantle win its first premiership in seventeen years in a thrilling comeback Grand Final win over traditional rivals East Fremantle, Perth have its only winning season since 1988, culminating in its last finals appearance as of 2016.
Official WAFL website Westar Rules Season 1997
IC 5146 is a reflection/emission nebula and Caldwell object in the constellation Cygnus. The NGC description refers to IC 5146 as a cluster of 9.5 mag stars involved in a bright and dark nebula. The cluster is known as Collinder 470, it shines at magnitude +10.0/+9.3/+7.2. Its celestial coordinates are RA 21h 53.5m, dec +47° 16′. It is located near the naked-eye star Pi Cygni, the open cluster NGC 7209 in Lacerta, the bright open cluster M39; the cluster is about 4,000 ly away, the central star that lights it formed about 100,000 years ago. When viewing IC 5146, dark nebula Barnard 168 is an inseparable part of the experience, forming a dark lane that surrounds the cluster and projects westward forming the appearance of a trail behind the Cocoon. IC 5146 is a stellar nursery. Observations by both the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory have collectively identified hundreds of young stellar objects. Young stars are seen in both the emission nebula, where gas has been ionized by massive young stars, in the infrared-dark molecular cloud that forms the "tail".
The most-massive stars in the region is BD +46 3474, a star of class B1, an estimated 14±4 times the mass of the sun. Another interesting star in the nebula is BD +46 3471, an example of a HAeBe star, an intermediate mass star with strong emission lines in its spectrum. "IC 5146". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. "NED results for object IC 5146". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Infrared Processing and Analysis Center. IC 5146 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images