Ethan Green Hawke is an American actor and director. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards and a Tony Award. Hawke has directed three feature films, three Off-Broadway plays, a documentary, he has written three novels. He made his film debut with the 1985 science fiction feature Explorers, before making a breakthrough appearance in the 1989 drama Dead Poets Society, he appeared in various films before taking a role in the 1994 Generation X drama Reality Bites, for which he received critical praise. Hawke starred alongside Julie Delpy in Richard Linklater's Before trilogy: Before Sunrise, Before Sunset and Before Midnight, all of which received critical acclaim. Hawke has been nominated twice for both the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Hawke was further honored with SAG Award nominations for both films, as well as BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for the latter, his other films include the science fiction drama Gattaca, the contemporary adaptation of Hamlet, the action thriller Assault on Precinct 13, the crime drama Before the Devil Knows You're Dead, the horror film Sinister.
In 2018 he garnered critical acclaim for his performance as a protestant minister in Paul Schrader's drama First Reformed receiving numerous accolades including New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and nominations at the Independent Spirit Awards and Critics' Choice Awards. In addition to his film work, Hawke has appeared in many theater productions, he made his Broadway debut in 1992 in Anton Chekhov's The Seagull, was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play in 2007 for his performance in Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia. In 2010, Hawke directed Sam Shepard's A Lie of the Mind, for which he received a Drama Desk Award nomination for Outstanding Director of a Play. Hawke was born in Austin, Texas, to Leslie, a charity worker, James Hawke, an insurance actuary. Hawke's parents were high school sweethearts in Fort Worth and married young, when Hawke's mother was 17. Hawke was born a year later. Hawke's parents were students at the University of Texas at Austin at the time of his birth, separated and divorced in 1974.
After the separation, Hawke was raised by his mother. The two relocated several times, before settling in New York City, where Hawke attended the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn Heights. Hawke's mother remarried when he was 10 and the family moved to West Windsor Township, New Jersey, where Hawke attended West Windsor Plainsboro High School, he transferred to the Hun School of Princeton, a secondary boarding school, from which he graduated in 1988. In high school, Hawke aspired to be a writer, but developed an interest in acting, he made his stage debut at age 13, in a production at The McCarter Theatre of George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan, appearances in West Windsor-Plainsboro High School productions of Meet Me in St. Louis and You Can't Take It with You followed. At the Hun School he took acting classes at the McCarter Theatre on the Princeton campus, after high school graduation he studied acting at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh dropping out after he was cast in Dead Poets Society.
He enrolled in New York University's English program for two years, but dropped out to pursue other acting roles. Hawke obtained his mother's permission to attend his first casting call at the age of 14, secured his first film role in Joe Dante's Explorers, in which he played an alien-obsessed schoolboy alongside River Phoenix; the film was met with favorable reviews but had poor box office results, a failure which Hawke has admitted caused him to quit acting for a brief period after the film's release. Hawke described the disappointment as difficult to bear at such a young age, adding "I would never recommend that a kid act."In 1989, Hawke made his breakthrough appearance in Peter Weir's Dead Poets Society, playing one of the students taught by Robin Williams's inspirational English teacher. The Variety reviewer noted "Hawke, as the painfully shy Todd, gives a haunting performance." The film received considerable acclaim, winning the BAFTA Award for Best Film and an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.
With revenue of $235 million worldwide, it remains Hawke's most commercially successful picture to date. Hawke described the opportunities he was offered as a result of the film's success as critical to his decision to continue acting: "I didn't want to be an actor and I went back to college, but the success was so monumental that I was getting offers to be in such interesting movies and be in such interesting places, it seemed silly to pursue anything else." While filming Dead Poets Society he auditioned for what would be his next film appearance, 1989's comedy drama Dad, where he played Ted Danson's son and Jack Lemmon's grandson. Hawke's next film, 1991's White Fang, brought his first leading role; the film, an adaptation of Jack London's novel of the same name, featured Hawke as Jack Conroy, a Yukon gold hunter who befriends a wolfdog. According to The Oregonian, "Hawke does a good job as young Jack... He makes Jack's passion for White Fang real and keeps it from being ridiculous or overly sentimental."
He appeared in Keith Gordon's A Midnight Clear, a well-received war film based on William Wharton's novel of the same name. In the survival drama Alive, adapted from Piers Paul Read's 1974 book, Hawke portrayed Nando Pa
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Doctor Strange (2016 film)
Doctor Strange is a 2016 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the fourteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the film was directed by Scott Derrickson, who wrote it with Jon Spaihts and C. Robert Cargill, stars Benedict Cumberbatch as the title character, along with Chiwetel Ejiofor, Rachel McAdams, Benedict Wong, Michael Stuhlbarg, Benjamin Bratt, Scott Adkins, Mads Mikkelsen, Tilda Swinton. In the film, former surgeon Stephen Strange learns the mystic arts after a career-ending car accident. Various incarnations of a Doctor Strange film adaptation had been in development since the mid-1980s, until Paramount Pictures acquired the film rights in April 2005 on behalf of Marvel Studios. Thomas Dean Donnelly and Joshua Oppenheimer were brought on board in June 2010 to write a screenplay. In June 2014, Derrickson was hired to re-write the film with Spaihts. Cumberbatch was chosen for the eponymous role in December 2014, necessitating a schedule change to work around his other commitments.
This gave Derrickson time to work on the script himself. The film began principal photography in November 2015 in Nepal, before moving to the United Kingdom and Hong Kong, concluding in New York City in April 2016. Doctor Strange had its world premiere in Hong Kong on October 13, 2016, was released in the United States on November 4, 2016, in 3D and IMAX 3D; the film grossed over $677 million worldwide, was met with praise for its visuals and cast. The positive elements received awards attention, including an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects. A sequel is with Derrickson returning to direct. In Kathmandu, the sorcerer Kaecilius and his zealots enter the secret compound Kamar-Taj and behead its librarian, they steal a few pages from an ancient, mystical text belonging to the Ancient One, a long-lived sorcerer who has taught every student at Kamar-Taj, including Kaecilius, in the mystic arts. The Ancient One pursues the traitors. In New York City, Stephen Strange, a wealthy and arrogant neurosurgeon injures his hands in a car accident, leaving him unable to operate.
Fellow surgeon and former lover Christine Palmer tries to help him move on, but Strange vainly pursues experimental surgeries to heal his hands, nearly bankrupting himself. Strange learns about a paraplegic who mysteriously regained use of his legs. Pangborn directs Strange to Kamar-Taj, where he is taken in by Mordo, a sorcerer under the Ancient One; the Ancient One demonstrates her power to Strange, revealing the astral plane and other dimensions such as the Mirror Dimension. She reluctantly agrees to train Strange, whose ambition remind her of Kaecilius. Strange studies under the Ancient One and Mordo, from ancient books in the library, now guarded by Master Wong. Strange learns that Earth is protected from threats from other dimensions by a shield generated from three buildings called Sanctums, in New York City and Hong Kong, which are all connected and accessible from Kamar-Taj; the sorcerers' task is to protect the Sanctums, though Pangborn instead chose to channel mystical energy only into walking again.
Strange progresses and secretly reads the text from which Kaecilius stole pages, learning to bend time with the mystical Eye of Agamotto. Mordo and Wong warn Strange against breaking the laws of nature, drawing a comparison to Kaecilius' desire for eternal life. Kaecilius uses the stolen pages to contact Dormammu of the Dark Dimension, where time is non-existent. Kaecilius destroys the London Sanctum to weaken Earth's protection; the zealots attack the New York Sanctum, killing its guardian, but Strange holds them off with the help of the Cloak of Levitation until Mordo and the Ancient One arrive. Mordo becomes disillusioned with the Ancient One after Strange reveals that the Ancient One has been drawing power from the Dark Dimension to sustain her long life. After a fight in the Mirror Dimension of New York, Kaecilius mortally wounds the Ancient One and escapes to Hong Kong. Before dying, she tells Strange that he too will have to bend the rules to complement Mordo's steadfast nature in order to defeat Kaecilius.
Strange and Mordo arrive in Hong Kong to find Wong dead, the Sanctum destroyed, the Dark Dimension engulfing Earth. Strange uses the Eye to reverse time and save Wong enters the Dark Dimension and creates a time loop around himself and Dormammu. After killing Strange to no avail, Dormammu gives in to Strange's demand that he leave Earth and take Kaecilius and his zealots with him in return for Strange breaking the loop. Disillusioned by Strange and the Ancient One defying nature's laws, Mordo departs. Strange returns the Eye to Kamar-Taj, takes up residence in the New York Sanctum to continue his studies. In a mid-credits scene, Strange decides to help Thor, who has brought his brother Loki to Earth to search for their father Odin. In a post-credits scene, Mordo confronts Pangborn and steals the mystical energy that possessed him, telling him that Earth has "too many sorcerers". Benedict Cumberbatch as Dr. Stephen Strange: A neurosurgeon who, after a car accident that led to a journey of healing, discovers the hidden world of magic and alternate dimensions.
Cumberbatch described Strange as arrogant, with the film "about him going from a place where he thinks he knows it all to realizing he knows nothing." He compared the character to the version of Sherlock Holmes that he portrays in Sherlock, calling both characters "intelligent" and having "smatterings of the same colors". The film's mysticism resonated with Cumberbatch, for w
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Scream 4 is a 2011 American slasher film and the fourth and most recent installment in the Scream series. Directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson, the film stars an ensemble cast, which includes David Arquette, Neve Campbell, Courteney Cox, Emma Roberts, Hayden Panettiere, Anthony Anderson, Alison Brie, Adam Brody, Rory Culkin, Marielle Jaffe, Erik Knudsen, Mary McDonnell, Marley Shelton and Nico Tortorella; the plot involves Sidney Prescott returning to Woodsboro as part of her book tour. As soon as she arrives, Ghostface once again begins killing students from Woodsboro High; the series was intended to be a trilogy, but film production for a fourth installment was approved by Bob Weinstein. Filming took place in and around Ann Arbor, from June 2010 to September 2010, with re-shoots in early 2011. Scream 4 was released in the United States on April 15, 2011, it grossed $97 million against its $40 million budget. On the fifteenth anniversary of the original Woodsboro massacre, high school students Jenny Randall and Marnie Cooper are murdered by a new Ghostface.
The following day, Sidney Prescott returns to Woodsboro to promote her new book with her publicist Rebecca Walters. After evidence is found in Sidney's rental car, Sidney becomes a suspect in the murders and must stay in town until they are solved. Sidney's cousin, dealing with the betrayal of her ex-boyfriend, Trevor Sheldon, gets a threatening phone call from Ghostface, as does her friend and neighbor Olivia Morris. Jill and Olivia, alongside their friend Kirby Reed, are questioned about their calls by Dewey Riley, now the sheriff, while one of his deputies, Judy Hicks, assists him in the case. Meanwhile, Dewey's wife, Gale Weathers-Riley, is struggling with writer's block and decides to investigate the murder instead. Sidney stays with her aunt Kate Roberts; that night, Olivia is killed by Ghostface as Jill and Kirby watch in horror. Sidney and Jill rush in to save Olivia. Sidney fires Rebecca after learning of her plan to use the murders as a means to increase book sales. Rebecca is subsequently murdered in the parking garage by Ghostface.
Gale enlists the help of two high school movie fanatics, Charlie Walker and Robbie Mercer, who explains that the killer is using the rules of movie remakes. Charlie concludes that the killer will strike at a party being held that night. Gale goes to the party to investigate. Ghostface flees when Dewey arrives. Dewey takes her to the hospital. At Jill's house, Sidney discovers, she discovers that Jill has left the house and gone to Kirby's. Sidney goes down to tell Kate, but the killer appears, kills Kate, disappears again. After Deputy Judy Hicks arrives, Sidney rushes to Kirby's house to save Jill on her own. Jill, Charlie and Trevor are at Kirby's house when Ghostface appears. Ghostface approaches a drunken Robbie, about to kill him, when he tries to save himself as saying that he’s gay, which does not save him, he is murdered. Sidney arrives at the house. Kirby is forced to answer horror movie trivia to save Charlie, tied up outside. Sidney goes upstairs to find Jill, promising to return to Kirby.
After Kirby answers Ghostface's questions, she goes outside to untie Charlie, believing that she has won the game. He stabs her in the stomach and reveals himself as Ghostface, before leaving her for dead. Sidney is confronted by Charlie and a second Ghostface, revealed as Jill. Jill explains that her motive was out of anger and jealousy because of the fame that Sidney had received for surviving the murders, that they intend to frame Trevor as Ghostface. Charlie pulls Trevor out of a closet and Jill kills him. Jill betrays Charlie and kills him as a means to pin him as Trevor's accomplice and make herself the sole survivor. Jill mutilates herself to make it seem as if Trevor attacked her. Dewey and the rest of the police stumble upon the carnage. Sidney and Jill are taken to the hospital. After discovering that Sidney had survived, Jill goes to Sidney's hospital room and attempts to finish her. Dewey and Judy intervene, having been clued by a detail about Gale's injury that Jill somehow knew. Jill subdues Sidney's rescuers, which gives Sidney the chance to kill her.
Dewey calls in all police units, as media reporters outside confirm Jill as the "sole-surviving hero". Neve Campbell as Sidney Prescott David Arquette as Dewey Riley Courteney Cox as Gale Riley Emma Roberts as Jill Roberts Hayden Panettiere as Kirby Reed Rory Culkin as Charlie Walker Erik Knudsen as Robbie Mercer Nico Tortorella as Trevor Sheldon Marley Shelton as Judy Hicks Alison Brie as Rebecca Walters Mary McDonnell as Kate Roberts Marielle Jaffe as Olivia Morris Anthony Anderson as Anthony Perkins Adam Brody as Ross Hoss Aimee Teegarden as Jenny Randall Britt Robertson as Marnie Cooper Anna Paquin as Rachel Kristen Bell as Chloe Lucy Hale as Sherrie Shenae Grimes as Trudie Roger L. Jackson as the voice of Ghostface Scream 4 was announced by The Weinstein Company in July 2008, with Wes Craven saying that he would not mind directing the film if the script was as good as Scream. In March 2010 it was confirmed. In May 2010, Cathy Konrad, who produced the first three films in the series, filed a $3 million lawsuit against The Weinstein Company, alleging that they violated a written agreement that entitled her company, Cat Entertainment, first rights to produce all films in the series.
The Weinsteins a
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Hellraiser: Inferno is a 2000 American horror film. It is the fifth installment in the Hellraiser series, the first Hellraiser film to be released direct-to-video, it was directed by Scott Derrickson and released on October 3, 2000. The film concerns a corrupt detective. Reviews of the film were mixed. Joseph Thorne is a corrupt Denver police detective who indulges in drug use and infidelity during the course of duty. At the scene of what appears to be a ritual murder, Thorne discovers a strange puzzle box, which he takes home in order to indulge his fascination with puzzles. After solving the box, Thorne begins to experience bizarre hallucinations, such as being seduced by a pair of mutilated women and being chased by a creature with no eyes or legs. Thorne makes a connection between the murder and a killer known as "The Engineer,", suspected of having kidnapped a child. Thorne goes in search of the Engineer, who in turn begins murdering Thorne's friends and associates, leaving behind one of the child's fingers at every crime scene.
While undergoing therapy for his hallucinations, Thorne's psychiatrist reveals himself to be "Pinhead", the leader of a group of entities known as the Cenobites, who use the puzzle box as a portal between their realm and the mortal realm. Pinhead informs Thorne that he has in fact been in the Cenobite's realm since opening the box, where they have been subjecting him to psychological torture for the various cruelties he has inflicted on others: The Engineer is a manifestation of Thorne's own cruelty, while the child is a personification of Thorne's innocence, which he has been killing through corruption and violence; as hooked chains appear and begin to ensnare Thorne, Pinhead informs him that he will be subjected to an eternity of torment for his sins. Nicholas Turturro as Detective Tony Nenonen Doug Bradley as Pinhead Craig Sheffer as Detective Joseph Thorne James Remar as Dr. Paul Gregory Nicholas Sadler as Bernie Noelle Evans as Melanie Thorne Lindsay Taylor as Chloe Matt George as Leon Gaultier Michael Shamus Wiles as Mr. Parmagi Sasha Barrese as Daphne Sharp Kathryn Joosten as Mother Jessica Elliot as Young Joseph's Mother Carmen Argenziano as Captain J B Gaynor as Young Joseph Clive Barker confirmed in an online appearance on AOL in 1996 after the American release of Hellraiser: Bloodline that Dimension Films intended to make a fifth installment in the series, while the film's screenwriter Peter Atkins claimed that there had been reshoots to leave room for at least two more sequels.
One concept was a project called Hellraiser: Hellfire, a pitch by Stephen Jones and Michael Marshall Smith in which Kirsty Cotton would face a plot by a cult to unleash the Leviathan and the Cenobites into the real world, with a climax involving a large Lament Configuration enclosing London. The pitch was rejected due to budgetary concerns after the film was opted to be released direct-to-video. Although Barker was in negotiations to return as executive producer in 1999 he was dropped from the production due to creative disagreements with the studio, was barred from the providing any sort of assistance on the film. Bob and Harvey Weinstein commissioned a script by Paul Harris Boardman and Scott Derrickson. After giving Derrickson $10,000 to direct a single scene from the film, they hired him as the director. Doug Bradley has since claimed that Boardman's and Derrickson's script was not intended as a Hellraiser sequel, that it was rewritten to provide connections to the series. Calum Marsh of Esquire called the film "shockingly good" and said, "Inferno feels less like a Hellraiser movie than a follow-up to Jacob's Ladder, floating dream-like through hallucinatory David Lynchian visions and downplaying plot in favor of the surreal."
JoBlo.com's reviewer gave the film a seven out of ten rating, felt the film was not similar to its predecessors, saying "Without a doubt the film’s biggest flaw is calling itself Hellraiser." Hellraiser: Inferno on IMDb Hellraiser: Inferno at AllMovie Hellraiser: Inferno at Rotten Tomatoes