Kevin Brooks Eastman is an American comic book artist and writer best known for co-creating Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles with Peter Laird. Eastman is the editor and publisher of the magazine Heavy Metal. Eastman was born in Maine, he attended Westbrook High School in Maine with comic book illustrator Steve Lavigne. Kevin was "raised in a Christian family."In 1983 he worked in a restaurant while he searched for publishers for his comics. He met a waitress, attending the University of Massachusetts Amherst and followed her to Northampton, Massachusetts. While searching for a local underground newspaper to publish his work, he began a professional relationship with Peter Laird and the two collaborated for a short time on various comics projects. In May 1984, Eastman and Laird self-published the first black & white issue of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles; the forty-page oversized comic had an initial print run of 3275 copies and was funded by a US$1000 loan from Eastman's uncle Quentin. It was published by the duo's Mirage Studios, a name chosen because, as Eastman says, "there wasn't an actual studio, only kitchen tables and couches with lap boards."
By September 1985, their first issue had received three additional printings. Laird's newspaper experience led to the two creating a four-page press kit, which included a story outline and artwork, they sent the press kit to 180 television and radio stations as well as to the Associated Press and United Press International. This led to widespread press coverage of both the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Mirage Studios itself, creating a demand for the comic. With their second issue and Laird's Turtles comic began a quick rise to success, bringing in advance orders of 15,000 copies, five times the initial print run of the first issue; this earned Eastman and Laird a profit of $2000 each and allowed them to become full-time comic book creators. The Turtles phenomenon saw the duo invited to their first comics convention at the tenth annual Atlanta Fantasy Fair in 1984, where they mingled with notable comic creators like Larry Niven, Forrest J Ackerman and Fred Hembeck, their fifth issue of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles was released in November 1985, was downsized to the more common American comics-format and size.
The previous four issues were reprinted in this size and format with new colored covers. In 1985, Solson Publications released How To Draw Eastman and Laird's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Solson would follow this up with the six issue Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Authorized Martial Arts Training Manual as well as one issue of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Teach Karate volume in 1987. Mirage's Turtles comic led to a widening media presence for the heroes. Eastman and Laird began to merchandise their property. Dark Horse Miniatures produced a set of 15 lead figurines for role-playing gamers and collectors, Palladium Books produced a role-playing game featuring the Turtles, First Comics reprinted in four volumes the first eleven issues as color trade paperback collections. Palladium's role-playing game brought the Turtles to the attention of licensing agent Mark Freedman and the Turtles phenomenon took off, with the various characters soon appearing on T-shirts, Halloween masks and other paraphernalia.
A five-part televised cartoon mini-series based on the Turtles debuted in December 1987. The half-hour episodes were produced by Osamu Yoshioka and the animation was directed by Yoshikatsu Kasai from scripts David Wise and Patti Howeth; the mini-series was successful, leading to a full series, with the mini-series forming the first season. The series had a 10-season, 193-episode run. Bob Burden writes: within days of it airing it was apparent that the TMNT would prove every bit as popular for the television audience as it had been for the comic readers. From there, Surge Licensing formed an unstoppable creative marketing powerhouse that set a new standard of excellence in the licensing and merchandising industries. In January 1988, Eastman and Laird visited Playmates Toys, who wished to market action figures based on the comic book and animated cartoon series, further cementing the Turtles' place in history and making Eastman and Laird successful. Multiple other Turtles comics, books and other merchandising items have subsequently appeared and sometimes created by Eastman and Laird.
Among these are five live-action films: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows, with Eastman making a brief cameo in the latter. Four more television series were created: Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, in which Eastman wrote the fifth season episode "Lone Rat and Cubs", Rise of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. There was an animated feature film, TMNT. Creative differences began to strain Laird's partnership. In an interview in 2002, Laird noted that the two hadn't spent much time together since 1993. Eastman moved to California. On June 1, 2000 Laird and the Mirage Group purchased Eastman's ownership in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles property and corporations. Eastman wanted to move on to other projects; the buyout was completed on March 1, 2008. In 2011, Eastman began working with the TMNT series again as a writer and artist on the IDW comic series, as well as an adviser on the 2014 reboot of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film series.
Eastman is said to have a cameo in the film as a doctor, has voiced the character Ice Cream Kitty in the 2012 CGI series. While co-
Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art is a 1993 non-fiction work of comics by American cartoonist Scott McCloud. It explores formal aspects of comics, the historical development of the medium, its fundamental vocabulary, various ways in which these elements have been used, it expounds theoretical ideas about comics as an art form and medium of communication, is itself written in comic book form. Understanding Comics received praise from notable comic and graphic novel authors such as Art Spiegelman, Will Eisner, Alan Moore, Neil Gaiman, Garry Trudeau. Although the book has prompted debate over many of McCloud’s conclusions, its discussions of "iconic" art and the concept of "closure" between panels have become common reference points in discussions of the medium; the title of Understanding Comics is an homage to Marshall McLuhan's seminal 1964 work Understanding Media. Excerpts from Understanding Comics were published in Amazing Heroes #200. McCloud previewed the book at the August 1992 Comics Arts Conference.
Understanding Comics was first published by Tundra Publishing. The book was edited with lettering by Bob Lappan. Tundra: ISBN 1-56862-019-5 Kitchen Sink: ISBN 0-87816-243-7 William Morrow Paperbacks: ISBN 0-06-097625-X Paradox Press/DC: ISBN 1-56389-557-9 Harper Perennial Kitchen Sink: ISBN 0-87816-244-5 Vertigo/DC Comics: ISBN 1-56389-759-8 McCloud has followed up Understanding Comics with Reinventing Comics, in which he suggested ways for the medium to change and grow. Understanding Comics is a wide-ranging exploration of the definition, history and methods of the medium of comics. An attempt to formalize the study of comics, it is itself in comics form; the book's overarching argument is. McCloud introduced the concept of "closure," to refer to a reader's role in closing narrative gaps between comics panels; the book argues that comics employ nonlinear narratives because they rely on the reader's choices and interactions. The book begins with a discussion of the concept of visual literacy and a history of narrative in visual media.
McCloud mentions, among other early works of graphic narrative, the Bayeux Tapestry, as an antecedent to comics. Understanding Comics posits Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer as in many ways "the father of the modern comic." McCloud emphasizes Töpffer's use of "cartooning and panel borders" along with "the first interdependent combination of words and pictures seen in Europe."McCloud highlights the differences between iconic and realistic figures. Iconic figures can be compared to your standard cartoon, while realistic figures focus more on photo-quality in terms of detail, he states. He provides a full comparison and breakdown of iconic and realistic images and gives an interesting explanation of his reasoning behind this statement. One of the book's key concepts is that of "masking," a visual style, dramatic convention, literary technique described in the chapter on realism, it is the use of simplistic, narrative characters if juxtaposed with detailed, verisimilar, spectacular backgrounds.
This may function, McCloud infers, as a mask, a form of projective identification. His explanation is that a familiar and minimally detailed character allows for a stronger emotional connection and for viewers to identify more easily. One of the book's concepts is "The Big Triangle," a tool for thinking about different styles of comics art. McCloud places the realistic representation in the bottom left corner, with iconic representation, or cartoony art, in the bottom right, a third identifier, abstraction of image, at the apex of the triangle; this allows grouping of artists by triangulation. Understanding Comics won multiple Harvey Awards in 1994 for Best Graphic Album/Original Material and Best Biographical, Historical or Journalistic Presentation. In addition, McCloud won the 1994 Harvey Award for Best Writer. Understanding Comics won the 1994 Eisner Award for Best Comics-Related Book. Author McCloud won the 1994 Adamson Award for Best International Comic-Strip Cartoonist; the book was a finalist for the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Non-Fiction Book.
The Swedish translation of the book, Serier: Den Osynliga Konsten, published in 1995 by Häftad, was awarded the 1996 Urhunden Prize. The French translation of the book, titled L'Art invisible and published by Vertige Graphic, won the Prix Bloody Mary at the 2000 Angoulême International Comics Festival. In addition, it was nominated for that year's Angoulême International Comics Festival Prize for Best Album. Along with Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art, Understanding Comics is considered to form the foundations for formal comics studies in English; the book was called "one of the most insightful books about designing graphic user interfaces written" by Apple Macintosh co-creator Andy Hertzfeld. Understanding Comics was parodied by Dylan Sisson in his Filibusting Comics: The Next Chapter, published by Fantagraphics in 1995, translated into Spanish, it was parodied again, in Tim Heiderich and Mike Rosen's Misunderstanding Comics, self-published via Kickstarter in 2012. Comics and Sequential Art, an earlier book by Will Eisner on the same subject Comics studies "How to Read Nancy," an essay by Mark Newgarden and Paul Karasik Masking Seq
Zot! is a comic book created by Scott McCloud in 1984 and published by Eclipse Comics until 1990 as a lighthearted alternative to the darker and more violent comics that predominated the industry during that period. There were a total of 36 issues, with the remainder in black and white. McCloud credited Astro Boy creator Osamu Tezuka as a major influence on the book, making it one of the first manga-inspired American comic books. Zot - a blond haired, blue eyed teenage hero from an alternate Earth who flies via gravity boots and fights villains with a ten-shooter laser gun and boundless optimism. Jenny Weaver - a sensitive teenage girl from our world and the reader's point-of-view character throughout the series. Butch - Jenny's older brother, a typical blustering bully who, after a mishap in the first issue of the series, is transformed into a talking chimpanzee whenever he is on Zot's world. Uncle Max - Zot's uncle, an eccentric inventor and surrogate parent whose gadgets help Zot fight crime.
Peabody - Zot's robot butler/guardian. Woody - Jenny's nerdy but sweet "boyfriend" and close friend for the majority of the series Terry - Jenny's lesbian best friend Ronnie - a comic book obsessed writer Brandy - Ronnie's girlfriend, a thin bubbly ditzy, girl with an alcoholic mother George - a lazy genius determined to get straight D's only Spike - a violent and rude other comic book nerd Elizabeth - Spike's quiet and odd sister Zot and his friends faced a number of enemies, including: Bellows - a former inventor, angry that his environmentally un-friendly inventions are no longer used. 9-Jack-9 - assassin for hire who can travel through any electrical signal. The astral projection of a man named Sir John Sheers, he was killed by Zot. Upon his death his astral form remained and is now a being of pure energy more dangerous than before. Dekko - Max's friend turned madman who replaced his cancer-ridden body with robotic parts; the Devoes - a cult of humans who believe that coming out of the trees was a bad idea, hence the name de-evolutionaries.
Use de-evolutionary guns to "revert" humans back into monkeys. Zybox - a supercomputer hoping to acquire a soul; the Blotch - a gangster/businessman with a warped face trying to stay out of jail. Using a portal created by Uncle Max, a link is created from contemporary Earth to the alternate reality of Zot, it is a retro-futuristic technological utopia, reminiscent of imagery from Golden Age SF, flying cars and interplanetary travel are common and nearly all of its inhabitants benefit from peace, prosperity and a marked lack of conventional social ills. There seem to be subtle differences in the essential nature of the two Earths, as on Zot's world events favor the "good guys" in any conflict. Still, there are several commonalities between Zot's world and the "real" Earth, such as the careers of several popular musicians. In Zot's utopian Earth, years seem to not pass by as it is permanently stuck in 1965; the inhabitants of Zot's world are unable to notice this fact, but Jenny and her friends from our Earth realize it.
The true nature of Zot's world is never explained in the comic, is left as a loose end, but it is hinted that Zot's world is a copy of our own. Although the comic has been out of print, it was reprinted in several volumes; the first collection was Zot! Book One from Eclipse Press which collected issues 1–4 and included an introduction by Scott McCloud; the series was collected by Kitchen Sink Press in Book One, which collected issues 1–10 and included an introduction by Kurt Busiek. Book 4, collecting the "real world arc" of issues 28–36, was a casualty of Kitchen Sink's turmoil. In 2000, ten years after the last print issue appeared, McCloud brought the series back in webcomic format under the title Zot! Online, he published the 440-page story arc "Minds" at Comic Book Resources. McCloud used an infinite canvas style for Zot! Online, using trails to instruct the reader what the reading order of the panels are. In July 2008, HarperCollins published the complete black and white issues of the series in one volume.
This edition included never-before-seen commentary by McCloud. It did not include the published "Getting to 99" story, but only McCloud's breakdowns, as the art was done by another artist, Chuck Austen. In addition, HarperCollins published a limited, signed collector's edition of this collection in November 2008. Jenny Weaver, a normal lonely girl relocated to a new town, stumbles across Zot, a superhero from an alternate world, chasing a troop of robots in pursuit of a key that will open a door hanging out in space. Jenny returns with her brother Butch to his world, they retrieve the key and take it to the authorities. Their pursuit leads them to Sirius IV, a drab theocratic planet, home of the key. While there they uncover a plot to use the key, the subsequent door opening, as an excuse to lead a holy war against Earth. To foil the plot Zot and Jenny take themselves through the door where they converse with the spirit of Sirius IV. Once out again they lead the revolt against the acting leader of planet, tricked into goading his subjects on live television.
Zot defeats the tyrant, but refuses to lead the planet, stating that they must learn to look after themselves. The next sequence features a series of super villains, each. Ignatius Rumboult Bellows was his planet's foremost scientist, pioneering the Industrial Revolution, but all his work is made obso
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Cerebus the Aardvark
Cerebus is a comic book series created by Canadian cartoonist Dave Sim, which ran from December 1977 until March 2004. The title character of the 300-issue series is an anthropomorphic aardvark who takes on a number of roles throughout the series—barbarian, prime minister and Pope among them; the series stands out for its experimentation in form and content, for the dexterity of its artwork after background artist Gerhard joined with the 65th issue. As the series progressed, it became a platform for Sim's controversial beliefs; the comic began as a parody of sword and sorcery comics, but explored a variety of other topics, including politics and gender issues. At a total of 6,000 pages, it progressively became more serious and ambitious than its parodic roots—what has come to be dubbed "Cerebus Syndrome". Sim announced early on; the story has a large cast of characters, many of which began as parodies of characters from comic books and popular culture. Starting with the "High Society" storyline, the series became divided into self-contained "novels", which form parts of the overall story.
The ten "novels" of the series have been collected in 16 books, known as "Cerebus phonebooks" for their resemblance, by way of their thickness, to telephone directories. At a time when the series was about 70% completed, celebrated comic book writer Alan Moore wrote, "Cerebus, as if I need to say so, is still to comic books what Hydrogen is to the Periodic Table."Cerebus has been rated to be one the greatest characters in comics history. Wizard rated him as the 63rd greatest comic book character, while Empire rated him as the 38th greatest comic book character, describing him as a character born of bizarre brilliance. IGN placed Cerebus as the 91st greatest comic book hero of all time, stating that a few names hold as much sway in the independent comics scene as Cerebus and that Cerebus' mark on the industry will be everlasting. Cerebus was self-published by Dave Sim under Inc. publishing banner. For the first few years the company's publisher was Sim's girlfriend. Sim's position as a pioneering self-publisher in comics inspired numerous writer/artists after him, most notably Jeff Smith, Terry Moore, Martin Wagner.
In 1979, at the time a frequent marijuana user, began using LSD, taking the drug with such frequency that he was hospitalized. It was this incident that Sim claims led to the inspiration to produce Cerebus for 300 monthly issues; when Sim published the first Cerebus "phone book", a paperback collection of the High Society graphic novel, he angered distributors—who felt that their support had been instrumental in his series' success in an industry indifferent to small publishers—by offering the first printing via mail order only. The decision was a financial windfall for Sim, grossing over $150,000 in sales. Sim became known for picking up hotel tabs for self-publishers and helping other self-publishers by paying for meals and limo service between stops. Negotiations regarding DC buying Cerebus took place over the course of 1985 to 1988, offering $100,000 and 10% of all licensing and merchandising, which Sim rejected; the series hit a personal sales record with issue #100 which, despite being a normal issue in the middle of a story arc, had a print run of 36,000 copies.
Sales took a substantial drop over the next 50 issues and Sim commented that the fact that readers could not "jump in" to Cerebus, had to read the entire series in order to be able to understand the current issue, was a major reason for the sales drop. In July 1984, Cerebus publisher Aardvark-Vanaheim was threatened with possible legal action by Marvel Comics over a parody of Wolverine in Cerebus; when Sim guest-wrote the 10th issue of Todd McFarlane's comics series Spawn, he donated his entire fee—over $100,000—to the fund."Jaka's Story", a tragic character study dealing with gender roles and the political suppression of art, is cited as the series' pinnacle of narrative achievement. Issues of the series became personal and began to alienate many long-time fans, his female readers especially. Issue #186 contained a lengthy prose section, attacked by some readers and critics for what they perceived as overt misogyny, but which Sim describes as "anti-feminism". During this part of the story, the storyline consisted of a textual treatise written by Viktor Davis, a fictional "reads" author, interspersed with the main Cerebus storyline.
In Davis' material, he refers to the "creative male light" and the "emotional female void", a reversal of the gender-based view of creation espoused by the Judge at the end of Church and State. As Sim himself says in an interview with The Comics Journal, "Cerebus #1–200 the completion of the story; the yin and yang. The ultra-female reading; the ultra-male reading. I'm attaching an allegory to the Big Bang. You make up your mind which one's the pit and which one's the top of the mountain." By the end of the series, the Void is again male and identified as God, the Light is female, now identified with YHWH. Issue #186 was followed by another essay in the back of issue #265 called "Tangent", in which Sim identified a "feminist/homosexualist axis" that opposed traditional and rational societal values; this material appeared as Sim was retreating from public life and becoming more marginalized by his peers in the industry. Sim himself appeared as a cha
Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form is a book written by comic book writer and artist Scott McCloud. It was a thematic sequel to his critically acclaimed Understanding Comics, was followed by Making Comics. Reinventing Comics was released in 2000 in separate editions published by Paradox Press and William Morrow Paperbacks. Paradox Press an imprint of DC Comics, is now defunct. Reinventing Comics explains twelve "revolutions" which McCloud predicts are necessary for the comic book to survive as a medium, focusing on online comics; the book caused considerable controversy in the comics industry, McCloud famously noting that it had been described as "dangerous". As promised in the book, McCloud has offered annotations and his further-developing thoughts about the future of comics on his web site. In particular, he considers his web comic I Can't Stop Thinking to be a continuation of Reinventing Comics, though he has continued to write about the future of comics in many different forms, as he acknowledges Reinventing Comics is "a product of its time".
McCloud drew Reinventing Comics digitally. Because of the low power of the machine he was using, McCloud had a difficult time working on the book. In an interview with Joe Zabel, McCloud stated that he was so eager to get to the second half of the book that he rushed through the first portion. A revised version of Reinventing Comics was released in 2009. Here, McCloud cited various successful webcomics that pushed the envelope, such as Daniel Merlin Goodbrey's work with the "Tarquin Engine" and Drew Weing's Pup Contemplates the Heat Death of the Universe. Fantagraphics Books Inc. editor and publisher Gary Groth wrote an critique of Reinventing Comics in 2001. Comics studies