David Bourne, known professionally as JR Bourne, is a Canadian actor, best known for his roles as Martouf from Stargate SG-1 and Chris Argent from Teen Wolf. He had a recurring role in the second season of the ABC soap opera Revenge, portrayed a CIA agent on Fox's sci-fi TV series Fringe; as of late summer 2017, he was appearing opposite Paula Patton in the ABC mystery limited drama series Somewhere Between. Bourne has won two Vancouver Film Critics Circle Awards in the category Best Supporting Actor in a Canadian Film; the first in 2004 for the movie On The Corner, the second in 2007 for Everything's Gone Green. His performance in both movies earned him two nominations in the category Best Supporting Performance by a Male in a Feature Length Drama at the Leo Awards. Bourne's niece Madison was born with the genetic disorder cystic fibrosis; the actor has long been a champion of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. In an interview with MTV News, Bourne revealed that he had come to realize back when he'd first started doing conventions for Teen Wolf how amazing of a platform it provided to raise money and awareness for the foundation.
JR Bourne on IMDb
Nero was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He became Claudius' heir and successor. Like Claudius, Nero became emperor with the consent of the Praetorian Guard. Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, was implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor, she dominated Nero's early life and decisions. Five years into his reign, he had her murdered. During the early years of his reign, Nero was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca and his Praetorian prefect, Sextus Afranius Burrus; as time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire, his general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni Queen Boudica. The Bosporan Kingdom was annexed to the empire, the First Jewish–Roman War began. Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy and the cultural life of the empire, ordering theatres built and promoting athletic games.
He made public appearances as an actor, poet and charioteer. In the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person and office, his extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxes, much resented by the middle and upper classes. Various plots against his life were revealed. In 68 AD Vindex, governor of the Gaulish territory Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled, he was supported by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim, but Nero fled Rome when Rome's discontented civil and military authorities chose Galba as emperor, he committed suicide on June 9, 68 AD, when he learned that he had been tried in absentia and condemned to death as a public enemy, making him the first Roman Emperor to commit suicide. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is associated with tyranny and extravagance. Most Roman sources, such as Suetonius and Cassius Dio, offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign.
Suetonius tells that many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome was instigated by Nero to clear the way for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. According to Tacitus he was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire and burned them alive motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty; some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts. A few sources paint Nero in a more favorable light. There is evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as "Nero reborn" to enlist popular support. Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on 15 December 37 AD in Antium, he was the only son of Agrippina the Younger. His maternal grandparents were Agrippina the Elder, he was Augustus' great-great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter, Julia.
The ancient biographer Suetonius, critical of Nero's ancestors, wrote that Augustus had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. According to Jürgen Malitz, Suetonius tells that Nero's father was known to be "irascible and brutal", that both "enjoyed chariot races and theater performances to a degree not befitting their position."Nero's father, died in 40. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius had not died in the year 37." In the previous year, Nero's mother Agrippina had been caught up in a scandal of her own. Caligula's beloved sister Drusilla had died and Caligula began to feel threatened by his brother-in-law Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Agrippina, suspected of adultery with her brother-in-law, was forced to carry the funerary urn after Lepidus' execution. Caligula banished his two surviving sisters and Julia Livilla, to a remote island in the Mediterranean Sea.
According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Agrippina was exiled for plotting to overthrow Caligula. Nero's inheritance was taken from him and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida, the mother of Claudius' third wife Valeria Messalina. Caligula's reign lasted from 37 until 41, he died from multiple stab wounds in January of 41 after being ambushed by his own Praetorian Guard on the Palatine Hill. Claudius succeeded Caligula as Emperor. Agrippina became his fourth wife. By February 49, she had persuaded Claudius to adopt her son Nero. After Nero's adoption, "Claudius" became part of his name: Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus. Claudius had gold coins issued to mark the adoption. Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making." David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Britannicus was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s.
Nero formally entered public life as an adult in 51 AD—he was around 14 years old. When he turned 16, Nero married Claudius' daughter (
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The figure is named after the town where it is reported, or on the sobriquet given to Mary on the occasion of the apparition. Marian apparitions sometimes are reported to recur at the same site over an extended period of time. In the majority of Marian apparitions only one person or a few people report having witnessed the apparition. Exceptions to this include Zeitoun, Assiut where thousands claimed to have seen her over a period of time; some Marian apparitions and their respective icons have received a Canonical coronation from the Pope, most notably Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Fátima, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of Manaoag, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of Walsingham, many others. Sandra L. Zimdars-Swartz describes an "apparition" as "a specific kind of vision in which a person or being not within the visionary's perceptual range appears to that person, not in a world apart as in a dream...but as part of the environment, without apparent connection to verifiable visual stimuli."
According to Zimdars-Swartz, since the increase in Western Christianity in the tenth and eleventh centuries of devotion to the Mother of God, the figure most seen has been the Virgin Mary. Robert Orsi states that an apparition is a conjunction of transcendence and temporality where the transcendent breaks into time. A public, serial apparition is one in which a seer not only says that they have experienced a vision, but that they expect it will reoccur, people gather to observe. Zimdars-Swatrz notes that this appears to be a recent phenomenon. Up until about the seventeenth century, most reported apparitions happened when the individual was alone, or at least no one else was aware of its occurrence. In some apparitions an image is reported absent any verbal interaction. An example is the reported apparitions at Our Lady of Assiut in which many people reported a bright image atop a building. Photographs at times suggest the silhouette of a statue of the Virgin Mary but the images are subject to varying interpretations, critics suggest that they may just be due to various visual effects.
However, such image-like appearances are hardly reported for visions of Jesus and Mary. In most cases these involve some form of reported communication, and apparitions should be distinguished from interior locutions in which no visual contact is claimed. Interior locutions consist of inner voices. Interior locutions are not classified as apparitions. Physical contact is hardly reported as part of Marian apparitions. In rare cases, a physical artifact is reported in apparitions, such as the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, reported to have been miraculously imprinted on the cloak of Saint Juan Diego. According to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, the era of public revelation ended with the death of the last living Apostle. A Marian apparition, if deemed genuine by Church authority, is treated as private revelation that may emphasize some facet of the received public revelation for a specific purpose, but it can never add anything new to the deposit of faith; the Church may pronounce an apparition as worthy of belief, but belief is never required by divine faith.
The Holy See has confirmed the apparitions at Guadalupe, Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, Paris, La Salette, Lourdes, Fátima, Pontmain and Banneux. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Marianum Pontifical Institute in Rome, of the 295 reported apparitions studied by the Holy See through the centuries only 12 had been approved as of May 2008. Other apparitions continue to be approved at the local level, e.g. the December, 2010 local approval of the 19th-century apparitions of Our Lady of Good Help, the first recognized apparition in the United States. An authentic apparition is not believed to be a subjective experience, but a real and objective intervention of divine power; the purpose of such apparitions is to emphasize some aspect of the Christian message. The church states that cures and other miraculous events are not the purpose of Marian apparitions, but exist to validate and draw attention to the message. Apparitions of Mary are held as evidence of her continuing active presence in the life of the Church, through which she "cares for the brethren of her son who still journey on earth."Possibly the best-known apparition sites are Lourdes and Fátima Since 1862, over sixty medical cures associated with Lourdes have been certified as "miraculous" by the Catholic Church, which established its own Medical Bureau in 1883 to review and evaluate claims of cures.
Although an independent study of cures reported in the twentieth century noted that the number of reported cures had declined over the years due to advances in medical science as well as criteria that excluded some cures during a period of time, the results of the study published in 2012 concluded that some of the cures were "currently beyond our ken but still impressive effective, awaiting a scientific explanation." The Roman Catholic Church has instituted processes for formal investigation and recognition of apparitions. In 1978 the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued "Norms of the Congregation for Proceeding in Judging Alleged Apparitions and Revelations" containing the following provisions: The diocesan bishop can initiate a process on his own initiative or at the request of the faithful to investigate the facts of an
Requiem (2006 film)
Requiem is a 2006 German drama film directed by Hans-Christian Schmid. It stars Sandra Hüller as a woman with epilepsy, Michaela Klingler, believed by members of her church and herself to be possessed; the film steers clear of special effects or dramatic music and instead presents documentary-style filmmaking, which focuses on Michaela's struggle to lead a normal life, trapped in a limbo which could either represent demonic possession or mental illness, focusing on the latter. The film focuses on the medical condition as seen in the real-life events of Anneliese Michel, a German woman, possessed by six or more demons and died in 1976; these events served as the basis of Scott Derrickson's 2005 film The Exorcism of Emily Rose. The film was cast with Sandra Hüller, Jens Harzer, Burghart Klaußner, Imogen Kogge, Irene Kugler, Johann Adam Oest, Walter Schmidinger, Eva Löbau, Anna Blomeier, Nicholas Reinke and others In the US, Requiem was released as a region 1 DVD in 2007. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 86% based on 35 reviews, an average rating of 7.4/10.
The website's critical consensus reads, "This harrowing, naturalistic drama holds you in its grip through Huller's intense performance." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 82 out of 100, based on 13 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Requiem on IMDb
The Lord's Prayer called the Our Father, is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Pray in this way... When you pray, say... Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him,'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, the Lucan version one year "very in Judea". The first three of the seven petitions in Matthew address God; the Matthew account alone includes the "Your will be done" and the "Rescue us from the evil one" petitions. Both original Greek texts contain the adjective epiousios, which does not appear in any other classical or Koine Greek literature. Protestants conclude the prayer with a doxology, a addendum appearing in some manuscripts of Matthew.
Initial words on the topic from the Catechism of the Catholic Church teach that it "is the summary of the whole gospel". The prayer is used by most Christian churches in their worship. Although theological differences and various modes of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit, "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together... and these words always unite us."In biblical criticism, the prayer's absence in the Gospel of Mark together with its occurrence in Matthew and Luke has caused scholars who accept the two-source hypothesis to conclude that it is a logion original to Q. There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer from Greek or Latin, beginning around AD 650 with the Northumbrian translation. Of those in current liturgical use, the three best-known are: The translation in the 1662 Anglican Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England The modernized form used in the 1928 version of the Prayer Book of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America and in the English vernacular translation of the Catholic Mass The 1988 translation of the ecumenical English Language Liturgical Consultation The square brackets in three of the texts below indicate the doxology added at the end of the prayer by Protestants and, in a different form, by the Byzantine Rite, among whom the prayer proper is recited by the cantors and congregation in unison, the doxology by the priest as the conclusion of the prayer.
The Anglican Book of Common Prayer adds it in some services but not in all. Older English translations of the Bible, based on late Byzantine Greek manuscripts, included it, but it is excluded in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies, it is absent in the oldest manuscripts and is not considered to be part of the original text of Matthew 6:9–13. The Catholic Church has never attached it to the Lord's Prayer, but has included it in the Roman Rite Mass as revised in 1969, not as part of the Our Father but separated from it by a prayer called the embolism spoken or sung by the priest that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil." For more information on this doxology, see Doxology, below. When Reformers set out to translate the King James Bible, they assumed that a Greek manuscript they possessed was ancient and therefore adopted the phrase "For thine is the kingdom, the power, the glory forever" into the Lord’s Prayer. Scholarship demonstrated that the manuscript was a late addition based on Eastern liturgical tradition.
Other English translations are used. Though Matthew 6:12 uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions use the term sins; the latter choice may be due to Luke 11:4, which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to Matthew 6:14, where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses in the prayer. Although the Latin form, traditionally used in Western Europe has debita, most English-speaking Christians use trespasses; the Presbyterian Church, the Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version, which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors". All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus: Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer "Our Father, which art in heaven" "Our" indicates that the prayer is that of a group of people who consider themselves children of God and who call God their "Father".
"In heaven" indicates that the Father, addressed is
Belial is a term occurring in the Hebrew Bible which became personified as the devil in Jewish and Christian texts. Belial is a Hebrew word term "used to characterize the wicked or worthless." The etymology of the word is understood as "lacking worth", from two common words: beli- and ya'al. Some scholars translate it from Hebrew as "worthless", while others translate it as "yokeless", "may he have no rising" or "never to rise". Only a few etymologists have believed it to be an invented name from the start; the word occurs twenty-seven times in the Masoretic Text, in verses such as Proverbs 6:12, where the King James Version translates the Hebrew phrase adam beli-yaal as "a naughty person". In the Hebrew text the phrase is either "sons of Belial" or "sons of worthlessness". Phrases beginning with "sons of" are a common semitic idiom such as "sons of destruction", "sons of lawlessness". Of these 27 occurrences, the idiom "sons of Belial" appears 15 times to indicate worthless people, including idolaters, the men of Gibeah, the sons of Eli and Shimei.
The Geneva Bible uses "wicked," and at Jg 19:22 has the marginal note "Ebr men of Belial: that is, giuen to all wickednes." In the KJV these occurrences are rendered with "Belial" capitalised: "the sons of Eli were sons of Belial " In modern versions these are read as a phrase: "the sons of Eli were worthless men " "the wicked men of the city""Belial" is applied to ideas and counsel, to calamitous circumstances, most to worthless men of the lowest sort, such as men who would induce worship of other gods. Indicating that the enemy power would no longer interfere with the carrying out of true worship by his people in their land, YHWH declared through his prophet: "No more will any worthless person pass again through you. In his entirety he will be cut off." The term belial appears in Jewish texts of the Second Temple period. A large number of references to Belial are evidenced in the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran from 1948. In The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, one of the Dead Sea scrolls, Belial is the leader of the Sons of Darkness: "You made Belial for the pit, angel of enmity.
All the spirits of his lot are angels of destruction, they walk in the laws of darkness. In the Rules of the Community, God is depicted as saying, "I shall not comfort the oppressed until their path is perfect. I shall not retain Belial within my heart." The War Scroll and the Thanksgiving hymns both delve into the idea that Belial is accursed by God and his people, shows how the existence of Belial in this world can be attributed to the mysteries of God since we can not know why he permits the dealings of Belial to persist. In the Dead Sea Scrolls, Belial is further contrasted with God; these are the Angel of Darkness. The Manual of Discipline identifies the Angel of Light as God himself; the Angel of Darkness is identified in the same scroll as Belial. In The Dead Sea Scrolls is a recounting of a dream of Amram, the father of Moses, who finds two'watchers' contesting over him. One is Belial, described as the King of Evil and Prince of Darkness. Belial is mentioned in the Fragments of a Zadokite Work, which states that during the eschatological age, "Belial shall be let loose against Israel, as God spoke through Isaiah the prophet."
The Fragments speak of "three nets of Belial" which are said to be fornication and pollution of the sanctuary. In this work, Belial is sometimes presented as an agent of divine punishment and sometimes as a rebel, as Mastema is, it was Belial who inspired the Egyptian sorcerers and his brother, to oppose Moses and Aaron. The Fragments say that anyone, ruled by the spirits of Belial and speaks of rebellion should be condemned as a necromancer and wizard. In the Book of Jubilees, uncircumcised Gentiles are called "sons of Belial". Belial is mentioned in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs; the author of the work seems to be a dualist because he presents Belial as God's opponent, not as a servant, but does not mention how or why this came to be. Simeon 5:3 says that fornication brings him near to Belial. Levi tells his children to choose between the Law of God and the works of Belial It states that when the soul is disturbed, the Lord departs from it and Belial rules over it. Naphtali contrasts the will of God with the purposes of Belial.
In 20:2, Joseph prophesies that when Israel leaves Egypt, they will be with God in light while Belial will remain in darkness with the Egyptians. The Testament describes that when the Messiah comes, the angels will punish the spirits of deceit and Belial and that the Messiah will bind Belial and give to his children the power to trample the evil spirits. "For many hath fornication destroyed.
Thomas Geoffrey Wilkinson is an English actor. He has twice been nominated for an Academy Award, for his roles in In the Bedroom and Michael Clayton. In 2009, he won Golden Globe and Primetime Emmy Awards for Best Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Film for playing Benjamin Franklin in John Adams. Wilkinson was born in Wharfedale, West Riding of Yorkshire, the son of Marjorie and Thomas Wilkinson, a farmer. At the age of four, he moved with his family to Canada, where they lived for several years before returning to the United Kingdom and running a pub in Cornwall. Wilkinson graduated from the University of Kent, where he was a member of T24 Drama Society and attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Wilkinson made his acting debut in 1976 and worked on several British television series, most notably the mini-series First Among Equals, he first gained critical acclaim with his appearance as Mr Pecksniff, in the BBC's 1994 adaptation of Martin Chuzzlewit. Wilkinson made only the occasional film, including a brief appearance in 1995's Sense and Sensibility and a villain in The Ghost and the Darkness.
After becoming part of the ensemble cast of the comedy-drama The Full Monty in 1997, a role which earned him a BAFTA, he began to take film roles more including supporting roles in Oscar and Lucinda, Shakespeare in Love, The Patriot. He starred with Jackie Chan in the 1998 film Rush Hour, as the evil British Ambassador/Juntao, his portrayal of Matt Fowler, in Todd Field's In the Bedroom, received international praise from critics. For the role, he was named Best Actor of the Year by the New York Film Critics' Circle, went on to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor; that success was followed up by Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, The Exorcism of Emily Rose, Batman Begins, Separate Lies. In 2007, Wilkinson played Arthur Edens, an attorney with bipolar disorder, in Michael Clayton and garnered much critical acclaim and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor; the same year, he played an uncle planning for murder in Woody Allen's Cassandra's Dream, played opposite Billy Crudup as children's book writing partners in Dedication.
In 2008, Wilkinson portrayed American patriot Benjamin Franklin in the HBO mini-series John Adams. In the HBO film, Wilkinson portrayed American political adviser and lawyer, James A. Baker, in Baker's capacity as Chief Counsel to George W. Bush during the 2000 U. S. Presidential Election, receiving a nomination for the latter, he received a Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors' Guild Award nomination for his role in John Adams. He portrayed Friedrich Fromm, Commander in Chief of the German Reserve Army, alongside Tom Cruise in the 2008 World War II thriller Valkyrie. Wilkinson starred in the horror comedy Burke and Hare, directed by John Landis, he portrayed a covert CIA agent in Roman Polanski's The Ghost Writer. He played another historical character, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. in the 2011 television miniseries The Kennedys, for which he was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie. He and his wife portrayed wife Joe and Rose Kennedy. Earlier that year, he appeared in Mission: Impossible -- Ghost Protocol.
In 2014 Wilkinson portrayed the 36th President of the United States'Lyndon B. Johnson' in the historical drama film Selma. Wilkinson lives in North London with his wife, actress Diana Hardcastle, their two daughters and Molly. Wilkinson received a Doctor of Letters honorary degree from the University of Kent in July 2001. In the 2005 New Year Honours, he was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire "for services to Drama"; the 6 November 2017 issue of Girl Genius web comic has an airship from England named "HMA Tom Wilkinson" Tom Wilkinson on IMDb Tom Wilkinson at the BFI's Screenonline