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Seaborgium

Seaborgium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Sg and atomic number 106. It is named after the American nuclear chemist Glenn T. Seaborg; as a synthetic element, it is not found in nature. It is radioactive. In the periodic table of the elements, it is a d-block transactinide element, it is a member of the 7th period and belongs to the group 6 elements as the fourth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that seaborgium behaves as the heavier homologue to tungsten in group 6; the chemical properties of seaborgium are characterized only but they compare well with the chemistry of the other group 6 elements. In 1974, a few atoms of seaborgium were produced in laboratories in the Soviet Union and in the United States; the priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry established seaborgium as the official name for the element.

It is one of only two elements named after a living person at the time of naming, the other being oganesson, element 118. Following claims of the observation of elements 104 and 105 in 1970 by Albert Ghiorso et al. at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a search for element 106 using oxygen-18 projectiles and the used californium-249 target was conducted. Several 9.1 MeV alpha decays were reported and are now thought to originate from element 106, though this was not confirmed at the time. In 1972, the HILAC accelerator received equipment upgrades, preventing the team from repeating the experiment, data analysis was not done during the shutdown; this reaction was tried again several years in 1974, the Berkeley team realized that their new data agreed with their 1971 data, to the astonishment of Ghiorso. Hence, element 106 could have been discovered in 1971 if the original data was analyzed more carefully. Two groups claimed discovery of the element. Unambiguous evidence of element 106 was first reported in 1974 by a Russian research team in Dubna led by Yuri Oganessian, in which targets of lead-208 and lead-207 were bombarded with accelerated ions of chromium-54.

In total, fifty-one spontaneous fission events were observed with a half-life between four and ten milliseconds. After having ruled out nucleon transfer reactions as a cause for these activities, the team concluded that the most cause of the activities was the spontaneous fission of isotopes of element 106; the isotope in question was first suggested to be seaborgium-259, but was corrected to seaborgium-260. 20882Pb + 5424Cr → 260106Sg + 2 n 20782Pb + 5424Cr → 260106Sg + nA few months in 1974, researchers including Glenn T. Seaborg, Carol Alonso and Albert Ghiorso at the University of California, E. Kenneth Hulet from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory synthesized the element by bombarding a californium-249 target with oxygen-18 ions, using equipment similar to that, used for the synthesis of element 104 five years earlier, observing at least seventy alpha decays from the isotope seaborgium-263m with a half-life of 0.9±0.2 seconds. The alpha daughter rutherfordium-259 and granddaughter nobelium-255 had been synthesised and the properties observed here matched with those known, as did the intensity of their production.

The cross-section of the reaction observed, 0.3 nanobarns agreed well with theoretical predictions. These bolstered the assignment of the alpha decay events to seaborgium-263m. 24998Cf + 188O → 263m106Sg + 4 10n → 259104Rf + α → 255102No + αA dispute thus arose from the initial competing claims of discovery, though unlike the case of the synthetic elements up to element 105, neither team of discoverers chose to announce proposed names for the new elements, thus averting an element naming controversy temporarily. The dispute on discovery, dragged on until 1992, when the IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group, formed to put an end to the controversy by making conclusions regarding discovery claims for elements 101 to 112, concluded that the Soviet synthesis of seaborgium-260 was not convincing enough, "lacking as it is in yield curves and angular selection results", whereas the American synthesis of seaborgium-263 was convincing due to its being anchored to known daughter nuclei; as such, the TWG recognised the Berkeley team as official discoverers in their 1993 report.

Seaborg had suggested to the TWG that if Berkeley was recognised as the official discoverer of elements 104 and 105, they might propose the name kurchatovium for element 106 to honour the Dubna team, which had proposed this name for element 104 after Igor Kurchatov, the former head of the Soviet nuclear research programme. However, due to the worsening relations between the competing teams after the publication of the TWG report, this proposal was dropped from consideration by the Berkeley team. After being recognized as official discoverers, the Berkeley team started deciding on a name in earnest:...we were given credit for the discovery and the accompanying right to name the new element. The eight members of the Ghiorso group suggested a wide range of names honoring Isaac Newton, Thomas Edison, Leonardo da Vinci, Ferdinand Magellan, the mythical Ulysses, George Washington, Finland, the native land of a member of the team. There was no front-runner for a long period. One day Al walked into my office and asked what I thought of naming element 106 "seaborgium."

I was f

Forminière

The Société internationale forestière et minière du Congo, known as Forminière, was a lumber and mining company in the Belgian Congo. Founded by Jean Jadot in 1906, the company began diamond mining in Kasai in 1913. At its height, Forminière was involved in gold and silver mining, cotton and rubber cultivation, farming and owned shops; the Belgian colonial state co-owned 50 percent of the company's capital, the rest being held by American shareholders. For the length of its existence, from 1913 to 1961, Forminière had a monopoly in Kasai. Forminière and its rival, the Société minière de Beceka, dominated the production of diamonds in the Belgian Congo. In 1959, Forminière's production of diamonds rose to 425,234 carats. However, after the 1960 independence of Congo and unrest in the region, company operations soon ceased. Thomas Fortune Ryan Societé Minière de Bakwanga Diamang Union Minière du Haut Katanga South Kasai Forminière 1906-1956, Brussels, Ed. L. Cuypers, 1956, 211p. Derksen, Richard.

"Forminière in the Kasai, 1906-1939". African Economic History. 12: 49–65. JSTOR 3601316

Secotan

The Secotans were one of several groups of American Indians dominant in the Carolina sound region, between 1584 and 1590, with which English colonizers had varying degrees of contact. Secotan villages included the Secotan, Dasamongueponke and Roanoac. Other local groups included the Chowanoke, Chesapeake, Ponouike and Mangoak, all resided along the banks of the Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, they spoke an Eastern Algonquian language. In the Carolinas, colonization did not exist as a straight-line transition, from Native American to European rule. A rivalry marked the relationship between the English and the Spanish. Rivalries existed between the Native American groups. Additionally, the Europeans found themselves caught in the middle of conflicts, which existed between Native American groups; each group, European or Native American placed the interest of their group over the interest of all others. The English, the Spanish, the Native American groups they had contact with each acted against the others, as counter-colonizers of the Carolinas as exhibited through the study of Roanoke Island.

In 1490, prior to England's entry into North American colonialism, the Treaty of Medina del Campo lowered tariffs between England and Spain, ushered in an era of increased trading between the two countries. The marriage of Henry VIII of England and Catherine of Aragon sealed the treaty. During this time, many English traders moved to southern Spain, in the area of Andalusia, trade flourished. In 1533, Spanish officials began to harass the English in Spain, who were required as Englishmen to "swear under oath" that Henry VIII was the head of the church; the requirement of the oath made the Englishmen in Spain subject to persecution, under charges of heresy, by the Spanish Inquisition. To circumvent Spanish officials and the inquisition, English traders devised a system, in which they would travel to Spanish possessions in the Caribbean, to pick up Spanish goods, take them back to England, with no religious conflicts. By the 1560s, the English faced increasing Spanish hostility. In 1585, the Englishman Richard Hakluyt published a book, Discourse of Western Planting, which concluded that the English should establish their own colony in the mid-latitudes of North America, to end dependency on Spanish goods, by creating their own supply lines.

By April of the same year, Sir Richard Grenville left England, bound for the Carolina coast, with 100 colonists, which marked the beginning of England's colonial endeavours in America. Spanish colonies established the first European colonies in the Carolinas, under the leadership of Spanish captain, Juan Pardo, in 1567 and 1568. Pardo declared that the Catawba and Saxaphaw groups were subject to the Spanish crown, he persuaded the groups to construct housing and make food provisions, which created eleven Spanish settlements in the Carolinas; the Spanish still inhabited the Carolinas. While the Spanish settled in the interior of the Carolinas, the English arrived on the coast; the placement of a colony at Roanoke marked the first English colonial presence in North America. Before the English placed their first settlement on Roanoke Island, Master Philip Amadas and Master Arthur Barlowe executed an expedition on April 27, 1584, on behalf of Sir Walter Raleigh, who received an English charter, to establish a colony a month earlier.

During their expedition, Barlowe took detailed notes relating to conflicts and rivalries between different groups of Native Americans. In one such account, Manteo, of the Croatoan, explained his own tribal history, in relation to a neighboring tribe at the mouth of the Neuse River, the Neusiok, referred to as the Neiosioke by Barlowe. According to Manteo, the Croatoan endured years of warfare with the Neiosioke, "some years earlier," he met with the Neiosioke king, in an effort to ensure a "permanent coexistence." The two leaders arranged a feast between the two groups. An unspecified number of Neiosioke men and thirty women attended a feast in the town of Croatoan; the Neiosioke executed an ambush on the Secotans at the feast, by the time fighting ended, the Neiosioke had "slewn them every one, reserving the women and children only."In conveying this "inter-tribal" history to Barlowe, Manteo saw an opportunity to advance the interest of the Croatoan. Manteo and his people attempted on several occasions to convince the English to join them in devising a surprise attack against the Neiosioke.

The Englishmen, uncertain of "whether their perswasion be to the ende they may be revenged of their enemies, or for the love they beare to us," declined to help the Croatoan wage war against their rivals. Instead, the English established a trusting relationship with the Croatoan, exemplified by the willingness of two Croatoan men and Wanchese, to accompany Amadas and Barlowe back to England; the Secotan remained in the same area until 1644-5, when they were attacked and driven off by colonists from Virginia Colony during the last of the Anglo-Powhatan Wars. English settlement in the area began to increase soon afterwards, it was transferred from Virginia Colony to the Province of Carolina in 1665. In latter years Secotans were recorded under the name Machapunga. Algonquian languages Algonquian peoples Aquascogoc Carolina Algonquian Chowanoke Chesapeake Dasamongueponke Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony, Lee Miller Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony, Second Edition, Karen Ordahl Kupperman Map of Virginia colony 1585. and Secotan territory Miller, Lee.

"Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony". New York, Arcade Publishing, 2000. Print. Hoffman, Paul E. Spain

1931–32 Palestine League

The 1931–32 Palestine League was the first complete season of league football in the British Mandate for Palestine, the first played in an autumn-spring format. Although in previous seasons several leagues were contested, none are recognized by the Israeli Football Association; the season began on 7 November 1931 and its final matches were played on 27 May 1932. Seven matches were left un-played as a dispute between Hapoel and Maccabi factions within the EIFA following the punishment given to Hapoel Haifa following the events that led to the abandonment of the cup final halted all EIFA activities; the championship was won by British Police. RSSSF British Police; the First Champions 100 Years of Football 1906-2006, Elisha Shohat, 2006

Nikolay Bobrikov

Nikolay Ivanovich Bobrikov was a Russian general and politician. He was the Governor-General of Finland and the Finnish Military District from 29 August 1898 to 16 June 1904 during the early reign of Emperor Nicholas II, was responsible for the Russification of Finland. After appointment as the governor-general, he became unpopular and was assassinated by a Finnish nationalist from Kharkov Eugen Schauman. Nikolay Ivanovich Bobrikov was born on January 15, 1839, attended the 1st Cadet Corps. Upon graduation, he served in the Imperial Guards. After which he served as divisional chief-of-staff in Novgorod, he became a colonel in 1869. A year he was transferred to Saint Petersburg for special duties in the Imperial guard; this gave Bobrikov access to the Imperial court. In 1878 he became a major general. In 1898, Tsar Nicholas II appointed Bobrikov as the Governor-General of Finland as well as the Finnish Military District. Upon appointment, he introduced a Russification programme into the Grand Duchy, the 11 main points were: Unification of the Finnish army.

Restricting the power of the Minister–Secretary of the State. Introducing of a special programme for dealing with cases common to the Empire and the Grand Duchy. Adoption of The Russian language as the official language of the Senate and administration. Bobrikov became unpopular and hated in Finland as he was an adamant supporter of the curtailing of the grand principality's extensive autonomy, which had in the late 1800s come into conflict with Russian ambitions of a unified and indivisible Russian state. In 1899, Nicholas II signed the "February Manifesto" which marks the beginning of the first "Years of Oppression" from the traditional Finnish perspective. In this manifesto the Tsar decreed that the Diet of the Estates of Finland could be overruled in legislation if it was in Russian imperial interests. Half a million Finns, considering the decree a coup against the Finnish constitution, signed a petition to Nicholas II requesting to revoke the manifesto; the Tsar didn't receive the delegation bringing the petition.

In 1900, Bobrikov issued orders that all correspondence between government offices was to be conducted in Russian and that education in the Russian language was to be increased in schools. The Finnish army was abolished in 1901, Finnish conscripts could now be forced to serve with Russian troops anywhere in the Russian empire. To the first call-up in 1902, only 42% of the conscripts showed up. In 1905, conscription in Finland was abolished. In 1903, Bobrikov was given dictatorial powers by the Tsar so that he could dismiss government officials and close newspapers. On June 16, 1904, Bobrikov was assassinated by Eugen Schauman in Helsinki. Schauman shot Bobrikov three times and himself twice. Schauman died and Bobrikov was mortally wounded, he died at the hospital in the early hours of the following morning, it was described as the following: On June 3, at 11:00 am, in the Senate building on the second floor staircase, an attempt was made on the life of the Finnish governor-general and commander of the troops, Adjutant-General N. I.

Bobrikov. One bullet hit the neck is not dangerous, another contusil, hitting the order, the third - in the stomach. On giving first aid to a Russian doctor, the governor-general was moved home. Doctors recognized the need to produce an early operation; the wounded man took communion. After the abdomen, the bullet was removed. Many blood clots have been found; the wounded man died on the night of June 4th. The criminal shot himself on the spot. Order of St. Anna, 3rd class Order of St. Stanislaus, 2nd class Order of St. Anna, 2nd class with Imperial Crown Order of St. Vladimir, 4th class Order of St. Vladimir, 3rd class Order of St. Stanislaus, 1st class Order of St. Anna, 1st class Order of St. Vladimir, 2nd class Order of the White Eagle Order of St. Alexander Nevsky with diamonds signs Order of St. Vladimir, 1st class

Harry Angelman

Harry Angelman was a British consultant paediatrician who identified Angelman syndrome. Angelman was born in Birkenhead in qualified in Liverpool. Angelman was an enthusiast for the country of Italy, he had observed three children who showed similar symptoms. He was in two minds as to whether he should publish his findings but he described seeing a painting which seemed to characterise the symptoms he had observed; the painting was by the renaissance artist Giovanni Francesco Caroto. His 1965 paper described, his paper was not recognised as important but similar children led to the idea being renamed Angelman syndrome. An American Angelman Syndrome Support Group was started in Waterlooville, Hampshire, in 1986. Angelman travelled to talk about his discovery and his work was mentioned as important by U. S. President Bill Clinton. Angelman died due to a colon tumour