The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
William Pelham Barr is an American attorney who has served as the 85th and current United States Attorney General since 2019, having served in the position from 1991 to 1993. Before becoming attorney general the first time, Barr held numerous other posts within the Department of Justice, including serving as Deputy Attorney General from 1990 to 1991, he is a member of the Republican Party. Barr was born in New York City in 1950, his father, Donald Barr, taught English literature at Columbia University before becoming headmaster of the Dalton School in Manhattan and the Hackley School in Tarrytown, both members of the Ivy Preparatory School League. Barr's mother, Mary Margaret taught at Columbia. Barr's father was born Jewish but converted to Catholicism, Barr was raised Catholic, he grew up on the Upper West Side, attended the Corpus Christi School and Horace Mann School. After high school, Barr entered Columbia University, where he majored in government and graduated with a B. A. in 1971. He did two years of graduate study at Columbia, receiving an M.
A. in government and Chinese studies in 1973. He attended law school at the George Washington University Law School, graduating with a J. D. summa cum laude in 1977. From 1973 to 1977, Barr was employed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Barr was a law clerk to Judge Malcolm Wilkey of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit from 1977 through 1978, he served on the domestic policy staff at the Reagan White House from May 3, 1982, to September 5, 1983, with his official title being Deputy Assistant Director for Legal Policy. He was in private practice for nine years with the Washington law firm of Shaw, Potts & Trowbridge. In 1989, at the beginning of his administration, President George H. W. Bush appointed Barr to the U. S. Department of Justice as Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel, an office which functions as the legal advisor for the President and executive agencies. Barr was known as a strong defender of presidential power and wrote advisory opinions justifying the U.
S. invasion of Panama and arrest of Manuel Noriega, a controversial opinion that the FBI could enter onto foreign soil without the consent of the host government to apprehend fugitives wanted by the United States government for terrorism or drug-trafficking. In May 1990, Barr was appointed Deputy Attorney General, the official responsible for day-to-day management of the Department. According to media reports, Barr was praised for his professional management of the Department. During August 1991, when then-Attorney General Richard Thornburgh resigned to campaign for the Senate, Barr was named Acting Attorney General. Three days after Barr accepted that position, 121 Cuban inmates, awaiting deportation to Cuba, seized 9 hostages at the Talladega federal prison, he directed the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team to assault the prison, which resulted in rescuing all hostages without loss of life. It was reported. Barr's two-day confirmation hearing was "unusually placid", he received a good reception from both Republicans and Democrats on the Senate Judiciary Committee.
Asked whether he thought a constitutional right to privacy included the right to an abortion, Barr responded that he believed the constitution was not intended to create a right to abortion. "Barr said at the hearings that Roe v. Wade was'the law of the land' and claimed he did not have'fixed or settled views' on abortion." Senate Judiciary Committee Chair Joe Biden, though disagreeing with Barr, responded that it was the "first candid answer" he had heard from a nominee on a question that witnesses would evade. Barr was approved unanimously by the Senate Judiciary Committee, was confirmed by voice vote by the full Senate, was sworn in as Attorney General on November 26, 1991. According to The New York Times, Barr's tenure started with anti-crime measures. In an effort to prioritize violent crime Barr reassigned three hundred FBI agents from counterintelligence work to investigations of gang violence, which the Times called, "the largest single manpower shift in the bureau's history."In October 1991, Barr appointed retired Democratic Chicago judge Nicholas Bua as special counsel in the Inslaw scandal.
Bua's 1993 report found the Department of no wrong doing in the matter. In October 1992, Barr appointed retired New Jersey federal judge Frederick B. Lacey, to investigate the Department of Justice and the Central Intelligence Agency handling of the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Iraqgate scandal; the appointment came after Democrats called for a special prosecutor during the scandal fearing a "cover-up" by the administration. House Banking Committee Chairman Henry B. González called for Barr's resignation, citing "repeated, clear failures and obstruction" by the Department of Justice. On December 24, 1992, nearing the end of his term in office after being defeated by Bill Clinton the previous month, George H. W. Bush pardoned six administration officials, five of whom had been found guilty on charges relating to the Iran–Contra affair. Barr was consulted extensively regarding the pardons, advocated for the pardon of former Secretary of Defense, Caspar Weinberger, who had not yet come to trial. In 1992, Barr authored a report, The Case for More Incarceration, which argued for an increase in the United States incarceration rate for violent criminals.
Attorney General of Alabama
The Attorney General of Alabama is an elected, constitutional officer of the State of Alabama. The office of the Attorney General is located at the state capitol in Alabama. Henry Hitchcock was elected Alabama's first attorney general in 1819; as is common in many states, the Attorney General is the chief lawyer of the state. He is called upon as the chief defender of the laws of Alabama, the lawyer for state officials and represents the state in all matters brought before a court of law or tribunal; the Attorney General provides advisory opinions to local and state governments when questions arise about the constitutionality of proposed laws and regulations. It is the task of the AG to represent the state when questions arise concerning various criminal sentences including the death penalty. From time to time the AG may begin legal proceedings on behalf of the state or on behalf of consumers damaged by illegal or bad faith commercial transactions. Eight divisions comprise the Attorney General's office.
Those divisions include: a General Crimes Division, a Public Corruption Division, Civil Division, Appellate Division, Consumer Protection Division, Constitional Defense Division and a Medicaid Fraud Control Unit. Division chiefs include Clay J. Crenshaw, Olivia Martin, Billington Garret, M. Matt Hart, Bruce M. Lieberman, Azzie Taylor; the Chief Deputy Attorney General is Alice Martin Andrew Brasher is the Solicitor general Alabama Attorney General official website Alabama Attorneys General list of past officeholders at Alabama Department of Archives and History Alabama Attorney General articles at Legal Newsline Legal Journal Alabama Attorney General articles at ABA Journal News and Commentary at FindLaw Code of Alabama at Law. Justia.com U. S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of Alabama" at FindLaw Alabama State Bar Alabama Attorney General profile at National Association of Attorneys General Press releases at Alabama Attorney General's office
Leslie Rutledge is an American lawyer and politician from the U. S. State of Arkansas. A member of the Republican Party, she is the current Attorney General of Arkansas, a position she has held since January 13, 2015. A a native of Batesville in Independence County, Rutledge is a graduate of Southside High School, the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the William H. Bowen School of Law at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, she began her legal career as clerk to the Arkansas Court of Appeals Judge Josephine Hart, since associate justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court. She was appointed deputy counsel for Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee and served as Legal Counsel on Huckabee's 2008 presidential campaign, she has been a deputy prosecuting attorney in Lonoke County and in subsequent service as attorney for the State of Arkansas’s Division of Children and Family Services. She served as deputy counsel at the National Republican Congressional Campaign Committee before she was named counsel for the Republican National Committee.
Prior to her election as attorney general, Rutledge founded and practiced law at The Rutledge Firm, PLLC. Rutledge sought the Republican nomination for Attorney General of Arkansas in the 2014 election, she faced fellow attorneys David Sterling. Rutledge finished with a plurality in the primary but finished with less than 50 percent of the vote, she hence faced second-place finisher David Sterling in a runoff election. Nation endorsed Rutledge, she defeated Sterling. In September 2014, County Clerk Larry Crane of Pulaski County cancelled Rutledge's voter registration when he discovered that Rutledge had registered to vote in Washington, D. C, she re-registered in Pulaski County. Notably, during the 2014 AETN Televised Debate, Leslie Rutledge compared smart phones to "the devil". Https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=lg5h1Av-RcQ Rutledge defeated Democratic Party nominee Nate Steel, a member of the Arkansas House of Representatives, Libertarian Party nominee Aaron Cash, in the general election. She woman thus far to have been elected Attorney General of Arkansas.
In 2016, Rutledge stated that she would appeal a ruling supporting LGBT anti-discrimination laws enacted in Fayetteville, in opposition to a state law prohibiting these ordinances. In July 2017, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton led a group of Republican Attorneys General from nine other states, including Rutledge, plus Idaho Governor Butch Otter, in threatening the Donald Trump administration that they would litigate if the president did not terminate the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals policy, put into place by president Barack Obama. Tennessee Attorney General Herbert Slatery subsequently reversed his position and withdrew his participation from the proposed suit on August 31. Slatery went further to urge passage of the DREAM Act; the other Attorneys General who joined in making the threats against Trump included Steve Marshall of Alabama, Lawrence Wasden of Idaho, Derek Schmidt of Kansas, Jeff Landry of Louisiana, Doug Peterson of Nebraska, Alan Wilson of South Carolina, Patrick Morrisey of West Virginia.
In June 2017, Rutledge again rejected a proposed state constitutional amendment to legalize casino gambling in the state. She rejected the proposal by Barry Emigh of Hot Springs, writing that the proposed popular name and ballot title are "misleading and wholly deficient." Rutledge met Boyce Johnson, a farmer from Marion in Crittenden County in eastern Arkansas, at a convention for the American Farm Bureau Federation. The couple wed in December 2015. On 27 July 2018, Rutledge gave birth to a daughter. List of female state attorneys-general in the United States Profile at Vote Smart
Utah Attorney General
The Attorney General of Utah is an elected constitutional officer in the executive branch of the state government of Utah. The attorney general is the legal adviser in the state; the office is elected, with a term of four years. A. C. Bishop 1896–1901 M. A. Breeden 1901–1909 A. R. Barnes 1909–1917 Dan B. Shields 1917-1921 Harvey H. Cluff 1921–1929 George P. Parker 1929–1933 Joseph Chez 1933–1941 Grover A. Giles 1941–1949 Clinton D. Vernon 1949–1953 E. R. Callister 1953–1959 Walter L. Budge 1959–1961 A. Pratt Kessler 1961–1965 Phil L. Hansen 1965–1969 Vernon B. Romney 1969–1977 Robert B. Hansen 1977–1981 David L. Wilkinson 1981–1989 Paul Van Dam 1989–1993 Jan Graham 1993–2001 Mark Shurtleff 2001–2013 John Swallow 2013 Sean Reyes 2014– Utah Attorney General official website Utah Attorney General articles at Legal Newsline Legal Journal Utah Attorney General articles at ABA Journal News and Commentary at FindLaw Utah Code at Law. Justia.com U. S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of Utah" at FindLaw Utah State Bar Utah Attorney General Sean Reyes profile at National Association of Attorneys General Press releases at Utah Attorney General