SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Scow

A scow is a type of flat-bottomed barge. Some scows are rigged as sailing scows. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, scows carried cargo in coastal waters and inland waterways, having an advantage for navigating shallow water or small harbours. Scows were in common use in the American Great Lakes and other parts of the U. S. in southern England, in New Zealand. In modern times their main purpose is for racing; the name "scow" derives from the Dutch "schouw" from the German for a punt pole and subsequently transferred to mean the boat. Old Saxon has a similar word scaldan which means to push from the shore related to punting; the basic scow was developed as a flat-bottomed barge capable of navigating shallow rivers and sitting comfortably on the bottom when the tide was out. By 1848 scows were being rigged for sliding keels, they were used as dumb barges towed by steamers. Dumb scows were used for a variety of purposes: garbage, dredging as well as general esturine cargos. Sailing scows have significant advantages over traditional deep keel sailing vessels that were common at the time the sailing scow was popular.

Keelboats, while stable and capable in open water, were incapable of sailing into shallow bays and rivers, which meant that to ship cargo on a keelboat required a suitable harbour and docking facilities, or else the cargo had to be loaded and unloaded with smaller boats. Flat-bottomed scows, on the other hand, could navigate shallow waters, could be beached for loading and unloading; this made them useful for moving cargo from inland regions unreachable by keelboat to deeper waters where keelboats could reach. The cost of this shallow water advantage was the loss of the seaworthiness of flat bottomed scow boats in open water and bad weather; the squared-off shape and simple lines of a scow make it a popular choice for simple home-built boats made from plywood. Phil Bolger and Jim Michalak, for example, have designed a number of small sailing scows, the PD Racer and the John Spencer designed Firebug are growing classes of home-built sailing scow; these designs are created to minimize waste when using standard 4-foot by 8-foot sheets of plywood.

The scow hull is the basis for the shantyboat or, on the Chesapeake, the ark, a cabin houseboat once common on American rivers. The ark was used as portable housing by Chesapeake watermen, who followed, for example, shad runs seasonally; the Thames sailing barge and the Norfolk wherry are two British equivalents to the scow schooner. The Thames sailing barges, while used for similar tasks, used different hull shapes and rigging; the term scow is used around the west Solent for a traditional class of sailing dinghy. Various towns and villages claim their own variants, they are all around 11 feet in length and share a lug sail, pivoting centre board, small foredeck and a square transom with a transom-hung rudder. An American design that reached its zenith of size on the American Great Lakes, was used in New Zealand, the schooner-rigged scow was used for coastal and inland transport, from colonial days to the early 1900s. Scow schooners had a broad, shallow hull, used centreboards, bilgeboards or leeboards rather than a deep keel.

The broad hull gave them stability, the retractable foils allowed them to move heavy loads of cargo in waters far too shallow for keelboats to enter. The squared-off bow and stern accommodated a large cargo; the smallest sailing scows were otherwise similar in design. The scow sloop evolved into the inland lake scow, a type of fast racing boat. Sailing scows were popular in the American South for economic reasons, because the pine planks found there were difficult to bend, because inlets along the Gulf Coast and Florida were shallow; the American scow design was copied and modified in New Zealand by early immigrant settlers to Auckland in the 1870s. In 1873, a sea captain named George Spencer, who had once lived and worked on the American Great Lakes and had gained a first-hand knowledge of the practical working capabilities of the sailing barges that plied their trade on the lakes, recognised the potential use of similar craft in the protected waters of the Hauraki Gulf, Auckland, he commissioned a local shipbuilder, Septimus Meiklejohn, to construct a small flat-bottomed sailing barge named the Lake Erie, built at Omaha, not far from Mahurangi.

An account of the launching of this vessel appeared in 1873 in the Auckland newspaper, The Daily Southern Cross, which gave its readers a good idea of the distinctive construction and advantages over other vessels. The Lake Erie was 60 feet 6 inches in length, seventeen feet 3 inches in breadth and had a draught of three feet 4 inches, it was fitted with lee boards, but these were impracticable in rough weather on the New Zealand coast. Scows were constructed with the much safer slab sided centre board, which crews raised and lowered as required; this one small craft spawned a fleet of sailing scows that became associated with the gum trade and the flax and kauri industries of northern New Zealand. Scows came in all manner of shape and sizes and all manner of sailing rigs, but the "true" sailing scow displayed no fine lines or fancy rigging, they were designed for hard work and heavy haulage and they did their job remarkably well. They took cattle north from the stockyards of Auckland and returned with a cargo of kauri logs, sacks of kauri gum, firewood, flax or sand.

With their flat bottoms they could be saile

Suffolk Resolves

The Suffolk Resolves was a declaration made on September 9, 1774 by the leaders of Suffolk County, Massachusetts. The declaration rejected the Massachusetts Government Act and resolved on a boycott of imported goods from Britain unless the Intolerable Acts were repealed; the Resolves were recognized by statesman Edmund Burke as a major development in colonial animosity leading to adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776, he urged British conciliation with the American colonies, to little effect. The First Continental Congress endorsed the Resolves on September 17, 1774. On August 26–27, the Committees of Correspondence from Suffolk, Middlesex and Worcester counties met at Faneuil Hall in Boston to oppose the recent Massachusetts Government Act, which had disenfranchised citizens of Massachusetts by revoking key provisions of the provincial Charter of 1691; this convention urged all Massachusetts counties to close their courts rather than submit to the oppressive measure.

Berkshire had done so, by the first week of October, seven of the nine contiguous mainland counties in Massachusetts had followed suit. As each county, in turn, closed its court, it issued a set of resolves to explain its actions. Although these resolves were all similar in tone and scope, the one written by patriots in Suffolk has received more attention for two reasons: it was better crafted, it was formally endorsed by the Continental Congress. Suffolk, which contained Boston, was the only county in which courts remained nominally open, under the protection of British troops. At the Suffolk County Convention of the Committees of Correspondence on September 6, 1774, Joseph Warren introduced the first draft of the Suffolk Resolves, which were edited and approved three days at the Daniel Vose House in Milton, Massachusetts, part of Suffolk County but is now in Norfolk County, Massachusetts; the convention that adopted them had first met at the Woodward Tavern in Dedham, today the site of the Norfolk County Courthouse.

As with the other county resolves, the Suffolk document denounced the Intolerable Acts, or Coercive Acts, passed by the British Parliament, resolved to: boycott British imports, curtail exports, refuse to use British products. In one of his less famous rides, Paul Revere delivered a copy of the Resolves to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia, where it was endorsed on September 17 as a show of colonial solidarity. In response, John Adams commented in his diary: "This was one of the happiest days of my life. In Congress we had generous, noble sentiments, manly eloquence; this day convinced me that America will support Massachusetts or perish with her." Endorsement of the Suffolk Resolves, with it the rebellion that had enveloped Massachusetts, altered the political balance in Congress and paved the way for radical measures, such as the Continental Association, a general nonimportation agreement. Nonimportation agreements had been limited to specific localities, but this one applied throughout the rebellious colonies.

The Committees of Inspection, which were formed to enforce the Continental Association, established a revolutionary infrastructure, similar to that of the Sons of Liberty in the early days of resistance. A number of counties in other colonies adopted declarations of grievances against Britain during the period before the Declaration of Independence, including the Mecklenburg Resolves and the Tryon Resolves in 1775 and at least 90 other documents favoring independence in the spring of 1776, but the resolves from the Massachusetts County Conventions in August–October, 1774, were the first to promote across-the-board noncompliance with British governmental authority. A historic plaque on Adams Street in the Lower Mills area of Milton commemorates the original site of the Daniel Vose House, where the Suffolk Resolves were signed on September 4, 1774. In order to prevent its demolition, the house was moved in 1950 from Lower Mills to 1370 Canton Avenue in Milton. Now known as the Suffolk Resolves House, it was restored to its original colonial appearance and is the headquarters of the Milton Historical Society.

It is open to public view. Milton Historical Society homepage Website of the Milton Historical Commission Podcast discussion of Suffolk Resolves Full text of Suffolk Resolves

84 (number)

84 is the natural number following 83 and preceding 85. 84 is: the sum of the first seven triangular numbers. The sum of a twin prime. A semiperfect number, being thrice a perfect number. A palindromic number and a repdigit in bases 11, 13, 20, 27, 41; the lim sup of the largest finite subgroup of the mapping class group of a genus g surface divided by g. A hepteract is a seven-dimensional hypercube with 84 penteract 5-faces. Messier object M84, a magnitude 11.0 lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo The New General Catalogue object NGC 84, a single star in the constellation Andromeda Eighty-four is also: The year AD 84, 84 BC, or 1984. The number of years in the Insular latercus, a cycle used in the past by Celtic peoples, equal to 3 cycles of the Julian Calendar and to 4 Metonic cycles and 1 octaeteris The atomic number of polonium The model number of Harpoon missile WGS 84 - The latest revision of the World Geodetic System, a fixed global reference frame for the Earth; the house number of 84 Avenue Foch The number of the French department Vaucluse The code for international direct dial phone calls to Vietnam The town of Eighty Four, Pennsylvania The company 84 Lumber The ISBN Group Identifier for books published in Spain A variation of the game 42 played with two sets of dominoes.

The film "84 Charing Cross Road" starring Anne Bancroft and Anthony Hopkins KKNX Radio 84 in Eugene, Oregon The B-Side to "Up All Night" British Army term for the 84mm Carl Gustav recoilless rifle. How many Earth years it takes Uranus to orbit the sun once List of highways numbered 84