Utah's Dixie is the nickname for the populated, lower elevation area of south-central Washington County in southwestern Utah. Its climate is mild when compared to the rest of Utah, typical of the Mojave Desert, in which it lies. Situated below the Black Ridge and the Hurricane Cliffs, in the northeastern edge of the Mojave Desert, it settled by the Southern Paiutes. It was first inhabited by Mormon settlers in 1854, as part of Brigham Young's efforts to establish an Indian Mission in the region; the settlers began growing cotton and other temperate cash crops during the 1850s on land that had fed the Paiute. The Paiute population was decimated as a result of disease; the largest community in the region, St. George, was founded in 1861, when Brigham Young selected 300 families to take over the area and grow cotton and other crops; the region was nicknamed Dixie by 1860. Andrew Larson's text on the history of the name "Dixie" in Utah states that in 1857, the first President of the Washington Stake was Robert Dockery Covington, a slave overseer and slave owner from North Carolina and Mississippi.
Larson states: Already the settled area of the Virgin Valley was being called Utah's "Dixie." The fact that cotton would grow there, as well as tobacco and other semi-tropical plants such as the South produced made it easy for the name to stick. The fact that the settlers at Washington were bona fide Southerners who were steeped in the lore of cotton culture—many of them, at least—clinched the title. Dixie it became, Dixie it remained.... The name "Dixie" is one of those distinctive things about this part of Utah... It is a proud title Whatever the real origins of the term, the Cotton Mission didn't work out as well as Young had hoped – yields in the test fields were not as high as expected, economic viability of growing cotton was never achieved, although a cotton mill was built and used for a few years in the town of Washington; the largest city in the area is St. George, with a population of nearly 150,000 in the metropolitan area. South-central Washington County, has become a retirement and recreational haven due to its pleasant winter climate, many golf courses and red sandstone landscape.
In the winter, temperatures average in the mid to upper 50s F. during the day with nighttime temperatures averaging just below freezing. Heavy snowfall is rare, however slight accumulation occurs once or twice during these cooler months completely melting in a day or two; the humidity is low, the area receives an average of about 8 to 10 inches of rainfall annually. Summers are long and hot with high temperatures exceeding 100 °F. from about late May through September, with the exception of the cooling rains of the southwest Monsoon. The record high temperature was recorded in the area near the Arizona line at 117 °F.. Utah's Dixie is one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States, being located in the Sunbelt. St. George and its suburbs of Ivins, Santa Clara, Washington, along with Hurricane, are the largest and fastest-growing cities within the region. Dixie State University Bleak, James Godson.
Utah State Fair
The Utah State Fair is held at the Utah State Fairpark in Salt Lake City, United States. The fairgrounds are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the fair lasts for 11 days. Every year the State Fair hosts other entertainers during the fair. From the grandstand line-up to the demolition derby, truck PRCA rodeo; the fair offers free entertainment with a few of the bigger concerts at a price. The fair's grandstand represents the best in entertainment for the fair; the 2013 grandstand concert line-up includes top performers: Plain White T's, Amy Grant, American Pickers and Theft, Bridgit Mendler, 38 Special, Caleb Chapman's Crescent Superband with special guest Poncho Sanchez, The Texaco Country Showdown State Finals, Kahuna Beach Party and Ramón Ayala. Visit utahstatefair.com/concerts for more information on performers and ticket information. *Most shows are free and only need a seating ticket. Free with the gate admission the State Fair has entertainment on the grounds; this year the entertainment will feature: Paul Bunyan Lumberjack Show, The Great American Duck Race, Wizards Challenge, Randy Cabral, Freddy Fusion and Lokalgrown.
The gazebo on the fairgrounds is home to free entertainment. The gazebo will host entertainment from: Randy Cabral and Freddy Fusion Science Magic Show, Cross Strung, County Red, Eric Dodge, The Hollering Pines, The Linfords, Kindle Creek and Lokalgrown. Living Arts,4-H Food and Clothing, Creative Arts, Fine Arts, Home Arts, Indoor Cook-offs, Outdoor Cook-offs, Livestock, Jr. Livestock, Beef Cattle, Dairy Cattle, Poultry, Rabbits and Swine. During the 1700 and early 1800s trappers and other frontiersmen passed through the Salt Lake Valley of what is today Utah. With the high rugged Rocky Mountains on the east and miles of unfriendly, dry desert and salt flats on the west, most of these early explorers and settlers found the climate and land an inhospitable environment in which to settle; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints had been established in 1830 by Joseph Smith in New York. Due to religious persecution, the group moved further and further west, yearning for a land to settle in which they could practice their religion.
Following the murder of Joseph Smith in Nauvoo Illinois, Brigham Young lead the Mormon pioneers across the plains and west of the United States borders where they could live with religious freedom and establish their homes. The Salt Lake Valley met their desires, yet the trials and difficulties would be great. In July, 1847, the first pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley. Although the land poised many challenges, this was a choice situation for the pioneers though most were from the fertile eastern states. Due to the isolation of the territory, for the pioneers to survive it was imperative that they become self-sufficient and provide all of their necessities. Thus, the major goal of agricultural policy in pioneer Utah was complete self-sufficiency and independence; the major instrument for implementing this policy was the Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society, incorporated by an act of Territorial Legislature on January 17, 1856. The D. A. M. Society staff consisted of six men who were elected in the first instance by the joint vote of the State Legislative Assembly.
These men of foresight and vision gave their loyal service without any compensation other than the joy of public service. Despite its charter as an agent of the territorial government, the Society's motive force and institutional goals and staffs were provided by the LDS Church and for many years the president of the Society, the members of its board of directors, were selected or approved by Brigham Young; the first President of the Society was The Presiding Bishop of the LDS Church, Edward Hunter who served from 1856 until 1863. In the LDS Church General Conference, a semi-annual meeting of the LDS Church, following the incorporation of the Society; as one way of doing this, the Society sponsored an annual exposition in Salt Lake City, "The Deseret Fair." Only nine years after the 1847 arrival of the Mormon pioneers to the Salt Lake Valley, the Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society organized the first Fair and continued to organize and sponsor the Fairs until 1907. The first fair called "The Deseret Fair," was held October 2–4, 1856 in the building known as the "Deseret Store and Tithing Office," in downtown Salt Lake City across the street from where the Salt Lake City Utah LDS Temple was to be built.
In 1909 the Deseret Store and Tithing Office and the Deseret News printing plant were moved to accommodate the construction of the Hotel Utah, now the Joseph Smith Building. The basement of the Deseret Store, displayed agriculture products including, "large hens from Land's End England." The handicraft products were displayed on the first floor, including, "a handsome bridle and buckskin suit" and on the second floor were fruits of the orchard and garden, household items. Pride in excellence of exhibits must have been the chief reward of the early exhibitors for most of the cash awards were from.50 to $3. And "diplomas" were the only prizes awarded in many instances. Among the winners for exhibits are names prominent in Utah history, including Brigham Young, the winner of $25 for "Best Stallion"
Economy of Utah
Utah has a mixed economy covering industries like tourism, agriculture, information technology and petroleum production. The majority of Utah's gross state product is produced along the Wasatch Front, containing the state capital Salt Lake City. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis the gross stated product of Utah in 2010 was 82 billion, just over half a percent of the total United States GDP of $14.55 trillion for the same year. The per capita personal income was $36,457 in 2005. Major industries of Utah include: coal mining, cattle ranching, salt production, government services. According to the 2007 State New Economy Index, Utah is ranked the top state in the nation for Economic Dynamism, determined by, "The degree to which state economies are knowledge-based, entrepreneurial, information technology-driven, innovation-based." In eastern Utah petroleum production is a major industry. Near Salt Lake City, petroleum refining is done by a number of oil companies. In central Utah, coal production accounts for much of the mining activity.
Utah collects personal income tax at a single rate of 5%, but provides tax credits to low and middle income taxpayers to provide a progressive tax system. The state sales tax has a base rate of 4.65 percent, with cities and counties levying additional local sales taxes that vary among the municipalities. Property taxes are collected locally. Utah does not impose an inheritance tax; as of December 2015, Utah's unemployment rate sat at 3.5%, ranked 7th out of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Farming plays an important role in rural Utah. Crops like hay and barley can be produced despite the dry land. Cultivated land, including isolated farms in river valleys and considerable dry farming acreage, is limited to a small percentage of the state's total area; the bulk of income from agriculture comes from livestock and livestock products, including sheep, dairying, an expanding poultry industry. Abundant sunshine provides some compensation for inadequate rainfall, the climate is moderate, allowing for substantial fruit production.
Tourism is a major industry in Utah, as it is well known for its year-round outdoor recreational activities.. With five national parks, Utah has the third most national parks of any state after Alaska and California. In addition, Utah features seven national monuments, two national recreation areas, six national forests, numerous state parks and monuments. Utah is well known for its winter activities and has seen an increase in tourism since the 2002 Winter Olympics. Beginning in 1939, with the establishment of Alta Ski Area, Utah's skiing has become world-renowned. Park City is home to the United States Ski Team. Utah's ski resorts are located in northern Utah near Salt Lake City, Park City and Provo. In 2008, for a second year in a row, Deer Valley, in Park City, was ranked the top ski resort in North America by more than 20,000 subscribers of Ski Magazine. In addition to having prime snow conditions and world-class amenities, Northern Utah's ski resorts are well liked among tourists for their convenience and proximity to a large city and International Airport, as well as the close proximity to other ski resorts, allowing skiers the ability to ski at multiple locations in one day.
In Southern Utah, Brian Head Ski Resort is located in the mountains near Cedar City and Eagle Point Resort is located 19 miles east of Beaver, Utah on Utah State Highway 153. The 2002 Winter Olympics were celebrated in Utah and offered a great boon to the economy of the state. Several facilities were built to accommodate the influx of tourism that accompanied and lingered after the Olympics. Former Olympic venues including Utah Olympic Park and Utah Olympic Oval are still in operation for training and competition and allows the public to participate in numerous activities including ski jumping and speed skating. Utah features many cultural attractions such as Temple Square in Salt Lake, the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, the Utah Shakespearean Festival in Cedar City. Other attractions include Monument Valley, the Great Salt Lake, the Bonneville Salt Flats, Lake Powell. Beginning in the late 19th century with the state's mining boom, companies attracted large numbers of immigrants with job opportunities.
Since the days of the Utah Territory mining has played a major role in Utah's economy. Historical mining towns include Mercur in Tooele County, Silver Reef in Washington County, Eureka in Juab County, Park City in Summit County and numerous coal mining camps throughout Carbon County such as Castle Gate, Spring Canyon, Hiawatha; these settlements were characteristic of the boom and bust cycle that dominated mining towns of the American West. During the early part of the Cold War era, uranium was mined in eastern Utah. Today mining activity still plays a major role in the state's economy. Minerals mined in Utah include copper, silver, zinc and beryllium. Fossil fuels including coal and natural gas continue to play a major role in Utah's economy in the eastern part of the state in counties such as Carbon, Emery and Uintah
Great Salt Lake
The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U. S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world. In an average year the lake covers an area of around 1,700 square miles, but the lake's size fluctuates due to its shallowness. For instance, in 1963 it reached its lowest recorded size at 950 square miles, but in 1988 the surface area was at the historic high of 3,300 square miles. In terms of surface area, it is the largest lake in the United States, not part of the Great Lakes region; the lake is the largest remnant of Lake Bonneville, a prehistoric pluvial lake that once covered much of western Utah. The three major tributaries to the lake, the Jordan and Bear rivers together deposit around 1.1 million tons of minerals in the lake each year. As it is endorheic, it has high salinity and its mineral content is increasing. Due to the high density resulting from its mineral content, swimming in the Great Salt Lake is similar to floating.
Its shallow, warm waters cause frequent, sometimes heavy lake-effect snows from late fall through spring. Although it has been called "America's Dead Sea", the lake provides habitat for millions of native birds, brine shrimp and waterfowl, including the largest staging population of Wilson's phalarope in the world; the Great Salt Lake is a remnant of a much larger prehistoric lake called Lake Bonneville. At its greatest extent, Lake Bonneville spanned 22,400 square miles, nearly as large as present-day Lake Michigan, ten times the area of the Great Salt Lake today. Bonneville reached 923 ft at its deepest point, covered much of present-day Utah and small portions of Idaho and Nevada during the ice ages of the Pleistocene Epoch. Lake Bonneville existed until about 16,800 years ago, when a large portion of the lake was released through the Red Rock Pass in Idaho. With the warming climate, the remaining lake began to dry, leaving the Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake, Sevier Lake, Rush Lake behind; the Shoshone and Paiute have lived near the Great Salt Lake for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One of the local Shoshone tribes, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the Great Salt Lake entered written European history through the records of Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, who learned of its existence from the Timpanogos Utes in 1776. No European name was given to it at the time, it was not shown on the map by Bernardo Miera y Pacheco, the cartographer for the expedition. In 1824, it was observed independently, by Jim Bridger and Etienne Provost. Shortly thereafter other trappers walked around it. Most of the trappers, were illiterate and did not record their discoveries; as oral reports of their findings made their way to those who did make records, some errors were made. Escalante had been on the shores of Utah Lake, it was the larger of the two lakes. Other cartographers charted Lake Timpanogos as the largest lake in the region.
As people came to know of the Great Salt Lake, they interpreted the maps to think that "Timpanogos" referred to the Great Salt Lake. On some maps the two names were used synonymously. In time "Timpanogos" was dropped from the maps and its original association with Utah Lake was forgotten. In 1843, John C. Fremont led the first scientific expedition to the lake, but with winter coming on, he did not take the time to survey the entire lake; that happened in 1850 under the leadership of Howard Stansbury. John Fremont's overly glowing reports of the area were published shortly after his expedition. Stansbury published a formal report of his survey work which became popular, his report of the area included a discussion of Mormon religious practices based on Stansbury's interaction with the Mormon community in Great Salt Lake City, established three years earlier in 1847. Beginning in November 1895, artist and author Alfred Lambourne spent a year living on the remote Gunnison Island, where he wrote a book of musing and poetry, Our Inland Sea.
From November 1895 to March 1896, he was alone. In March, a few guano sifters arrived to harvest and sell the guano of the nesting birds as fertilizer. Lambourne included musings about these guano sifters in his work. Lambourne left the island early in the winter of 1896 along with the first group of guano sifters; the Great Salt Lake lends its name to Salt Lake City named "Great Salt Lake City" by the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Brigham Young, who led a group of Mormon pioneers to the Salt Lake Valley southeast of the lake on July 24, 1847. The lake lies in parts of five counties: Box Elder, Tooele and Salt Lake. Salt Lake City and its suburbs are located to the south-east and east of the lake, between the lake and the Wasatch Mountains, but land around the north and west shores are uninhabited; the Bonneville Salt Flats are to the west, the Oquirrh and Stansbury Mountains rise to the south. The Great Salt Lake is fed by several minor streams; the three major rivers are each fed directly or indirectly from the Uinta Mountain range in northeastern Utah.
The Bear River starts on the north slope of the Uintas and flows nort
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
Mark Shurtleff is an American attorney and founder of the Shurtleff Law Firm and the Shurtleff Group. He was a partner in the Washington, D. C. office of the law firm Troutman Sanders and served as a Salt Lake County Commissioner and the Attorney General of the state of Utah. Shurtleff attended Brighton High School, Brigham Young University, University of Utah College of Law, University of San Diego School of Law. Shurtleff served as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Peru, he served four years in the United States Navy as a Judge Advocate General Corps. Shurtleff was the Deputy County Attorney and a Commissioner of Salt Lake County and became an Assistant Attorney General for the state of Utah. Shurtleff was elected Attorney General in November 2000, re-elected in 2004 and 2008, he is the first Attorney General in Utah to win re-election for a third term. As Attorney General, Shurtleff issued an official legal opinion stating that under a second law, private school vouchers would still be funded if voters rejected the primary voucher bill in a November referendum.
In May 2007, Shurtleff testified before the United States Senate Judiciary Committee as a Republican in support of the Constitutionality of granting full representation in Congress for residents of Washington DC. That year Shurtleff co-founded the Utah Meth Cops Project and raised money to provide detoxification treatment to police officers. On May 12, 2009, Shurtleff disclosed, via a Twitter message, that he planned to enter the 2010 Republican primary. On November 4, 2009, Shurtleff ended his campaign for U. S. Senate in order to spend more time with his daughter, experiencing health problems; that year, he co-founded the Utah Pharmaceutical Drug Crime Project, an unprecedented multi-agency, multi-disciplinary task force to combat the serious problem of prescription drug abuse. Partners included the DEA, FBI, Utah Departments of Public Safety and Human Services, the Salt Lake City Police Department. In September 2010, Shurtleff testified before the House Judiciary Committee in support of the Comprehensive Alcohol Regulatory Effectiveness Act, an act that seeks to reverse the effects of Granholm v. Heald, a 2005 U.
S. Supreme Court case that ruled unconstitutional state laws that permitted in-state wineries to ship wine directly to consumers, but prohibited out-of-state wineries from doing the same. Shurtleff's remarks were drafted by the general counsel of the National Beer Wholesalers Association. In April 2013, Shurtleff testified before the United States Senate Judiciary Committee in support of comprehensive immigration reform during the Hearing on the Border Security, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Modernization Act, S.744In February, 2013, Shurtleff spoke on Capitol Hill in Washington DC on "The Role of State Attorneys General in Enforcing Federal Law" to Congressional staffers at the Civil Justice Caucus Academy run by George Mason University School of LawIn July 2015, Mark Shurtleff, with his brother Kevin Shurtleff, started a business called MicromistNOW. The company's first product is the QuickNic Nicotine Inhaler. While attorney general Shurtleff made multiple public statements critical of the tobacco industry.
In 2008 several articles from local news sources accused Shurtleff of corruption and bribery regarding his prosecutorial decisions. These allegations were investigated by the FBI but the United States Department of Justice took no action. In 2014 Salt Lake County District Attorney Sim Gill filed 10 felony charges against Shurtleff. Davis County District Attorney Troy Rawlings took over the Shurtleff prosecution when Shurtleff's criminal case was severed from former Attorney General John Swallow's. In July 2016 the state criminal charges against Shurtleff were dismissed without prejudice. Shurtleff is married with seven grandchildren, he is fluent in Spanish. Shurtleff was honored by the Boys and Girls Clubs with their 2012 Living Legacy Award. Media related to Mark Shurtleff at Wikimedia Commons Official site of Utah Attorney General Biography from the Deseret News Information Sheet from Project Vote Smart
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id